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Tomasz Stefura, Jakub Droś, Artur Kacprzyk, Mateusz Wierdak, Monika Proczko-Stepaniak, Michał Szymański, Magdalena Pisarska, Piotr Małczak, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Michał Wysocki, Anna Rzepa, Michał Pędziwiatr, Andrzej Budzyński, Piotr Major
INTRODUCTION: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol, which emphasizes preoperative interventions, is safely implemented in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Patients are additionally encouraged to achieve weight loss preoperatively. We aimed to identify factors contributing to preoperative weight loss and assess their influence on outcomes of bariatric surgery among patients under the ERAS protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed a prospectively created database in two bariatric centers with 909 bariatric patients treated in accordance with ERAS principles...
January 10, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Thaddeus M Barney, Andrew S Vore, Anny Gano, Jamie E Mondello, Terrence Deak
Recent studies have demonstrated unique brain cytokine signatures associated with acute ethanol intoxication (increased IL-6) and withdrawal (increased IL-1β and TNFα). The purpose of the present studies was to examine the potential functional role of increased central interleukin-6 (IL-6). We utilized two tests of ethanol sensitivity to establish a potential role for IL-6 after high (3.5-4.0 g/kg i.p) or moderate (2.0 g/kg i.p) doses of ethanol: loss of righting reflex (LORR) and conditioned taste aversion (CTA), respectively...
November 22, 2018: Alcohol
John McCarthy, Philip J Lupo, Erin Kovar, Megan Rech, Bret Bostwick, Daryl Scott, Katerina Kraft, Tony Roscioli, Joel Charrow, Samantha A Schrier Vergano, Edward Lose, Robert Smiegel, Yves Lacassie, Christian P Schaaf
Schaaf-Yang Syndrome (SYS) is a genetic disorder caused by truncating pathogenic variants in the paternal allele of the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-15q13. SYS is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has clinical overlap with Prader-Willi Syndrome in the initial stages of life but becomes increasingly distinct throughout childhood and adolescence. Here, we describe the phenotype of an international cohort of 78 patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations in MAGEL2...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Natalie Stein, Kevin Brooks
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is the most expensive chronic disease in the United States. Two-thirds of US adults have prediabetes or are overweight and at risk for type 2 diabetes. Intensive in-person behavioral counseling can help patients lose weight and make healthy behavior changes to improve their health outcomes. However, with the shortage of health care providers and associated costs, such programs do not adequately service all patients who could benefit. The health care system needs effective and cost-effective interventions that can lead to positive health outcomes as scale...
November 1, 2017: JMIR diabetes
Sandesh Parajuli, Rachna Tiwari, Dana F Clark, Didier A Mandelbrot, Arjang Djamali, Kenneth Casey
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and kidney transplant recipients who continue to have some degree of CKD, the prevalence of sleep-related disorders is very high. Common sleep disorders in both groups include insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and others. Depending on the kidney graft function, some patients see sleep disorders resolve after kidney transplantation, while others continue to have persistent sleep disorders or develop new ones...
September 26, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Nora Vanessa de Camp, Gerhard Kalinka, Jürgen Bergeler
We invented the first non-metallic, self-adhesive and dry biosignalling electrode. The PEDOT polymer electrode changes its aggregate state and conductivity by a light curing procedure. The electrode can be applied as a gel underneath hair without shaving. With the aid of blue light, the electrode can be hardened within a few seconds at the desired location on the scalp. The cured polymer electrode is highly conductive and can be applied on a very small location. Unlike other EEG electrodes, our electrode does not lose conductivity upon drying...
September 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina Lunner-Kolstrup, Torsten Hörndahl, Janne P Karttunen
This pilot study investigated how farm operators use and experience working with advanced farm technology and automated systems. The study participants included 10 farm operators at 4 modern and technically well-equipped arable and dairy farms. The informants reported that the technology allowed for more accuracy and efficiency in daily work, made the work less physically strenuous, and gave more time for leisure. The challenges lay in systems and programs not being compatible and difficulties in interpreting generated data...
2018: Journal of Agromedicine
Jacinda M Nicklas, Chloe A Zera, Ellen W Seely
OBJECTIVE: Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) have a 7-12-fold increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Postpartum weight retention is highly predictive for future obesity, and further increases risk for type 2 diabetes. We sought to identify predictors of losing at least 75% of gestational weight gain by very early postpartum in women with recent GDM. METHODS: We recruited women with GDM during pregnancy or just after delivery. Prepregnancy weight was self-reported at recruitment; gestational weight gain, mode of delivery, and insulin use were extracted from medical records...
