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Youhui Huang, Zhiquan Liu, Yiming Li, Donglei Wu, Meng Zhang, Yunlong Zhao
Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are ion transporters that play important roles in osmotic pressure balance in crustaceans. Oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is one of the most economically important shrimps in China. This species can live in freshwater and low-salt water, but the molecular mechanism of salinity regulation is unclear. In this study, full-length cDNAs of M. nipponense α-NKA and CA were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR (GenBank accession numbers MH378774 and MH827971, respectively), and characterised...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Chongshan Dai, Shusheng Tang, Xiang Biao, Xilong Xiao, Chunli Chen, Jichang Li
Polymyxin is a critical antibiotic against the infection caused by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Neurotoxicity is one of main dose-limiting factors. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism on colistin induced peripheral neurotoxicity using a mouse model. Forty mice were divided into control, colistin 1-, 3- and 7-day groups, the mice were intravenously injected with saline or colistin (sulfate) at the dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 1, 3 and 7 days, respectively. The results showed that, colistin treatment for 7 days markedly resulted in the demyelination, axonal degeneration and mitochondria swelling in the mice's sciatic tissues...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Suélen Serafini, Carine de Freitas Souza, Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Julia Corá Segat, Dilmar Baretta, Renato Zanella, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether antiparasitic eprinomectin may be an environmental contaminant in water compartment in low concentrations, negatively affecting neurotransmission and, consequently, the natural behavior of the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Fish were allocated in tanks and exposed for 24 and 48 h to eprinomectin concentrations in water [0.0 (Control), 1.124 (T1), 1.809 (T2) and 3.976 (T3) μg L-1 ], followed by 48 h of recovery in eprinomectin-free water, in order to evaluate the behavioral parameters, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain, as well as cerebral enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump (Na+ /K+ -ATPase)...
February 7, 2019: Chemosphere
Alvaro Garcia, Bogdan Lev, Khondker R Hossain, Amy Gorman, Dil Diaz, Thi Hanh Nguyen Pham, Flemming Cornelius, Toby W Allen, Ronald J Clarke
Cholesterol's effects on Na+ ,K+ -ATPase reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles have been extensively studied. However, previous studies have reported both cholesterol-mediated stimulation and inhibition of Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity. Here, using partial reaction kinetics determined via stopped-flow experiments, we studied cholesterol's effect on Na+ ,K+ -ATPase in a near-native environment in which purified membrane fragments were depleted of cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD). The mβCD-treated Na+ ,K+ -ATPase had significantly reduced overall activity and exhibited decreased observed rate constants for ATP phosphorylation (ENa+ 3 → E2P, i...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Sushweta Mahalanobish, Sukanya Saha, Sayanta Dutta, Parames C Sil
Arsenic contaminated drinking water consumption is a serious health issue around the world. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure has been associated with respiratory dysfunctions. It exerts various detrimental effects, disrupting normal cellular homeostasis and turning on severe pulmonary complications. This study elucidated the role of mangiferin, a natural xanthone, against arsenic induced lung toxicity. Chronic exposure of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 ) at 10 mg/kg bw for 3 months abruptly increased the LDH release in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired the antioxidant defense and distorted the alveoli architecture...
February 12, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Christian Staehr, Rajkumar Rajanathan, Vladimir Matchkov
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review considers the role of the Na,K-ATPase in cerebrovascular function and how it might be changed in familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2). The primary focus will be involvement of the Na,K-ATPase isoforms in regulation of cerebrovascular tone. What advances does it highlight? The review discusses three overall distinct mechanisms whereby the Na,K-ATPase might be capable of regulating cerebrovascular tone. Furthermore, it discusses how changes in the Na,K-ATPase in cerebral arteries might affect brain perfusion and thereby be involved in the FHM2 pathology...
February 15, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Dongfang Sun, Jianjian Lv, Baoquan Gao, Ping Liu, Jian Li
The crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) gene of Portunus trituberculatus (Pt-CHH) consists of four exons and three introns spanning 3849 bp in size and generating two mature mRNA, Pt-CHH1, and Pt-CHH2. The primary gene transcript produces a cDNA encoding for the putative Pt-CHH2 from exons 1, 2, 3, and 4 and an alternative transcript encodes for a putative Pt-CHH1 peptide from exons 1, 2, and 4. A promoter fragment of about 3 kb was obtained by genomic walking. The tissue-specific expression pattern is examined by reverse transcriptase chain reaction, and the results show that Pt-CHH1 is detected in the eyestalk, brain, muscle, and blood...
