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Maria Xatzipsalti, Antonis Voutetakis, Lela Stamoyannou, George P Chrousos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein
The ontogenesis and development of the pituitary gland is a highly complex process that depends on a cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules. Spontaneous mutations and transgenic murine models have demonstrated a role for many of these factors, including HESX1 , PROP1 , PIT1 , LHX3 , LHX4 , SOX2 , SOX3, OTX2 , PAX6 , FGFR1 , SHH , GLI2 , and FGF8 in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism, which is characterized by the deficiency in one or more pituitary hormones...
February 2019: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Elie Maksoud, Edward H Liao, A Pejmun Haghighi
Pathogenic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) induce an age-dependent loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. We have identified Furin 1, a pro-protein convertase, as a translational target of LRRK2 in DA neurons. Transgenic knockdown of Furin1 or its substrate the bone morphogenic protein (BMP) ligand glass bottom boat (Gbb) protects against LRRK2-induced loss of DA neurons. LRRK2 enhances the accumulation of phosphorylated Mad (pMad) in the nuclei of glial cells in the vicinity of DA neurons but not in DA neurons...
February 12, 2019: Cell Reports
Roshan Kumar Singh, Shweta Shweta, Mehanathan Muthamilarasan, Rekha Rani, Manoj Prasad
Aquaporins are versatile proteins involved in several biological as well as molecular functions, and they have been extensively studied in various plant systems. Increasing evidences indicate their role in biotic and abiotic stresses, and therefore, studying these proteins in a naturally stress-tolerant crop would provide further insights into the roles of this important protein family. Given this, the present study was performed in foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a model plant for studying biofuel, stress tolerance, and C4 photosynthetic traits...
February 13, 2019: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Shon A Koren, Matthew J Hamm, Shelby E Meier, Blaine E Weiss, Grant K Nation, Emad A Chishti, Juan Pablo Arango, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Eric M Blalock, Jose F Abisambra
There is a fundamental gap in understanding the consequences of tau-ribosome interactions. Tau oligomers and filaments hinder protein synthesis in vitro, and they associate strongly with ribosomes in vivo. Here, we investigated the consequences of tau interactions with ribosomes in transgenic mice, in cells, and in human brain tissues to identify tau as a direct modulator of ribosomal selectivity. First, we performed microarrays and nascent proteomics to measure changes in protein synthesis. Using regulatable rTg4510 tau transgenic mice, we determined that tau expression differentially shifts both the transcriptome and the nascent proteome, and that the synthesis of ribosomal proteins is reversibly dependent on tau levels...
February 13, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica
Uwe Druege, Alexander Hilo, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez, Yvonne Klopotek, Manuel Acosta, Fahimeh Shahinnia, Siegfried Zerche, Philipp Franken, Mohammad R Hajirezaei
Background: Adventitious root (AR) formation in excised plant parts is a bottleneck for survival of isolated plant fragments. AR formation plays an important ecological role and is a critical process in cuttings for the clonal propagation of horticultural and forestry crops. Therefore, understanding the regulation of excision-induced AR formation is essential for sustainable and efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Scope: Recent studies of plant transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and the use of mutants and transgenic lines have significantly expanded our knowledge concerning excision-induced AR formation...
