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Aspirin AND Cancer

Huizhu Gan, Lin Lin, Nanjun Hu, Yang Yang, Yu Gao, Yu Pei, Kang Chen, Butong Sun
BACKGROUND: Aspirin, an anti-inflammatory drug, has been widely investigated in the treatment of many cancer types, including colorectal, ovarian, breast, and prostate cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most well studied noncoding RNAs in cancers. In the current study, we were interested in defining the function of aspirin in lung cancer treatment and the related noncoding RNAs involved in this process. METHODS: The function of aspirin in lung cancer growth was evaluated by cell viability and colony formation assays...
February 12, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Julien Vouillarmet, Victor Aboyans
The effect of aspirin in primary cardiovascular (CV) prevention in people with diabetes is still a matter of debate. Recent results of ASCEND trial suggest that the absolute benefit on CV events is largely counter-balanced by the bleeding risk. However, one crucial question is whether aspirin should be maintained or withdrawn from the prescription list of those who are already under this therapy since a while ago. Indeed, large epidemiological data reported that the aspirin discontinuation was associated to an increased risk of CV events...
February 10, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Kamolyut Lapumnuaypol, Andrew Tiu, Charat Thongprayoon, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Patompong Ungprasert, Michael A Mao, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can suppress the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells in vitro through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. However, the effects of aspirin and NSAIDs on the risk of CCA remain unclear. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the risk of biliary tract cancers in patients who take aspirin and/or NSAIDs. Methods: A systematic review was conducted utilizing MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases from inception through October 2017 to identify studies that assessed the association of aspirin and/or NSAIDs use with risk of biliary tract cancers including CCA, gallbladder cancer, and ampulla of Vater cancer...
February 7, 2019: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Asma'u I J Bashir, Chandra S Kankipati, Sarah Jones, Robert M Newman, Stephen T Safrany, Christopher J Perry, Iain D Nicholl
Epidemiological studies indicate that long‑term aspirin usage reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may protect against other non‑CRC associated adenocarcinomas, including oesophageal cancer. A number of hypotheses have been proposed with respect to the molecular action of aspirin and other non‑steroidal anti‑inflammatory drugs in cancer development. The mechanism by which aspirin exhibits toxicity to CRC has been previously investigated by synthesising novel analogues and derivatives of aspirin in an effort to identify functionally significant moieties...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Bee Luan Khoo, Gianluca Grenci, Joey Sze Yun Lim, Yan Ping Lim, July Fong, Wei Hseun Yeap, Su Bin Lim, Song Lin Chua, Siew Cheng Wong, Yoon-Sim Yap, Soo Chin Lee, Chwee Teck Lim, Jongyoon Han
BACKGROUND: Emergence of drug-resistant cancer phenotypes is a challenge for anti-cancer therapy. Cancer stem cells are identified as one of the ways by which chemoresistance develops. METHOD: We investigated the anti-inflammatory combinatorial treatment (DA) of doxorubicin and aspirin using a preclinical microfluidic model on cancer cell lines and patient-derived circulating tumour cell clusters. The model had been previously demonstrated to predict patient overall prognosis...
February 4, 2019: British Journal of Cancer
Patricia A Young, Richard J Pietras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Giacomo Pozzoli, Hany E Marei, Asma Althani, Alma Boninsegna, Patrizia Casalbore, Lionel N J L Marlier, Giulia Lanzilli, Manuela Zonfrillo, Giovanna Petrucci, Bianca Rocca, Pierluigi Navarra, Alessandro Sgambato, Carlo Cenciarelli
Several clinical studies indicated that the daily use of aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid reduces the cancer risk via cyclooxygenases (Cox-1 and Cox-2) inhibition. In addition, aspirin-induced Cox-dependent and -independent antitumor effects have also been described. Here we report, for the first time, that aspirin treatment of human glioblastoma cancer (GBM) stem cells, a small population responsible for tumor progression and recurrence, is associated with reduced cell proliferation and motility. Aspirin did not interfere with cell viability but induced cell-cycle arrest...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Nobumi Suzuki, Ryota Niikura, Sozaburo Ihara, Yohko Hikiba, Hiroto Kinoshita, Naoko Higashishima, Yoku Hayakawa, Atsuo Yamada, Yoshihiro Hirata, Ryo Nakata, Makoto Okamoto, Munetaka Sano, Akifumi Kushiyama, Mari Ichinose, Susan L Woods, Daniel Worthley, Yasuhiko Iwamoto, Kazuhiko Koike
A retrospective case-controlled analysis was performed to identify drug candidates in the current use that may prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), outside of aspirin. A total of 37,510 patients aged ≥20 years were assessed to identify subjects who had been diagnosed with CRC by colonoscopy without a previous diagnosis of CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or gastrointestinal symptoms; 1560 patients were identified who were diagnosed with CRC by colonoscopy. The CRC patients were matched with 1560 age-, gender-, family history of CRC-and comorbidity-matched control patients who were not diagnosed with CRC at colonoscopy...
January 30, 2019: Cancer Prevention Research
Kristin Ranheim Randel, Edoardo Botteri, Katrine Maria Kauczynska Romstad, Svein Oskar Frigstad, Michael Bretthauer, Geir Hoff, Thomas de Lange, Øyvind Holme
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is the tool most frequently used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening worldwide. It is unclear how the use of aspirin and oral anticoagulants in the screening population affect the diagnostic performance of FIT. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in an ongoing CRC screening trial in Norway. Participants 50-74 years old with a positive result from a FIT (>15μg hemoglobin/g feces) and subsequent colonoscopy (reference standard) were included...
