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J R Standish, T B Brenneman, K L Stevenson
Venturia effusa, which causes pecan scab, has developed resistance to fungicides that were once effective. Over 2 years, laboratory-based sensitivity of fentin hydroxide (TPTH) and tebuconazole in V. effusa and their efficacy under field conditions were compared. Leaf and nut scab were assessed on pecan trees receiving 10 applications of TPTH, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin plus tebuconazole, TPTH plus tebuconazole, or no fungicide (NTC) per year. Sensitivity of V. effusa on leaflets collected from treated and nontreated trees was assessed in June and September, respectively...
August 2018: Plant Disease
Han-Hee Park, Seung-Won Choi, Gwang Jin Lee, Young-Dae Kim, Hyun-Jin Noh, Seung-Jae Oh, Iseul Yoo, Yu-Jin Ha, Gi-Bang Koo, Soon-Sun Hong, Sung Won Kwon, You-Sun Kim
Background: Ginseng is believed to have antitumor activity. Autophagy is largely a prosurvival cellular process that is activated in response to cellular stressors, including cytotoxic chemotherapy; therefore, agents that inhibit autophagy can be used as chemosensitizers in cancer treatment. We examined the ability of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) to prevent autophagic flux and to make hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells become more sensitive to doxorubicin. Methods: The cytotoxic effects of total RGE or its saponin fraction (RGS) on HCC cells were examined by the lactate dehydrogenase assay in a dose- or time-dependent manner...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Seong-Hwan Park, Hee Dong Jeon, Seung-Heon Hong
Background: In colorectal cancer (CRC), 40-60% of patients develop metastasis. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal and intricate process that increases the metastatic potential of CRC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) on colorectal metastasis through inhibition of EMT and the metastatic abilities of CRC cells. Methods: To investigate the effect of RGE on the metastatic phenotypes of CRC cells, CT26 and HT29 cells were evaluated by using an adhesion assay, a wound-healing assay, an invasion assay, zymography, and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Jieun Jung, Hye Ji Jang, Su Jin Eom, Nam Soon Choi, Na-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik
Background: Ginsenosides, which are bioactive components in ginseng, can be converted to smaller compounds for improvement of their pharmacological activities. The conversion methods include heating; acid, alkali, and enzymatic treatment; and microbial conversion. The aim of this study was to determine the bioconversion of ginsenosides in fermented red ginseng extract (FRGE). Methods: Red ginseng extract (RGE) was fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum KCCM 11613P...
January 2019: Journal of Ginseng Research
Kritchai Vutipongsatorn, Natsuko Nagaoka, Tae Yokoi, Takeshi Yoshida, Koju Kamoi, Shintaro Horie, Kengo Uramoto, Akira Hirata, Laurence M Occelli, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira, Olivier Cases, Renata Kozyraki, Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To analyze the hallmark features of pathologic myopia developed in animal models and compare them with those seen in patients. METHODS: A literature review was performed to identify animal models that exhibited key features of pathologic myopia, namely posterior staphyloma, myopic maculopathy, lacquer cracks, and choroidal neovascularization, either spontaneously or induced by monocular deprivation. Using imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography, and electron microscopy, these features were compared with those found in myopic maculopathy of patients...
December 20, 2018: Retina
Tomomi Kimura, Nobuhiko Okabe
Simple, systematic, and sustainable passive surveillance systems for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) should be useful to quantify the clinical and economic burden in a timely manner with minimum investment. This pilot study evaluated the usefulness of nationwide administrative databases (a hospital-based administrative database and an insurance claims database) for such passive surveillance of children hospitalized for VPDs using rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) as an example. Two rotavirus vaccines were launched in November 2011 and July 2012 in Japan...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Zhiming Li, Wenjun Le, Zheng Cui
Prior studies suggest a possibility that the anticancer property of garlic is more effective only when exposed directly to cancer cells than absorbed first by the normal epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract wall. We tested this possibility in two mouse models of highly aggressive malignancies that cannot yet be cured by conventional therapies: sarcoma 180- and EL4-induced lethal ascites. Daily oral gavages of raw garlic extract (RGE; equivalent to 100 mg wet weight) for 21 days failed to offer any meaningful effect in the mice with malignancies...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Sowon Lee, Mihwa Kwon, Min-Koo Choi, Im-Sook Song
We aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) on the expression of efflux transporters and to study the pharmacokinetics of representative substrate. For this, rats received single or repeated administration of RGE (1.5 g/kg/day) for 1 and 2 weeks via oral gavage. mRNA and protein levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein2 (Mrp2), bile salt export pump (Bsep), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the rat liver were measured via real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis...
November 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Evelyn Saba, Dahye Jeong, Muhammad Irfan, Yuan Yee Lee, Sang-Joon Park, Chae-Kyu Park, Man Hee Rhee
Ginseng has therapeutic effects on various bodily disorders ranging from minor inflammation to major cardiovascular diseases. In our study, we explored the anti-inflammatory effects of Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract (Rg3-RGE), a ginsenoside belonging to the panaxadiol group. We employed nitric oxide assay (NO) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, and hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) to elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity of Rg3-RGE...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Marilena Tsala, Sophia Vourli, Panagiota-Christina Georgiou, Spyros Pournaras, Ge Rge L Daikos, Johan W Mouton, Joseph Meletiadis
Background: Combination schemes are commonly used for the treatment of infections due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp). We therefore investigated the in vitro effectiveness of double and triple combinations of meropenem, colistin and tigecycline against CP-Kp isolates with different resistance mechanisms in a static broth microdilution model and a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. Methods: One WT isolate and seven CP-Kp isolates with different carbapenem resistance mechanisms and increasing MICs of meropenem (4-512 mg/L), colistin (0...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Evelyn Saba, Yuan Yee Lee, Minki Kim, Seung-Hyung Kim, Seung-Bok Hong, Man Hee Rhee
Background: Ginseng ( Panax ginseng ) is a widely used traditional herbal supplement that possesses various health-enhancing efficacies. Various ginseng products are available in market, especially in the Korean peninsula, in the form of drinks, tablets, and capsules. The different ginseng types include the traditional red ginseng extract (RGE), white ginseng, and black red ginseng extract (BRGE). Their fermented and enzyme-treated products are also available. Different treatment regimens alter the bioavailability of certain compounds present in the respective ginseng extracts...