February 11, 2019: Annals of Botany
Anneke Wilharm, Inga Sandrock, Marie Marotel, Abdi Demera, Ronald Naumann, Thierry Walzer, Immo Prinz
Innate T cells, NK cells, and innate-like lymphocytes (ILCs) share transcriptional signatures that translate into overlapping developmental and functional programs. A prominent example for genes that are highly expressed in NK cells but not in ILCs is serine-threonine-tyrosine kinase 1 (Styk1 encoded by Styk1). We found Styk1 to be specifically expressed in lymphocytes positive for Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B, member 1, also known as CD161 or NK1.1, i.e. in NK cell, αβ iNKT and γδ NKT cell lineages...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
Ranjeet Kaur, Kshitija Sinha, Rupam Kumar Bhunia
Wheat is an important cereal crop that fulfils the calorie demands of the global humanity. Rapidly expanding populations are exposed to a fast approaching acute shortage in the adequate supply of food and fibre from agricultural resources. One of the significant threats to food security lies in the constantly increasing global temperatures which inflict serious injuries to the plants in terms of various physiological, biochemical and molecular processes. Wheat being a cool season crop is majorly impacted by the heat stress which adversely affects crop productivity and yield...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Kayo Nakamura, Andrew John Moorhouse, Dennis Lawrence Cheung, Kei Eto, Ikuko Takeda, Paul Wiers Rozenbroek, Junichi Nabekura
The neuronal K+ -Cl- cotransporter KCC2 maintains a low intracellular Cl- concentration and facilitates hyperpolarizing GABAA receptor responses. KCC2 also plays a separate role in stabilizing and enhancing dendritic spines in the developing nervous system. Using a conditional transgenic mouse strategy, we examined whether overexpression of KCC2 enhances dendritic spines in the adult nervous system and characterized the effects on spine dynamics in the motor cortex in vivo during rotarod training. Mice overexpressing KCC2 showed significantly increased spine density in the apical dendrites of layer V pyramidal neurons, measured in vivo using two-photon imaging...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Guohu Chen, Fanli Zeng, Jian Wang, Xinyu Ye, Shidong Zhu, Lingyun Yuan, Jinfeng Hou, Chenggang Wang
We developed a novel Agrobacterium-mediated anther transformation for Wucai in planta, and in this procedure, the male germ line was the predominant target. Wucai (Brassica campestris L.), a variant of non-heading Chinese cabbage, is widely cultured in China and only improved by classic breeding methods. Here, a novel and efficient in planta Agrobacterium-mediated anther transformation method is developed based on the optimization of several factors that affect anther transformation. After optimization, transformation with the manual pollination application led to increased transient GUS expression in anthers (reaching 91...
February 13, 2019: Plant Cell Reports
Xiao-Jun Du, Wei-Bo Zhao, My-Nhan Nguyen, Qun Lu, Helen Kiriazis
Myocardial fibrosis is a key histopathological component that drives the progression of heart disease leading to heart failure and forms a therapeutic target. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have implicated galectin-3 (Gal-3) as a pro-fibrotic molecule and a biomarker of heart disease and fibrosis. However, our knowledge is poor on the mechanism(s) that determine the blood level or regulate cardiac expression of Gal-3. Recent studies have demonstrated that enhanced β-adrenoceptor (βAR) activity is a determinant of both circulating concentration and cardiac expression of Gal-3...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Monica Armida, Alessandra Matteucci, Antonella Pèzzola, Younis Baqi, Christa E Müller, Patrizia Popoli, Rosa Luisa Potenza
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressing neurodegenerative disease; to date, despite the intense research effort, only two therapeutic options, with very limited effects, are available. The purinergic system has been indicated as a possible new therapeutic target for ALS, but the results are often contradictory and generally confused. The present study was designed to determine whether P1 adenosine receptor ligands affected disease progression in a transgenic model of ALS. SOD1G93A mice were chronically treated, from presymptomatic stage, with a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist (CGS21680), antagonist (KW6002) or the A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Jian Zhou, Weihua Yu, Man Zhang, Xin Tian, Yu Li, Yang Lü
Clinically, superimposed systemic inflammation generally has significant deleterious effects on the Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. However, the related molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Microglial toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are two key regulators of inflammation that may play an essential role in this complex pathophysiological process. In this study, intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into APP/PS1 transgenic AD model was used to mimic systemic inflammation in the development of AD...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Liangliang Yu, Yumin Liu, Shuang Zeng, Junhui Yan, Ertao Wang, Li Luo
Expression of GmPSKγ1 , a novel PSK-encoding gene from soybean, increases seed size and yield in transgenic plants by promoting cell expansion. Phytosulfokine-α (PSK-α), a sulfated pentapeptide hormone with the sequence YIYTQ, plays important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a pair of putative precursor genes in soybean, GmPSKγ1 and -2, encoding a PSK-like peptide: PSK-γ. Similar to PSK-α in amino acid composition, the sequence of PSK-γ is YVYTQ, and the tyrosines undergo sulfonylation...
