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"HIV AND pregnancy"

Sara Yeatman, Abdallah Chilungo, Sydney Lungu, Hazel Namadingo, Jenny Trinitapoli
Tsogolo la Thanzi (TLT) was designed to study how young adults navigate sexual relationships and childbearing during a generalized HIV epidemic. TLT began in 2009 with a population-representative sample of 1,505 women and 574 men between the ages of 15 and 25 living in Balaka, southern Malawi, where regional adult HIV prevalence then stood at 15 percent. The first phase (2009-11) included a series of eight interviews, spaced four months apart. During this time, women's romantic and sexual partners enrolled in the study on an ongoing basis...
January 28, 2019: Studies in Family Planning
Alexandra M Minnis, Erica N Browne, Marco Boeri, Kawango Agot, Ariane van der Straten, Khatija Ahmed, Rachel Weinrib, Carol Mansfield
BACKGROUND: Integrating end-user perspectives into the design of new biomedical HIV prevention products is recognized as vital to informing the product development pipeline. SETTING: Kisumu, Kenya; Soshanguve, South Africa METHODS:: We conducted a discrete choice experiment survey with 536 women aged 18-30 to assess preferences for hypothetical HIV prevention products characterized by the attributes of efficacy, pregnancy prevention, delivery form, dosing frequency and side effects...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Andrea S Mendelsohn, Katherine Gill, Rebecca Marcus, Dante Robbertze, Claudine van de Venter, Eve Mendel, Landisiwe Mzukwa, Linda-Gail Bekker
Background: HIV prevalence is increasing among South African youth, but HIV counselling and testing (HCT) remains low. Adolescent pregnancy rates are also high. Objectives: Innovative strategies are needed to increase HIV and pregnancy screening and prevention among youth. Method: The Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation Youth Centre (DTHF-YC) offers integrated, incentivised sexual and reproductive health (SRH), educational and recreational programmes...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
Alexandra Morales, Pablo Vallejo-Medina, Daniella Abello-Luque, Alejandro Saavedra-Roa, Paola García-Roncallo, Mayra Gomez-Lugo, Eileen García-Montaño, Laurent Marchal-Bertrand, Janivys Niebles-Charris, Diana Pérez-Pedraza, José Pedro Espada
BACKGROUND: Colombia has one of the highest rates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancies - both of which are influenced by lack of condom use -, among adolescent population in Latin America; however, the mechanisms underlying the inconsistent use of condoms in this population are poorly understood. This descriptive and cross-sectional study's purpose was to examine sexual behavior and its precursors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and considering gender-based differences...
December 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Omar Galárraga, Jane Harries, Brendan Maughan-Brown, Diane Cooper, Susan E Short, Mark N Lurie, Abigail Harrison
The objective of this study is to measure the preliminary efficacy of a pilot intervention, grounded in behavioural economics, increasing adherence of dual protection (simultaneous use of effective modern contraception and a barrier method, such as a condom) to protect against HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy. Between 2015 and 2016, 100 women aged 18-40 years, seeking post-abortion care in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited to Empower Nudge, a randomised controlled trial to test a lottery incentive intervention designed to increase dual protection...
December 2018: Reproductive Health Matters
Maroyi Mulumeoderhwa
This paper reports on fieldwork carried out in 2011 with aim to investigate young men's perspectives about condoms use, concurrent sexual partnerships and sex in the context of HIV/AIDS. This study employed a qualitative approach to collect data from 28 boys aged 16-20 from two urban and two rural high schools in South Kivu province. Four focus group discussions and 20 individual interviews were conducted among them. The findings showed that most students identified condoms as unsafe and untrustworthy. Reasons given for the mistrust of condoms were related to the belief that condoms do not give enough protection from Sexually Transmitted Infections, HIV and pregnancies...
