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obesity, diet, exercise

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30978696/exercise-ameliorates-the-fgf21-adiponectin-axis-impairment-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Wenqi Yang, Ling Liu, Yuan Wei, Chunlu Fang, Fu Zhou, Jinbao Chen, Qinghua Han, Meifang Huang, Xuan Tan, Qiuyue Liu, Qiang Pan, Lu Zhang, Xiaojuan Lei, Liangming Li
OBJECTIVE: The protective effects of exercise against glucose dysmetabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism by which exercise improves glucose homeostasis remains poorly understood. The FGF21-adiponectin axis participates in regulation of glucose metabolism. Elevated levels of FGF21 and decreased levels of adiponectin in obesity indicate the FGF21-adiponectin axis dysfunction. Hence, we investigated whether exercise could improve the FGF21-adiponectin axis impairment and ameliorate disturbed glucose metabolism in diet-induced obese mice...
April 1, 2019: Endocrine Connections
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30972641/benefit-risk-assessment-of-obesity-drugs-focus-on-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#2
REVIEW
Rasmus M Christensen, Christian R Juhl, Signe S Torekov
The prevalence of obesity and related comorbidities is increasing worldwide. Furthermore,  clinically meaningful body weight losses has proven difficult to achieve and especially to maintain through sustained lifestyle change in the form of diet and exercise. Pharmacotherapy against obesity is a non-invasive treatment as an adjunct to lifestyle changes, but approved anti-obesity drugs are currently few. This article reviews the major anti-obesity drugs and the benefit-risk profiles of the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) liraglutide and semaglutide (a modified version of liraglutide with longer half-life and tripled receptor affinity)...
April 10, 2019: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30971408/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-on-gut-microbiota-functionality-and-barrier-integrity-and-gut-liver-axis-crosstalk-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-early-obesity-and-nafld
#3
Sara Carbajo-Pescador, David Porras, María Victoria García-Mediavilla, Susana Martínez-Flórez, María Juarez-Fernández, María José Cuevas, José Luis Mauriz, Javier González-Gallego, Esther Nistal, Sonia Sánchez-Campos
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, representing one of the most serious public health concerns associated with metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There is limited clinical experience for pediatric NAFLD patients and the therapeutic options are very scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of exercise on gut microbiota composition and functionality balance and its repercussion on early obesity and NAFLD onset in an in vivo model. 21 days old male Wistar rats fed with control or high fat diet (HFD) were subjected to a combined aerobic and resistance training protocol...
April 10, 2019: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30965381/nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-current-treatment-recommendations-and-future-developments
#4
Elke Roeb, Andreas Geier
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), nonalcoholic steato hepatitis (NASH) and NASH cirrhosis. NAFLD is the leading cause of liver diseases in the Western world (Central Europe, United States). The NAFLD incidence increases because of increasing type 2 diabetes and obesity. This article reviews the scientific findings of epidemiology, diagnostic, and therapeutic management of NAFLD. Lifestyle modifications (low-caloric Mediterranean diet and exercise training) to reduce weight are a major factor in the treatment of NAFLD...
April 2019: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954857/advanced-practice-nursing-student-knowledge-in-obesity-management-a-mixed-methods-research-study
#5
Sharon M Fruh, Angela Golden, Rebecca J Graves, Heather R Hall, Leigh A Minchew, Susan Williams
BACKGROUND: Obesity, the most prevalent chronic disease affecting multiple systems, is associated with increased mortality and a decreased life expectancy. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) students' confidence of obesity management as well as satisfaction of APN curriculum on and curricular recommendations regarding obesity management. DESIGN: Modified convergent mixed-methods design. SETTING: A university-based college of nursing in the Deep South...
March 30, 2019: Nurse Education Today
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954249/the-mechanical-and-biochemical-properties-of-tail-tendon-in-a-rat-model-of-obesity-effect-of-moderate-exercise-and-prebiotic-fibre-supplementation
#6
Jaqueline L Rios, Loretta Ko, Venus Joumaa, Shuyue Liu, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Andrew Sawatsky, David A Hart, Raylene A Reimer, Walter Herzog
The worldwide trajectory of increasing obesity rates is a major health problem precipitating a rise in the prevalence of a variety of co-morbidities and chronic diseases. Tendinopathy, in weight and non-weight bearing tendons, in individuals with overweight or obesity has been linked to metabolic dysfunction resulting from obesity. Exercise and dietary fibre supplementation (DFS) are common countermeasures to combat obesity and therefore it seems reasonable to assume that they might protect tendons from structural and mechanical damage in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model...
March 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30947964/protective-effects-of-exercise-on-heart-and-aorta-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#7
Merve Acikel Elmas, Seyit Enes Cakıcı, Ismail Rahmi Dur, Ibrahim Kozluca, Melih Arınc, Berkant Binbuga, Ozlem Bingol Ozakpınar, Meltem Kolgazi, Goksel Sener, Feriha Ercan
We investigated the protective effects of swimming exercise on high-fat diet-induced heart and aorta damage by evaluating oxidative stress and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) system. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (STD, 6% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) for 18 weeks, with half of the animals trained by daily swimming sessions (EXC; 1 h per day for 5 days/week) for the last 6 weeks of the experimental period and half kept sedentary (SED). Heart and aorta tissues were prepared for routine light and electron microscopy evaluation...