July 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sinikka Lotvonen, Helvi Kyngäs, Pentti Koistinen, Risto Bloigu, Satu Elo
Growing numbers of older people relocate to senior housing, when their physical or mental performance declines. The relocation is known to be one of the most stressful events in the life of older people and affect their mental and physical well-being. More information about the relationships between mental and physical parameters is required. We examined self-reported mental well-being of 81 older people (aged 59⁻93, living in northern Finland), and changes in it 3 and 12 months after relocation to senior housing...
June 25, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J Sleigh, C Warnaby, I Tracey
Selfhood is linked to brain processes that enable the experience of a person as a distinct entity, capable of agency. This framework naturally incorporates a continuum of both non-conscious and conscious self-related information processing, and includes a hierarchy of components, such as awareness of existence (core self), embodied self (sentience), executive self (agency/volition), and various other higher-order cognitive processes. Consciousness relates to, but is not congruent, with selfhood; understanding the processes required for selfhood can explain the partial consciousness seen in anaesthesia...
July 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Natasha Bray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Gianina Ungurean, Niels C Rattenborg
Northern fur seals forego large amounts of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when sleeping in water, but remain healthy and do not recover this loss once back on land, challenging current theories for the function of REM sleep.
June 18, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Rehana Rehman, Amara Zafar, Aleena Mohib, Mukhtiar Baig
Objective The presence of good healthy behaviors among university students is imperative for their future life. This study aimed to compare positive health behaviors and state of happiness between the two genders of Bahria University (BU), Karachi, Pakistan. Subjects and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at BU, Karachi, Pakistan. A total 813 students participated in this study. The health questionnaire, adapted from Health and Behavior Survey and the Subjective Happiness Scale, was used to assess self-reported happiness...
March 19, 2018: Curēus
Zhiyuan Lin, Tim Althoff, Jure Leskovec
Mobile health applications that track activities, such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. While these activity tracking applications have the potential to improve our health, user engagement and retention are critical factors for their success. However, long-term user engagement patterns in real-world activity tracking applications are not yet well understood. Here we study user engagement patterns within a mobile physical activity tracking application consisting of 115 million logged activities taken by over a million users over 31 months...
April 2018: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
Rakesh C Arora, Colm Cunningham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Brian Rieger, Lawrence Lewandowski, Heather Potts, Kyle Potter, Lawrence S Chin
Introduction There is increased concern about concussion in youth athletes, yet there is little research on parent knowledge of concussion. Purpose  The purpose of the current study was to investigate attitudes to and knowledge of concussion among parents of youth football players. Methods We surveyed 180 parents/guardians of youth football players, ages 5-12, regarding their knowledge and beliefs concerning concussion. Results We found that the vast majority of respondents (86%) had confidence in their ability to recognize concussions...
March 4, 2018: Curēus
Samantha L Hahn, Kelley A Borton, Kendrin R Sonneville
BACKGROUND: Weight misperception occurs when there is a discrepancy between one's actual and perceived weight status. Among adolescents with overweight/obesity, many believe that correcting weight misperception is imperative to inspire weight-related behavior change. However, past research has shown that adolescents with overweight/obesity who misperceive their weight status gain less weight over time compared to accurate perceivers. Therefore, our objective was to examine possible mechanisms underlying this relationship...
April 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
D Quilliot, M-A Sirveaux, C Nomine-Criqui, T Fouquet, N Reibel, L Brunaud
The decision to perform a bariatric surgical procedure, the conclusion of a clinical pathway in which management is individually adapted to each patient, is taken after multidisciplinary consultation. Paradoxically, the patients who would most benefit from surgery are also those who have the highest operative risk. In practice, predictive factors of mortality and severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo>III) must be used to evaluate the benefit/risk ratio most objectively. The main risk factors are age, male gender, body mass index, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes, tobacco abuse, cardiovascular disease, ability to lose weight before surgery, hypoalbuminemia and functional disability...
June 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Matthew Skancke, Clint Schoolfield, Robert Grossman, Jennifer C Kerns, Nicole Abel, Fredrick Brody
BACKGROUND: Class III obesity is a global health emergency associated with an increase in the incidence of many other diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cancer, obstructive sleep apnea, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, infertility, and mental health disorders. Minimal work has been published regarding the efficacy of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in the veteran population to surgically manage morbid obesity. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of LSG performed at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) between 2010 and 2017...
June 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Katharine C N S Simon, Rebecca L Gómez, Lynn Nadel
Targeting memories during sleep opens powerful and innovative ways to influence the mind. We used targeted memory reactivation (TMR), which to date has been shown to strengthen learned episodes, to instead induce forgetting (TMR-Forget). Participants were first trained to associate the act of forgetting with an auditory forget tone. In a second, separate, task they learned object-sound-location pairings. Shortly thereafter, some of the object sounds were played during slow wave sleep, paired with the forget tone to induce forgetting...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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