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obesity diabetes

N P Sobers, N Unwin, T A Samuels, S Capewell, M O'Flaherty, J A Critchley
BACKGROUND: Although most countries face increasing population levels of obesity and diabetes their effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality has not been often studied in small island developing states (SIDs) where obesity rates are among the highest in the world. We estimated the relative contributions of treatments and cardiovascular risk factors to the decline in CHD mortality from 1990 to 2012 in the Caribbean island, Barbados. METHODS: We used the IMPACT CHD mortality model to estimate the effect of increased coverage of effective medical/surgical treatments and changes in major CHD risk factors on mortality trends in 2012 compared with 1990...
2019: PloS One
Vaughan Keeley, Peter Franks, Isabelle Quere, Gregoire Mercier, Sandro Michelini, Marina Cestari, Pinar Borman, Andrew Hughes, Kath Clark, Jill Lisle, Margaret Benson, Susan Noerregaard, Tonny Karlsmark, Susie Murray, Christine Moffatt
Background: There is no standardized international model for specialist lymphedema services, which covers the types of lymphedema treated and the treatments provided. The aim of this study was to provide a profile of patients attending specialist lymphedema services in different countries to explore similarities and differences. Methods and Results: The LIMPRINT core tool was used in specialist lymphedema services in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Turkey. Services in Turkey saw a slightly younger age group, with a higher proportion of female patients reflecting a particular focus on breast cancer-related lymphedema...
April 2019: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Christine J Moffatt, Rebecca Gaskin, Martina Sykorova, Eleanor Dring, Aimee Aubeeluck, Peter J Franks, Paul Windrum, Gregoire Mercier, Lorraine Pinnington, Isabelle Quere
Background and Study Design: Chronic edema (CO) is believed to be a major clinical problem within community nursing services in the United Kingdom. This study was undertaken as part of the LIMPRINT international study to determine the number of people with CO and its impact on health services. Methods and Results: Three urban-based community nursing services participated in the United Kingdom with prospective evaluation for 4 weeks of all patients receiving nursing care using a questionnaire-based interview and clinical assessment using the LIMPRINT tools...
April 2019: Lymphatic Research and Biology
Brian Forsythe, Avinesh Agarwalla, Richard N Puzzitiello, Shelby Sumner, Anthony A Romeo, Randy Mascarenhas
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroid injections are a common treatment for rotator cuff tears. Because of concerns of infection, a surgical procedure is often delayed following injections. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there is a temporal relationship between corticosteroid injections and the risk of surgical site infection after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that the incidence of surgical site infection is higher in patients who received a preoperative injection and this relationship exists in a temporal manner as those patients receiving an injection closer to the operative date have a higher risk of infection...
April 17, 2019: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Sun Ok Song, Ken He, Radhika R Narla, Hyun Goo Kang, Han Uk Ryu, Edward J Boyko
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and diabetes has been known to be closely related to each other and both diseases impact highly on the public health. There are many evidence of reports that OSA is associated with diabetes with a bidirectional correlation. A possible causal mechanism of OSA to diabetes is intermittent hypoxemia and diabetes to OSA is microvascular complication. However, OSA and diabetes have a high prevalence rate in public and shares the common overlap characteristic and risk factors such as age, obesity, and metabolic syndrome that make it difficult to establish the exact pathophysiologic mechanism between them...
April 2019: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Ronette L Kolotkin, Valerie S L Williams, Claire M Ervin, Nicole Williams, Henrik H Meincke, Shanshan Qin, Lisa von Huth Smith, Sheri E Fehnel
The Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) is widely used in evaluations of weight-loss interventions, including pharmaceutical trials. Because this measure was developed using input from individuals undergoing intensive residential treatment, the IWQOL-Lite may include concepts not relevant to clinical trial populations and may be missing concepts that are relevant to these populations. An alternative version, the IWQOL-Lite Clinical Trials Version (IWQOL-Lite-CT), was developed and validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance on patient-reported outcomes...