April 2019: Tissue & Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30946018/sociodemographic-attitudinal-and-behavioral-correlates-of-using-nutrition-weight-loss-and-fitness-websites-an-online-survey
#8
Carlos A Almenara, Hana Machackova, David Smahel
BACKGROUND: Nutrition, diet, and fitness are among the most searched health topics by internet users. Besides that, health-related internet users are diverse in their motivations and individual characteristics. However, little is known about the individual characteristics associated with the usage of nutrition, weight loss, and fitness websites. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the individual factors associated with the usage of nutrition, weight loss, and fitness websites...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30945129/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-obesity-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Katherine T Brunner, Cameron J Henneberg, Robert M Wilechansky, Michelle T Long
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, is strongly associated with obesity and insulin resistance. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant weight loss can improve NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Diet and exercise that result in a sustained body weight reduction of 7-10% can improve liver fat content, NASH, and fibrosis. Vitamin E can be considered in patients with biopsy-proven NASH without diabetes, though caution must be used in those with prostate cancer...
April 3, 2019: Current Obesity Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30935152/preconception-lifestyle-and-weight-related-behaviors-by-maternal-body-mass-index-a-cross-sectional-study-of-pregnant-women
#10
Adina Y Lang, Cheryce L Harrison, Jacqueline A Boyle
Obesity is a rising global health challenge, particularly for reproductive-aged women. Our cross-sectional study of pregnant women ( n = 223) examined associations between preconception body mass index (BMI) and socio-demographics, weight perceptions and lifestyle behaviors. Over half of women were overweight (33.2%) or obese (22.0%), 49.6% of which perceived their weight as normal. High proportions of women reported planning their pregnancies (70.0%) and were actively trying to lose or maintain their weight preconception (72...
March 31, 2019: Nutrients
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30928989/effects-of-an-intensive-inpatient-rehabilitation-program-in-elderly-patients-with-obesity
#11
Simona Budui, Francesco Bigolin, Francesca Giordano, Stefania Leoni, Michela Berteotti, Erica Sartori, Laura Franceschini, Micol Taddei, Sabrina Salvetti, Fulvio Castiglioni, Federica Gilli, Spyros Skafidas, Federico Schena, M Letizia Petroni, Luca Busetto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the short-term effectiveness of an intensive inpatient multidimensional rehabilitation program (MRP), including diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy, in elderly patients with severe obesity. METHODS: Forty-four elderly patients (old; age 69.3 ± 3.5 years, BMI 41.9 ± 14.9) were analyzed against 215 younger patients (young; age 48.2 ± 18.5 years, BMI 43.9 ± 9.4), who were used as controls. All patients underwent MRP, based on group therapy guided by a multidisciplinary team (physicians, dietitians, exercise trainers, psychologists)...
March 29, 2019: Obesity Facts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30928925/rationale-design-and-study-protocol-of-the-randomised-controlled-trial-diabetes-interventional-assessment-of-slimming-or-training-to-lessen-inconspicuous-cardiovascular-dysfunction-the-diastolic-study
#12
Gaurav Singh Gulsin, Emer M Brady, Daniel J Swarbrick, Lavanya Athithan, Joseph Henson, Emma Baldry, John McAdam, Anna-Marie Marsh, Kelly S Parke, Joanne V Wormleighton, Eylem Levelt, Thomas Yates, Danielle Bodicoat, Kamlesh Khunti, Melanie J Davies, Gerry P McCann
INTRODUCTION: Despite their young age and relatively short duration of disease, younger adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) already have diastolic dysfunction and may be at risk of incipient heart failure. Whether weight loss or exercise training improve cardiac dysfunction in people with T2D remains to be established. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Prospective, randomised, open-label, blind endpoint trial. The primary aim of the study is to determine if diastolic function can be improved by either a meal replacement plan or a supervised exercise programme, compared with guideline-directed care...
March 30, 2019: BMJ Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30928787/effect-of-combination-of-chlorella-intake-and-aerobic-exercise-training-on-glycemic-control-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#13
Naoki Horii, Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Masataka Uchida, Keiko Iemitsu, Kenichiro Inoue, Motoyuki Iemitsu
OBJECTIVES: Chlorella is a type of unicellular green algae that contains various nutrients. Habitual exercise and chlorella treatment can improve insulin resistance in obese or diabetic animal models. However, the additive effects of combined chlorella intake and aerobic exercise training remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of chlorella intake and aerobic exercise training would produce greater effects on improving glycemic control in rats with type 2 diabetes...