October 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Catalina Zavala, Christopher R Beam, Brian K Finch, Margaret Gatz, Wendy Johnson, William S Kremen, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Nancy L Pedersen, Chandra A Reynolds
We examined whether attained socioeconomic status (SES) moderated genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in cognitive performance using pooled data from 9 adult twin studies. Prior work concerning SES moderation of cognitive performance has focused on rearing SES. The current adult sample of 12,196 individuals (aged 27-98 years) allowed for the examination of common sources of individual differences between attained SES and cognitive performance (signaling potential gene-environment correlation mechanisms, rGE), as well as sources of individual differences unique to cognitive performance (signaling potential gene-environment interaction mechanisms, G × E)...
December 2018: Developmental Psychology
Alexandre Sodreau, Sonia Mallet-Ladeira, Sebastien Lachaize, Karinne Miqueu, Jean-Marc Sotiropoulos, David Madec, Céline Nayral, Fabien Delpech
The synthesis of iron germanide nanoparticles at the nanoscale is a challenging task. Here, we describe the preparation of nanocrystals of the hexagonal Fe1.67Ge phase via the thermolysis of single source precursors [{iPrNC(tBu)NiPr}RGe]Fe(CO)4 (where R = Cl, N(SiMe3)2) under mild conditions (200 °C). These bimetallic precursors and the corresponding germylenes [{iPrNC(tBu)NiPr}RGe] were fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. While the structural features of the molecular species were shown to be almost identical, the results of the thermolysis were highly dependent on the nature of R...
October 30, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Lin Gong, Ying Zheng, Shanling Liu, Zhilan Peng
Objective: To investigate the regulatory role of fibronectin (FN) in the formation of multicellular aggregate (MCA) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR-3 cells and integrin expression. Methods: The dynamic formation of MCA in SKOV3 and OVCAR-3 was determined using the liquid overlay technique in the presence or absence of FN, anti-FN, RGD peptide, control RGE. The expression of α3β1, α4β1 and α5β1 integrin in monolayer cells, MCA and FN-treated MCA were determined by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR...
September 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Kit K Elam, Laurie Chassin, Danielle Pandika
Poor family cohesion and elevated adolescent aggression are associated with greater alcohol use in adolescence and early adulthood. In addition, evocative gene-environment correlations (rGEs) can underlie the interplay between offspring characteristics and negative family functioning, contributing to substance use. Gene-environment interplay has rarely been examined in racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study examined adolescents' polygenic risk scores for aggression in evocative rGEs underlying aggression and family cohesion during adolescence, their contributions to alcohol use in early adulthood (n = 479), and differences between Mexican American and European American subsamples...
December 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Lisabeth F DiLalla, David L DiLalla
Play among peers is an important developmental context for child socialization. We have earlier shown that children at genetic risk for aggression were more likely to be treated aggressively by unfamiliar peers during peer play, reflecting genotype-evoked behaviors manifested during play. In this study, 118 5-year-old twin pairs were paired randomly with an unfamiliar, same-age, same-sex child, thus controlling for parent- and child-chosen environments (passive and active rGE). Twins played separately from each other with unmatched children...
August 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Evelyn Saba, Seung-Hyung Kim, Sung-Dae Kim, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Jun-Hwan Oh, Chae-Kyu Park, Man Hee Rhee
In this study, we precisely showed how the Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract (Rg3-RGE) lowers glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in LDL-/- mice. Aspartate aminotransferase/serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), alanine aminotransferase /serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and steatohepatitis were found to be reduced, and atheroma formation was inhibited by Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract.
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Qing-Xiu Liu, Wei Zhang, Jia Wang, Wei Hou, Ying-Ping Wang
Background: Red ginseng is a popularly used traditional medicine with antiaging effects in Asian countries. The present study aimed to explore the changes in protein expression underlying the mechanisms of life span extension and antiaging caused by red ginseng extract (RGE) in Drosophila melanogaster . Methods: A proteomic approach of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify the differential abundance of possible target proteins of RGE in D...
July 2018: Journal of Ginseng Research
Gang Jia, Yong Han, Yanli An, Yinan Ding, Chen He, Xihui Wang, Qiusha Tang
Currently, glioma treatment is limited by two main factors: timely detection at onset or relapse and restriction of drugs by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) from entering the brain and influencing tumor growth. However, a safe BBB-traversing drug delivery system has brought new hope to glioma treatment. Exosomes have strong cargo-loading capacity and have the ability to cross the BBB. They can also be conferred with the ability for targeted delivery. Therefore, exosomes have great promise to be a targeted drug delivery vehicles...
September 2018: Biomaterials
Lauren Gaydosh, Daniel W Belsky, Benjamin W Domingue, Jason D Boardman, Kathleen Mullan Harris
Girls who experience father absence in childhood also experience accelerated reproductive development in comparison with peers with present fathers. One hypothesis advanced to explain this empirical pattern is genetic confounding, wherein gene-environment correlation (rGE) causes a spurious relationship between father absence and reproductive timing. We test this hypothesis by constructing polygenic scores for age at menarche and first birth using recently available genome-wide association study results and molecular genetic data on a sample of non-Hispanic white females from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health...
August 2018: Demography
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