December 2018: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Charles D Mitchell, Sady Dominguez, Margaret Roach, Varghese George, Stefano Rinaldi, Margaret Fischl, Jonell Potter, Brittany Tyson, Savita Pahwa
BACKGROUND: Immune Activation (IA) has been previously documented in both pregnant (PG) and non-PG HIV-1 infected (HIV+) women as well as in HIV- uninfected PG women; the latter as a result of the fetal allograft. To determine whether the combined effects of HIV and pregnancy result in increased IA and whether IA is associated with Microbial Translocation (MT), we performed a prospective, longitudinal, controlled study during pregnancy and the postpartum (PP) period. METHODS: HIV+ PG women had biomarkers of IA and MT tested at 12-20 weeks (T1), and 24-36 weeks (T2) of pregnancy and at 6-8 weeks Postpartum (T3)...
2018: Current HIV Research
PhuongThao D Le, Nessa Ryan, Yael Rosenstock, Emily Goldmann
This article reviews studies examining health issues associated with commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking (CSE/ST) of children in the United States. We searched five health and social sciences databases for peer-reviewed articles published in English between January 1990 and April 2017. After independent screening of the records, we identified 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Descriptions of the included studies and their definitions of CSE/ST are provided. Most of the studies sampled children and youth in urban, metropolitan areas and employed cross-sectional surveys or reviewed case files and medical records of convenience samples...
July 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Olumuyiwa Omonaiye, Snezana Kusljic, Pat Nicholson, Elizabeth Manias
BACKGROUND: The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a core strategy proposed by the World Health Organization in preventing mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. This systematic review aimed to examine the enablers and barriers of medication adherence among HIV positive pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We used the following keywords: HIV AND (Pregnancy OR Pregnant*) AND (PMTCT OR "PMTCT Cascade" OR "Vertical Transmission" OR "Mother-to-Child") AND (Prevent OR Prevention) AND (HAART OR "Antiretroviral Therapy" OR "Triple Therapy") AND (Retention OR Concordance OR Adherence OR Compliance) to conduct electronic searches in the following databases: MEDLINE Complete (1916-Dec 2017), Embase (1947-Dec 2017), Global Health (1910-Dec 2017) and CINAHL Complete (1937-Dec 2017)...
June 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Putu Duff, Jennifer L Evans, Ellen S Stein, Kimberly Page, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: While HIV and unintended pregnancies are both occupational risks faced by female sex workers, the epidemiology of pregnancy and its drivers in this population remains understudied. This includes Cambodia, where the drivers of pregnancy among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remain unknown. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with incident pregnancy, as well as describe contraceptive use among FESW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. METHODS: This analysis drew from the Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)-2, a 12-month observational cohort of 220 FESW aged 15-29 years, conducted between August 2009 and August 2010...
May 3, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Ariane van der Straten, Kawango Agot, Khatija Ahmed, Rachel Weinrib, Erica N Browne, Kgahlisho Manenzhe, Fredrick Owino, Jill Schwartz, Alexandra Minnis
INTRODUCTION: Preventing HIV and unintended pregnancies are key global health priorities. To inform product rollout and to understand attributes of future multipurpose prevention technologies (MPT) associated with preference and use, we evaluated three placebo delivery forms: daily oral tablets, a monthly vaginal ring, and two monthly intramuscular injections in TRIO, a five-month study among young Kenyan and South African women. METHODS: HIV-negative, sexually active, non-pregnant women aged 18 to 30 were enrolled and randomized to use each placebo delivery form for one month (stage 1)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Hanneke De Graaf, Mirthe Verbeek, Marieke Van den Borne, Suzanne Meijer
Sexually developing adolescents and emerging adults face sexual health risks as well as potentially negative outcomes of online sexual behaviors. The goal of this study was to describe three categories of sexual risk behavior: (1) behavior related to STI/HIV, (2) behavior related to unplanned pregnancy, and (3) online sexual risk behavior. In addition, we investigated whether these behaviors are actually related to negative (health) outcomes. For this purpose, we used data from a Dutch probability survey: "Sex under the age of 25...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Alexandra M Minnis, Sarah T Roberts, Kawango Agot, Rachel Weinrib, Khatija Ahmed, Kgahlisho Manenzhe, Fredrick Owino, Ariane van der Straten
End-user input is critical to inform development of multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) products that prevent HIV and pregnancy. The TRIO Study, conducted in Kenya and South Africa, enrolled 277 HIV-negative women aged 18-30 in a randomized cross-over study to use each placebo MPT (daily oral tablets, monthly injections, and monthly vaginal ring) for one month. At the end of each month, participants rated how much they liked using the product on a 5-point Likert scale (5 = liked very much). We compared mean ratings using paired t-tests and examined sociodemographic-, attribute-, and behavior-related characteristics associated with ratings using multivariable linear regression and data from in-depth interviews...