January 25, 2019: Gastroenterology
Benjamin Fiedler, Lawrence Fiedler, Michael DeDonno, Kosi Anago, Leonie de la Cruz, George R Luck, Charles H Hennekens
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States and advanced colorectal polyps are a major risk factor. Although there are no large-scale individual trials designed a priori to test the hypothesis, in meta-analyses of trials in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease aspirin reduces risk of colorectal cancer. The United States Preventive Services Task Force utilized a micro-simulation model including baseline risk factors and concluded that aspirin reduces risk of colorectal cancer by 40%...
January 23, 2019: American Journal of Medicine
Xian Wu, Gar Yee Koh, Yueyi Huang, Jimmy W Crott, Roderick T Bronson, Joel B Mason
SCOPE: High fat diets (HFDs) and adiposity increase colorectal cancer risk, in part by elevating pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate pro-cancerous signaling pathways. Curcumin (CUR), a dietary polyphenol and salsalate (SAL), an NSAID lacking the gastrotoxicity of aspirin, each suppress inflammatory signaling, but via different cellular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS: A/J mice (n = 110) were fed a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal), a HFD (60% kcal), a HFD containing 0...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Zhiqing He, Ru Ding, Feng Zhang, Zonggui Wu, Chun Liang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Kai Wille, Parvis Sadjadian, Martin Griesshammer
Due to its rare incidence, erythrocytosis frequently represents a challenge for the treating doctors. The erythropoiesis (= production of erythrocytes) is located in the bone marrow, and the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) takes control in its regulation. Therefore, measurement of EPO in serum is one of the main diagnostic steps. In erythrocytosis, congenital causes have to be distinguished from acquired ones. Furthermore, there are primary and secondary forms. Congenital causes of erythrocytoses occur very infrequently, are mainly diagnosed in young age and should be treated in specialized centers...
January 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Kelly E Johnson, Julia R Ceglowski, Harvey G Roweth, Jodi A Forward, Mason D Tippy, Saleh El-Husayni, Rajesh Kulenthirarajan, Michael W Malloy, Kellie R Machlus, Wendy Y Chen, Joseph E Italiano, Elisabeth M Battinelli
It is now recognized that compounds released from tumor cells can activate platelets, causing the release of platelet-derived factors into the tumor microenvironment. Several of these factors have been shown to directly promote neovascularization and metastasis, yet how the feedback between platelet releasate and the tumor cell affects metastatic phenotype remains largely unstudied. Here, we identify that breast tumor cells secrete high levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8, CXCL8) in response to platelet releasate, which promotes their invasive capacity...
January 22, 2019: Blood Advances
Ka Shing Cheung, Wai K Leung
Aim: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can prevent aspirin-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding, a clinical dilemma exists as long-term use of PPI may also increase the risk of gastric cancer even after Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication. We aimed to investigate the potential interaction between aspirin and PPIs on GC risk in patients who have HP eradicated. Results: Of the 63,397 HP eradicated subjects (median follow-up 7.6 years), 153 (0.24%) developed GC...
December 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Saher Zaidi, Jason Gandhi, Gunjan Joshi, Noel L Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is characterized as the most frequent type of cancer in males. Recent research has suggested patients who have diabetes mellitus taking metformin (MF) have a lower risk of PCa. MF has antineoplastic effects such as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and independent mechanisms, suppression of androgen signaling pathway, and alterations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathways that cause the growth and proliferation of PCa...
January 16, 2019: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
D Cavalla
Retrospective evidence drawn from real-world experience of a medicine's use outside its labelled indication is one of a number of techniques used in drug repurposing (DRP). Relying as it does on large numbers of real incidences of human experience, rather than individual case reports with limited statistical support, preclinical experiments with poor translatability or in silico associations which are early-stage hypotheses, it represents the best validated form of DRP. Cancer is the most frequent of such DRP examples (e...
January 16, 2019: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Min-Hyung Kim, Sang Min Park, Young Ho Yun, In Cheol Hwang
BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that aspirin reduces the incidence of several cancers, but these benefits may not occur with pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A 12-year nationwide longitudinal cohort merged with health checkup data were divided into "exposure ascertainment period" and "outcome ascertainment period" to avoid immortal time bias. The Daily Defined Dose system was used to indicate the drug exposure. RESULTS: We found no significant association between aspirin use and incident pancreatic cancer based on hazard ratio...
January 14, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Maya N White, Martha J Shrubsole, Qiuyin Cai, Timothy Su, Jennings Hardee, John-Anthony Coppola, Sunny S Cai, Stephanie M Martin, Sandra Motley, Larry L Swift, Ginger L Milne, Wei Zheng, Qi Dai, Harvey J Murff
Fish oil supplementation may represent a potential chemopreventive agent for reducing colorectal cancer risk. The mechanism of action of fish oil is unknown but presumed to be related to eicosanoid modification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of fish oil supplementation on the levels of urinary and rectal eicosanoids. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of 2.5 g of fish oil per day compared with olive oil supplementation over a 6-month period. Study participants had a history of colorectal adenomas...
January 10, 2019: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Maurizio G Abrignani, Iris Parrini, Daniele Grosseto, Chiara Lestuzzi, Marinella Mistrangelo, Bruno Passaretti
Although commonly thought of as two separate disease entities, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, the leading causes of death, possess various possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes, chronic inflammation). Each cardiologist should provide counseling for a correct lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, avoiding smoking and alcohol abuse); doing so, not only cardiovascular diseases, but also cancer could be prevented. Besides, intervention on diet, physical activity and smoking has been shown to be effective even in patients with known cancers...
January 2019: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
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