February 12, 2019: Planta
Jie Zhang, Kai-Yuan Zhang, Li-Bin Zhang, Wei-Wei Zhang, Hua Feng, Zhong-Xiang Yao, Bo Hu, Hao Chen
A growing pool of transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinases, together with Cre-dependent opsin viruses, provide good tools to manipulate specific neural circuits related to eyeblink conditioning (EBC). However, currently available methods do not enable to get fast and precise readout of optogenetic control when the freely-moving mice are receiving EBC training. In the current study, we describe a laser diode (LD)-optical fiber (OF)-Tetrode assembly that allows for simultaneous multiple units recording and optical stimulation...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hong-Gyun Lee, Jae-Ung Lee, Do-Hyun Kim, Sangho Lim, Insoo Kang, Je-Min Choi
T cells generate antigen-specific immune responses to their cognate antigen as a hallmark of adaptive immunity. Despite the importance of antigen-specific T cells, here we show that antigen non-related, bystander memory-like CD4+ T cells also significantly contribute to autoimmune pathogenesis. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that interleukin (IL)-1β- and IL-23-prime T cells that express pathogenic TΗ 17 signature genes such as RORγt, CCR6, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Hao Chen, Jack P Wang, Huizi Liu, Huiyu Li, Ying-Chung Jimmy Lin, Rui Shi, Chenmin Yang, Jinghui Gao, Chenguang Zhou, Quanzi Li, Ronald R Sederoff, Wei Li, Vincent L Chiang
Wood remains the world's most abundant and renewable resource for timber and pulp, and an alternative to fossil fuels Understanding the molecular regulation of wood formation can advance the engineering of wood for more efficient material and energy productions. We integrated a Populus trichocarpa (black cottonwood) wood forming cell-system with quantitative transcriptomics and chromatin-binding assays to construct a transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) directed by a key transcription factor (TF), PtrSND1-B1 (secondary wall-associated NAC-domain protein)...
February 12, 2019: Plant Cell
Sataree Khuansuwan, Lisa M Barnhill, Sizhu Cheng, Jeff M Bronstein
The pathophysiology of most neurodegenerative diseases includes aberrant accumulation of protein aggregates. Recent evidence highlights the role of protein degradation pathways in neurodegeneration. Concurrently, genetic tools have been generated to enable zebrafish, Danio rerio, to be used as an animal model to study neurodegenerative processes. In addition to optical clarity and fast ex utero development, the zebrafish brain is relatively small and has conserved structures with its mammalian counterparts...
February 13, 2019: Autophagy
Bill Gordon-Kamm, Nagesh Sardesai, Maren Arling, Keith Lowe, George Hoerster, Scott Betts, And Todd Jones
Efficient transformation of numerous important crops remains a challenge, due predominantly to our inability to stimulate growth of transgenic cells capable of producing plants. For years, this difficulty has been partially addressed by tissue culture strategies that improve regeneration either through somatic embryogenesis or meristem formation. Identification of genes involved in these developmental processes, designated here as morphogenic genes, provides useful tools in transformation research. In species from eudicots and cereals to gymnosperms, ectopic overexpression of genes involved in either embryo or meristem development has been used to stimulate growth of transgenic plants...
February 11, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Yamei Wang, Jian Hou, Hong Liu, Tian Li, Ke Wang, Chenyang Hao, Hongxia Liu, Xueyong Zhang
BRITTLE1 (BT1), responsible for unidirectional transmembrane transport of ADP-glucose, plays a pivotal role in starch synthesis of cereal grain. In this study, we isolated three TaBT1 homoeologous genes located on chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D in common wheat. TaBT1 was mainly expressed in developing grains and knockdown of TaBT1 in common wheat exhibited a decrease in grain size, thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain total starch content. High diversity was detected at the TaBT1-6B locus, with 24 polymorphic sites forming three haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2 and Hap3)...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Qiuju Liang, Ke Wang, Xiaoning Liu, Bisma Riaz, Ling Jiang, Xing Wan, Xingguo Ye, Chunyi Zhang
Folates are indispensable co-factors for one-carbon metabolism in all organisms. In humans, suboptimal folate intake results in serious disorders. One promising strategy for improving human folate status is to enhance folate levels in food crops by metabolic engineering. In this study, we cloned two GmGCHI (GTP cyclohydrolase I) genes (Gm8gGCHI and Gm3gGCHI) and one GmADCS (aminodeoxychorismate synthase) gene from soybean, which are responsible for synthesizing the folate precursors pterin and p-aminobenzoate, respectively...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
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