August 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Matthew Quaife, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Robyn Eakle, Maria A Cabrera Escobar, Maggie Kilbourne-Brook, Mercy Mvundura, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Peter Vickerman
INTRODUCTION: A number of antiretroviral HIV prevention products are efficacious in preventing HIV infection. However, the sexual and reproductive health needs of many women extend beyond HIV prevention, and research is ongoing to develop multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that offer dual HIV and pregnancy protection. We do not yet know if these products will be an efficient use of constrained health resources. In this paper, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of combinations of candidate multi-purpose prevention technologies (MPTs), in South Africa among general population women and female sex workers (FSWs)...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Mona Loutfy, V Logan Kennedy, Vanessa Poliquin, Frederick Dzineku, Nicola L Dean, Shari Margolese, Alison Symington, Deborah M Money, Scot Hamilton, Tracey Conway, Sarah Khan, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. INTENDED OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines...
January 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Rachel Weinrib, Alexandra Minnis, Kawango Agot, Khatija Ahmed, Fred Owino, Kgahlisho Manenzhe, Helen Cheng, Ariane van der Straten
A multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that combines HIV and pregnancy prevention is a promising women's health intervention, particularly for young women. However, little is known about the drivers of acceptability and product choice for MPTs in this population. This paper explores approval ratings and stated choice across three different MPT delivery forms among potential end-users. The Trio Study was a mixed-methods study in women ages 18-30 that examined acceptability of three MPT delivery forms: oral tablets, injections, and vaginal ring...
January 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Kevin Zhang, Dina Demner-Fushman
Objective: To develop automated classification methods for eligibility criteria in to facilitate patient-trial matching for specific populations such as persons living with HIV or pregnant women. Materials and Methods: We annotated 891 interventional cancer trials from based on their eligibility for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients using their eligibility criteria. These annotations were used to develop classifiers based on regular expressions and machine learning (ML)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Aloysious Ssemaganda, Moses Muwanga, Irene Wesonga, George Miiro, David A Drajole, Kevin C Kain, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fallen substantially. Nevertheless, malaria remains a serious health concern, and Uganda ranks third in SSA in total malaria burden. Epidemiological studies of adult malaria in Uganda are scarce and little is known about rates of malaria in non-pregnant adult women. This pilot study assessed malaria prevalence among adult women from Wakiso district, historically a highly malaria endemic region. METHODS: Adult women using public health services were screened for malaria, HIV and pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
Abigail Harrison, Susie Hoffman, Joanne E Mantell, Jennifer A Smit, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Theresa M Exner, Zena A Stein
This pilot study evaluated a 15 session classroom intervention for HIV and pregnancy prevention among grade 8-10 boys and girls (ages 14-17) in rural South Africa, guided by gender-empowerment theory and implemented by teachers, nurses, and youth peer educators. Pre- and post-intervention surveys included 933 male and female students in two intervention and two comparison schools. MAIN OUTCOME: condom use at last sex; secondary outcomes: partner communication; gender beliefs and values; perceived peer behaviors; self-efficacy for safer sex...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Amrita Rao, Stefan Baral, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Andrew Lambert, Zamakayise Kose, Mfezi Mcingana, Claire Holland, Sosthenes Ketende, Sheree Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy intentions and safer conception knowledge among female sex workers in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited female sex workers in Port Elizabeth using respondent-driven sampling and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire alongside HIV testing and counseling. In this secondary analysis, robust Poisson regression was used to model prevalence ratios for positive fertility intentions in this cross-sectional study...
July 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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