February 14, 2019: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Trevor Rajchgot, Sini Christine Thomas, Jo-Chiao Wang, Maryam Ahmadi, Mohammad Balood, Théo Crosson, Jenny Pena Dias, Réjean Couture, Audrey Claing, Sébastien Talbot
Diabetes is a common condition characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar primarily affects cells that have a limited capacity to regulate their glucose intake. These cells include capillary endothelial cells in the retina, mesangial cells in the renal glomerulus, Schwann cells, and neurons of the peripheral and central nervous systems. As a result, hyperglycemia leads to largely intractable complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, hypertension, and neuropathy. Diabetic pain neuropathy is a complex and multifactorial disease that has been associated with poor glycemic control, longer diabetes duration, hypertension, advanced age, smoking status, hypoinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Melanie Williams, Domenico Barranca, Carol Bucking
Trout caeca are vermiform structures projecting from the anterior intestine of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite their simple gross morphology, these appendages are physically distinct along the anterior-posterior axis and ultrastructural evidence suggests zonation of function within the structures. Individual caeca from three sections (anterior, middle, posterior) were removed from the intestine of freshwater rainbow trout and investigated for ion transport and enzyme activity. Ca2+ absorption appeared as a combination of active and passive movement, with Michaelis-Menten kinetics observable under symmetrical conditions, and was inhibited by several pharmacological agents (ouabain, La3+ , and a calmodulin antagonist)...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Stine A Mikkelsen, Louise S Mogensen, Bente Vilsen, Robert S Molday, Anna L Vestergaard, Jens Peter Andersen
The P-type ATPase protein family includes, in addition to ion pumps such as Ca2+ -ATPase and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase, also phospholipid flippases that transfer phospholipids between membrane leaflets. P-type ATPase ion pumps translocate their substrates occluded between helices in the center of the transmembrane part of the protein. The large size of the lipid substrate has stimulated speculation that flippases use a different transport mechanism. Information on the functional importance of the most centrally located helices M5 and M6 in the transmembrane domain of flippases has, however, been sparse...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Cong Zhang, Qian Zhang, Yangyang Pang, Xiaozhe Song, Nan Zhou, Jiang Wang, Long He, Jiahuan Lv, Yameng Song, Yongxu Cheng, Xiaozhen Yang
Deltamethrin (Del), an important broad-spectrum insecticide, is widely used in agricultural activities. However, Del is an effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer that induces oxidative stress damage in cells or tissues. Del is significantly more toxic to aquatic organisms, especially crustaceans, than to mammals and birds. This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin (MT) on the toxicity-induced damage of Del after 6 h in Eriocheir sinensis. The results showed that Del exposure significantly induced oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas and mitochondria, with malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels being significantly increased and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity being significantly decreased...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tadahaya Mizuno, Setsuo Kinoshita, Takuya Ito, Shotaro Maedera, Hiroyuki Kusuhara
Drugs have multiple, not single, effects. Decomposition of drug effects into basic components helps us to understand the pharmacological properties of a drug and contributes to drug discovery. We have extended factor analysis and developed a novel profile data analysis method: orthogonal linear separation analysis (OLSA). OLSA contracted 11,911 genes to 118 factors from transcriptome data of MCF7 cells treated with 318 compounds in a Connectivity Map. Ontology of the main genes constituting the factors detected significant enrichment of the ontology in 65 of 118 factors and similar results were obtained in two other data sets...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
M Shibata, T Takahashi, T Kozakai, M Kakudo, S Kasuga, Y Azuma, Y Kurose
Intestinal glucose absorption varies with growth; however, the dynamics of these variations has not been yet fully elucidated in broiler chickens. The present study aimed to compare jejunal glucose uptake and maltose digestion in broilers of 2 different ages, i.e., 1- vs. 5 wk old. Oral D-maltose gavage, everted sac, and Ussing chamber experiments were carried out to investigate intestinal glucose absorption and mRNA expression of glucose-transport-related genes as well as jejunal maltase activity. Upon gavage, glucose concentrations peaked at 10 min post-administration in 1-wk-old chicks, while they peaked at 40 min in 5-wk-old chickens...