April 16, 2019: Clinical Obesity
M Bonaccio, A Di Castelnuovo, S Costanzo, A De Curtis, M Persichillo, C Cerletti, M B Donati, G de Gaetano, L Iacoviello
BACKGROUND: There is poor knowledge on the association between combined lifestyles with mortality risk among individuals at high risk, and little is known on the biological mechanisms that could be on the pathway. METHODS: Longitudinal analysis on 22 839 individuals from the Moli-sani Study (Italy, 2005-2010). Among them, we identified 5200 elderly individuals (≥65 year), 2127 subjects with diabetes and 1180 with cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. A healthy lifestyle score (HLS) was calculated, allocating 1 point for each of the following: abstention from smoking; adherence to Mediterranean diet; physical activity; absence of abdominal obesity...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Andrés San Martín, Matías Sepúlveda, Felipe Guzman, Hernán Guzmán, Felipe Patiño, Yudith Preiss
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global health problem that also affects older adults. In Chile, as in most of the developing countries, more than half of older adults are overweight or obese, and bariatric surgery may be riskier for this group. The aim of this study is to compare our experience in patients over 60 years of age with a control group to determine associated surgical morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Case-control study of bariatric surgeries performed between 2006 and 2017 in our institution...
April 16, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Aldo Bonaventura, Luca Liberale, Federico Carbone, Alessandra Vecchié, Alice Bonomi, Nicola Scopinaro, Giovanni Bruno Camerini, Francesco Saverio Papadia, Davide Maggi, Renzo Cordera, Franco Dallegri, Giovanni Adami, Fabrizio Montecucco
AIMS: Metabolic surgery is considered as a therapeutic option for obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In order to identify novel laboratory variables that could improve the selection of patients who might greatly benefit from a surgical approach, we focused on the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a predictor of long-term T2D remission following metabolic surgery. METHODS: Thirty-one obese patients with T2D included in this pilot study underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) at the Surgical Department of Genoa University, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino in Genoa (Italy)...
April 16, 2019: Acta Diabetologica
Sheng Liu, Fei Li, Xiuqing Zhang
Coix seed (CS) is widely used as food material and herbal medicine in Asian countries with hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory properties. But whether CS takes effect by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota remains unknown. Here, three groups of mice were fed different diets for 5 weeks: standard chow, high fat (HF), and CS added to HF. As compared to chow, mice in HF group demonstrated a significant increase in body weight (BW), fat mass (FM), together with total cholesterol (TC), and they even developed impaired glucose tolerance...
April 16, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Helena Kratochvilova, Zdenka Lacinova, Jana Klouckova, Petra Kavalkova, Anna Cinkajzlova, Pavel Trachta, Jarmila Krizova, Marek Benes, Karin Dolezalova, Martin Fried, Zuzana Vlasakova, Terezie Pelikanova, Julius Spicak, Milos Mraz, Martin Haluzik
Context: Neudesin has recently been identified as a novel regulator of energy expenditure in experimental animals; however, its role in humans remains unexplored. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) along with selected weight reducing interventions on serum neudesin levels and adipose tissue mRNA expression. Patients and methods: Fifteen obese subjects with T2DM undergoing endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) implantation, 17 obese subjects (11 with T2DM, 6 without T2DM) scheduled for gastric plication (GP), 15 subjects with functional hypoglycemia subjected to 72-hour acute fasting (AF), and 12 healthy controls were included in the study...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Maya Ram, Howard Berger, Hayley Lipworth, Michael Geary, Sarah D McDonald, Beth Murray-Davis, Catherine Riddell, Haroon Hasan, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
OBJECIVE: Women with twins have an a priori increased risk for many of the complications associated with maternal obesity. Thus, the impact of maternal obesity in twins may differ from that reported in singletons. In addition, given the increased metabolic demands in twin pregnancies, the impact of maternal underweight may be greater in twin compared with singleton gestations. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes differ between twin and singleton gestations...
April 16, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Elijah K Goldberg, Ellen B Fung
INTRODUCTION: Visceral fat, also known as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), has been the focus of intensive research over the past several yr, as ground breaking studies have investigated its possible role in predicting long-term cardiac dysfunction, hypertension, and diabetes. Historically, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were the instruments of choice for visceral fat quantification. However, with the introduction of visceral fat assessment software for Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scanners, DXA's use for VAT assessment has become increasingly common...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Fang Li, Rongzhu Lu, Ting Zhao, Xinyu Zhang, Suhua Wang, Guangwei Xing
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) can be induced by diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic liver disease, and obesity. This study assessed the protective effects of three sulfur compounds, namely phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), and sodium thiosulfate (STS), on acrylonitrile (ACN)-induced acute toxicity in rats enriched with CYP2E1. PEITC and DMTS were administered intragastrically (i.g.), whereas STS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at an identical dose of 0.5 mmol/kg for 3 days in acetone-pretreated rats before ACN (90 mg/kg) injection (i...