January 24, 2019: Nutrition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30925576/obesity-prevalence-and-musculoskeletal-injury-history-in-probation-officers
#14
Jacob A Mota, Zachary Y Kerr, Gena R Gerstner, Hayden K Giuliani, Eric D Ryan
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present investigation was to identify 1) the prevalence of overweight and obesity and 2) factors associated with previous work-related musculoskeletal injury, and physical activity levels in North Carolina probation officers. METHODS: North Carolina probation officers (n=1,866) were sent a questionnaire on demographics, work history, injury history, and physical activity. A multivariable logistic regression model estimated the odds of reporting work-related musculoskeletal injury history within the past year, and multivariable ordinal logistic regression estimated the odds of reporting lower physical activity levels in the previous month...
March 28, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30924253/changing-from-the-inside-out-examining-relationships-between-overweight-identification-dieting-behaviours-and-body-measurements-over-time
#15
Janelle M Jones, Deva M Schönherr, Shannon Zaitsoff, Rachelle Pullmer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether changes in overweight identification were associated with dieting behaviours and body measurements over time. DESIGN: Longitudinal study with assessments at three time points: before and twice during (i.e., baseline, 6 months, 12 months) a 1-year self-directed weight loss attempt. METHOD: Eighty individuals with overweight or obesity (classified by BMI ≥ 25) reported their personal (i.e., I see myself as overweight), social (i...
March 28, 2019: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30923020/aerobic-exercise-training-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-administration-increase-testicular-sex-steroid-hormones-and-enhance-reproductive-function-in-high-sucrose-induced-obese-rats
#16
Koki Tatara, Koji Sato
This study assessed the effects of chronic dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) administration and exercise training on testicular sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive function in high-sucrose induced obese rats. After 14 weeks of a high-sucrose diet, Wistar male rats were assigned randomly to the control, exercise training (running at 25 m/min for 1 h, 5 days/week), DHEA administration, and combined exercise training and DHEA administration groups (n = 7 each group). Six weeks of DHEA administration and/or exercise training significantly increased plasma concentrations of DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and epididymis DHEA concentrations; however, the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD, and 5α-reductase, did not change following any interventions...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30921477/lifestyle-changes-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Siew S Lim, Samantha K Hutchison, Emer Van Ryswyk, Robert J Norman, Helena J Teede, Lisa J Moran
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 8% to 13% of reproductive-aged women and is associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Obesity worsens the presentation of PCOS and weight management (weight loss, maintenance or prevention of excess weight gain) is proposed as an initial treatment strategy, best achieved through lifestyle changes incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of lifestyle treatment in improving reproductive, anthropometric (weight and body composition), metabolic and quality of life factors in PCOS...
March 28, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30920027/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-low-fat-and-high-fat-diet-on-the-testis-tissue-and-sperm-parameters-in-obese-and-nonobese-mice-model
#18
Arezou Nematollahi, Fatemeh Kazeminasab, Marziyeh Tavalaee, Sayed M Marandi, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad N Nazem, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Semen quality and male fertility depend on numerous factors such as age, environment, lifestyle, physical activity, genetic background and occupation. We aimed to access the effect of aerobic exercise, low- and high-fat diet on mice testis tissue, and sperm function. Obese and nonobese male mice C57BL/6 were exposed to high fat (Hf) or low fat (Lf) and/or activity (Exe: exercise or Sed: sedentary). Finally, testicular morphometric characteristics, sperm concentration and motility (light microscopy), sperm morphology (eosin/nigrosin dye), lipid peroxidation (BODIPY C11 Probe), chromatin (acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining) were compared within obese groups (Hf/Exe, Lf/Exe, Lf/Sed, Hf/Sed) and nonobese groups (Hf/Exe, Lf/Exe, Lf/Sed, Hf/Sed)...
March 28, 2019: Andrologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30918861/diets-along-with-interval-training-regimes-improves-inflammatory-anti-inflammatory-condition-in-obesity-with-type-2-diabetes-subjects
#19
Mahmoud Asle Mohammadi Zadeh, Mehdi Kargarfard, Syed Mohamad Marandi, Abdolhamid Habibi
Background: Different physical activities and diets change the regulation of inflammations in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and obese individuals, but the effect of both (Physical activity and diet) on pro/anti-inflammations has remained unknown. We investigated pro/anti-inflammations control, cardiovascular function, and total physiological parameters before and after 24 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on a cycle ergometer along with four dietary regimes in obesity with T2D patients...
December 2018: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30906851/mobile-health-technology-in-prenatal-care-understanding-obgyn-providers-beliefs-about-using-technology-to-manage-gestational-weight-gain
#20
Erica L Rauff, Danielle Symons Downs
OBJECTIVES: High gestational weight gain (GWG) is linked to adverse maternal/infant outcomes. Scant research has examined OB/GYN providers': 1) beliefs and barriers to using mobile health (mHealth) technology and 2) their perceptions of patient beliefs/barriers for using mHealth technology for managing GWG. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with OB/GYN providers ( N = 25) were conducted in person and via telephone. Principles of thematic analysis were used to content analyze the interviews; sample size was determined via data saturation...
March 2019: Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science
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