February 9, 2019: Poultry Science
Michael W O'Reilly, Connar Sj Westgate, Catherine Hornby, Hannah Botfield, Angela E Taylor, Keira Markey, James L Mitchell, William J Scotton, Susan P Mollan, Andreas Yiangou, Carl Jenkinson, Lorna C Gilligan, Mark Sherlock, James Gibney, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Gareth G Lavery, David J Hodson, Wiebke Arlt, Alexandra J Sinclair
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of unknown etiology, characterized by elevated intracranial pressure frequently manifesting with chronic headaches and visual loss. Similar to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), IIH predominantly affects obese women of reproductive age. In this study, we comprehensively examined the systemic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) androgen metabolome in women with IIH in comparison to sex-, body mass index- and age-matched control groups with either simple obesity and PCOS, i...
February 12, 2019: JCI Insight
Barbora Kaločayová, Ivona Kovačičová, Jana Radošinská, Ľubomíra Tóthová, Lucia Jagmaševič-Mézešová, Marko Fülöp, Ján Slezák, Pavel Babál, Pavol Janega, Norbert Vrbjar
Na,K-ATPase represents the key enzyme that maintains the homeostasis of sodium and potassium ions in the cells. It was documented that in directly irradiated organs the activity of this enzyme is decreased. The aim of present study was to clarify the remote effect of irradiation in mediastinal area on the activity of the Na,K-ATPase in kidneys in rats. Ionizing radiation in single dose 25 Gy resulted in consequent decrease of the body weight gain as well as the size of kidneys in Wistar rats. In addition, radiation induced alterations in the oxidative status of blood plasma...
February 2019: Physiological Reports
Amanda M Biederman, Donald E Kuhn, Kristin M O'Brien, Elizabeth L Crockett
Disruption of neuronal function is likely to influence limits to thermal tolerance. We hypothesized that with acute warming the structure and function of neuronal membranes in the Antarctic notothenioid fish Chaenocephalus aceratus are more vulnerable to perturbation than membranes in the more thermotolerant notothenioid Notothenia coriiceps. Fluidity was quantified in synaptic membranes, mitochondrial membranes, and myelin from brains of both species of Antarctic fishes. Polar lipid compositions and cholesterol contents were analyzed in myelin; cholesterol was measured in synaptic membranes...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Anita Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Tamara Wriessnegger, Melanie Hirz, Guenther Zellnig, Harald Pichler
Approximately 30% of the genes in the human genome code for membrane proteins, and yet we know relatively little about these complex molecules. Therefore, the biochemical and structural characterization of this challenging class of proteins represents an important frontier in both fundamental research and advances in drug discovery. However, due to their unique physical properties and requirement for association with cellular membranes, expression in heterologous systems is often daunting. In this chapter we describe how to engineer the yeast Pichia pastoris to obtain humanized sterol compositions...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Urmila Aswar, Umesh Mahajan, Amit Kandhare, Manoj Aswar
Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound with potent antioxidant activity. The objective of the study was to study the protective effects of FA on doxorubicin (Dox)-induced myocardial toxicity in rats. Wistar rats received vehicle (control) or Dox (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or telmisartan (Tel; 10 mg/kg, p.o.) or ferulic acid (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by treatment with Dox (20) on the fifth day of treatment, except the control group. On day 8, electrocardiographic parameters were recorded followed by blood withdrawal and then the animals were sacrificed for histopathology...
February 8, 2019: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Qingjie Yuan, Yang Li, Xiaofei Deng, Huawei Shi, Zhenwu Zhao, Chunye Wang, Xuegong Feng, Jianyou Guo, Rongjuan Guo
Objective: To clarify the effectiveness and mechanism of the Chinese herbal formula Xingpi Kaiyu Fang (XPKYF) which is composed of American ginseng (Xi-Yang-shen), Radix curcumae (Yu-Jin), Acori tatarinowii rhizoma (Shi-Chang-pu), and Hypericum perforatum (Guan-Ye-lian-qiao) in depressed rats. Methods: The rat model of depression was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) method for 6 weeks. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, CUMS group, CUMS+XPKYF (3...
2019: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Katarina Trajkovic, Clarissa Valdez, Daniel Ysselstein, Dimitri Krainc
The life cycle of cultured proliferating cells is characterized by fluctuations in cell population density induced by periodic subculturing. This leads to corresponding changes in micro- and macroenvironment of the cells, accompanied by altered cellular metabolism, growth rate and locomotion. Studying cell density-dependent morphological, physiological and biochemical fluctuations is relevant for understanding basic cellular mechanisms and for uncovering the intrinsic variation of commonly used tissue culture experimental models...
2019: PloS One
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