April 16, 2019: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Roshonda B Jones, Tanya L Alderete, Jeniffer S Kim, Joshua Millstein, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: A western high fat, high carbohydrate diet has been shown to be associated with decreased gut bacterial diversity and reductions in beneficial bacteria. This gut bacteria dysbiosis could develop in early life and contribute to chronic disease risk such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine how dietary macronutrients are associated with the relative abundance of gut bacteria in healthy adolescents. METHODS: Fifty-two obese participants (12-19 years) from two studies, many who were primarily of Hispanic background, provided fecal samples for 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
April 16, 2019: Gut Microbes
Daniel C Rosen, Muthumeena Kannappan, Yong Kim, David J Paulucci, Alp Tuna Beksac, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Akshay Bhandari, Ashok Hemal, James Robert Porter, Ketan K Badani
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND: As the prevalence of obesity increases worldwide, an increasing proportion of surgical candidates have an elevated BMI, with associated metabolic syndrome. Yet there exists limited evidence regarding the effect of elevated BMI on surgical outcomes in robotic surgeries. We examined whether obese patients had worse perioperative outcomes and postoperative renal function following robotic partial nephrectomies (RPNs). METHODS/MATERIALS: We performed a multi-institutional analysis of 1,770 patients who underwent RPNs between 2008 and 2015, allowing time for the dataset to mature...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Endourology
Elodie Fiot, Delphine Zénaty, Priscilla Boizeau, Jeremie Haignere, Sophie Dos Santos, Juliane Leger
Objective Turner Syndrome is associated with several phenotypic conditions associated with a higher risk of subsequent comorbidity. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of congenital malformations and the occurrence of age-related comorbid conditions, and to determine whether the frequencies of congenital and acquired conditions depend on X-chromosome gene dosage, as a function of karyotype subgroup. Design and Methods This national retrospective observational cohort study includes 1501 patients. We evaluated the prevalence of congenital malformations and the cumulative incidence of subsequent specific comorbidities at five-year intervals, from the ages of 10 to 30 years, with stratification by karyotype subgroup: 45,X (n = 549), 45,X/46,isoXq (n = 280), XrX (n = 106), 45,X/46,XX (n =221), presence of Y (n = 87)...
April 1, 2019: European Journal of Endocrinology
Takao Hirai, Yuhei Mitani, Karen Kurumisawa, Kohei Nomura, Wei Wang, Ken-Ichi Nakashima, Makoto Inoue
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a member of the FGF subfamily that acts through the FGF receptor 1 with the co-receptor β-Klotho, functions as an important metabolic regulator of peripheral glucose tolerance and lipid homeostasis in an endocrine or autocrine and/or paracrine manner. Previous studies showed that FGF21 ameliorated and prevented the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we demonstrated that berberine, a naturally occurring compound, stimulated FGF21 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
April 13, 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
Chuan Li, Antoine Menoret, Cullen Farragher, Zhengqing Ouyang, Christopher Bonin, Paul Holvoet, Anthony T Vella, Beiyan Zhou
Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are crucial for maintaining adipose tissue homeostasis and mediating obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities, including prediabetic conditions and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite their key functions in regulating adipose tissue metabolic and immunologic homeostasis under normal and obese conditions, a high-resolution transcriptome annotation system that can capture ATM multifaceted activation profiles has not yet been developed. This is primarily attributed to the complexity of their differentiation/activation process in adipose tissue and their diverse activation profiles in response to microenvironmental cues...
April 16, 2019: JCI Insight
Xia Yi, Ping Wu, Jianyun Liu, Ying Gong, Xiaoyuan Xu, Weidong Li
Adipogenesis, a physiological process initiated with the committed preadipocytes expressing adipocyte-specific genes and terminated in mature, differentiated and functional adipocytes, mainly involved with energy homeostasis. Abnormal distribution-changes and dysfunctions in adipogenesis may lead to complex physiopathological disorders. However, it remains unclear for the key players working for the whole complex differentiating process of adipogenesis. Here, it investigated transcriptional profiling of adipogenesis from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) by RNA-Seq transcriptome technique...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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