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obesity infections

Yanbin Bai, Xiong Zhang, Ye Tian, Dehu Tian, Bing Zhang
Surgical-site infection (SSI) is a common complication in orthopedic surgery; however, SSI after surgically managed distal femur fractures was not well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of SSI and identify some modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors.The patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) were reviewed to identify those who sustained a distal femur fracture and treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) between March 2014 and February 2018. SSI was defined based on the Centers for Disease Control criteria and confirmed according to the descriptions in EMR...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jerrold J Heindel
The Obesogen field developed from two separate scientific research areas, endocrine disruptors and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that interfere with the action of hormones. Exposure to EDCs during early development (DOHaD) has been shown to increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases including infertility, asthma, breast and prostate cancer, early puberty, susceptibility to infections, heart disease, autoimmune disease, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/learning disability...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marcus J Adair, Samer Alharthi, Jorge Ortiz, Weikai Qu, Mohanad Baldawi, Munier Nazzal, Arunkumar Baskara
The aim of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes after robotic-assisted and laparoscopic bariatric sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Sleeve gastrectomy is traditionally performed using laparoscopic techniques. Robotic-assisted surgery enables surgeons to perform minimally invasive SG, but with unknown benefits. Using a national database, we compared postoperative outcomes after laparoscopic SG and robotic-assisted SG. National data from individuals undergoing elective SG in the National Inpatient Sample database between 2011 and 2013 were analyzed...
January 1, 2019: American Surgeon
Xiaotong Qiao, Haijiang Lin, Xiaoxiao Chen, Chenxi Ning, Keran Wang, Weiwei Shen, Xiaohui Xu, Xiaoyi Xu, Xing Liu, Na He, Yingying Ding
HIV-infected (HIV+) women may be more vulnerable to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) due to psychological and physiological factors but previous studies show mixed findings. We investigated the neurocognitive performances in HIV+ versus HIV- women and men. This cross-sectional analysis included 669 HIV+ patients (223 women) and 1338 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) controls (446 women) which were frequency matched on sex, education, and 5-year age categories. NCI was screened using the Mini-mental State Examination. Psychomotor speed was assessed using timed alternating hand sequence test...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Martí Bernaus, Francesc Anglès, Berta Escudero, Margarita Veloso, Alfredo Matamala, Lluís Font-Vizcarra
Objectives: Obesity is a documented comorbidity that is prevalent in the elderly population and a known predictor for surgical site infection (SSI). Body mass index is a convenient method to classify obesity, but it fails to account for fat distribution. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between surgical site infection and a subcutaneous radiographic measurement (SRM) in elderly hip fracture patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare SRMs at the hip in patients diagnosed with surgical site infection after hip fracture surgery with patients that were not diagnosed with surgical site infection...
2019: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Stefan Mauss, Lukas Buendgens, Stefan Christensen, Patrick Ingiliz, Florian Berger, Dietrich Hüppe, Karl Georg Simon, Thomas Lutz, Knud Schewe, Christoph Boesecke, Frank Tacke
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:  Disease activity, but also demographics, lifestyle, and comorbidities, may influence alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) achieve virological cure in > 90 % of patients, regardless of HCV genotype and fibrosis stage. This allows assessing determinants for ALT levels before and after elimination of HCV. METHODS:  Our prospective cohort included HCV- and HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with DAA at 9 German centers (GECCO cohort)...
February 2019: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Marie T Krüger, Yashar Naseri, Marc Hohenhaus, Ulrich Hubbe, Christoph Scholz, Jan-Helge Klingler
OBJECTIVES: The negative effects of obesity on the health and quality of life of those afflicted has become an important public concern. Previous studies have shown an association between obesity and higher rates of complications and unfavorable outcomes following spine surgery. This study is to identify peri- and postoperative complication rates as well as short-term and long-term outcomes in morbidly obese patients who underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) in comparison to age-matched normal-weight patients...
February 4, 2019: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Hyuna Sung, Rebecca L Siegel, Philip S Rosenberg, Ahmedin Jemal
BACKGROUND: Cancer trends in young adults, often under 50 years, reflect recent changes in carcinogenic exposures, which could foreshadow the future overall disease burden. Previous studies reported an increase in early onset colorectal cancer, which could partly reflect the obesity epidemic. We examined age-specific contemporary incidence trends in the USA for 30 common cancers, including 12 obesity-related cancers. METHODS: We obtained incidence data for invasive cancers among people aged 25-84 years diagnosed from Jan 1, 1995, to Dec 31, 2014, for 25 population-based state registries in the USA...
February 1, 2019: Lancet. Public Health
Richard W Nicolay, Ryan S Selley, Michael A Terry, Vehniah K Tjong
PURPOSE: To use the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to determine whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with 30-day postoperative complications following arthroscopic surgery. METHODS: Cases of elective knee, hip, and shoulder arthroscopy were identified. A retrospective comparative analysis was conducted, and the overall rates of morbidity, mortality, readmission, reoperation, and venothromboembolism (VTE) were compared using univariate analyses and binary logistic regressions to ascertain the adjusted effect of BMI, with and without diabetes, on morbidity, readmission, reoperation, and VTE...
February 4, 2019: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Jonathan Z Xian, Sujith V Cherian, Modupe Idowu, Lei Chen, Rosa M Estrada-Y-Martin
A 45-year-old woman presented for evaluation for 3 months of coughing and dyspnea. A recent chest CT scan done for workup of her symptoms revealed a 2-cm right-sided pulmonary nodule. She had a medical history of Sjögren syndrome, hypertension, and obesity. She also noted a weight loss of 30 lb over the last 3 years. She denied smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, or occupational exposures. A chest radiograph done 3 years prior did not reveal any pulmonary nodules. She had no personal or family history of arteriovenous malformations, hamartomas, or any malignancies and had been up to date with her breast cancer screening...
February 2019: Chest
Victor O Owino
Africa is experiencing a sharp rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) related to rapid globalisation and urbanisation leading to shifts in dietary and lifestyle patterns characterised by increased energy intake and physical inactivity. However, unlike more resource-endowed regions, Africa has a double burden of disease: NCD co-exist with infectious diseases including lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. The African economy is also relatively weaker, making it difficult to cope with this burden...
February 8, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
William Scully, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Nipun Sodhi, Assem A Sultan, Jaiben George, Anton Khlopas, George F Muschler, Carlos A Higuera, Michael A Mont
BACKGROUND: Evaluating body mass index (BMI) as a continuous variable eliminates the potential pitfalls of only considering BMI as a binary or categorical variable, as most studies do when correlating BMI and total hip arthroplasty (THA) outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to correlate the effect of continuous BMI on 30-day complications post-THA. Specifically, we correlated BMI to: (1) 30-day readmissions and reoperations; (2) medical complications; and (3) surgical complications in: (a) normal-weight; (b) over-weight; (c) obese; and (d) morbidly obese patients...
February 5, 2019: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
C Heus, N Bakker, W M Verduin, H J Doodeman, A P J Houdijk
BACKGROUND: Obesity is becoming a bigger health problem every year. Current research shows that the obesity-related metabolic problems are strongly associated with visceral fat and not subcutaneous fat. Visceral obesity (VO) is associated with a worse postoperative outcome in multiple fields of abdominal surgery. On the other hand, muscle mass is related to better postoperative outcome. In rectal cancer patients, we studied the influence of visceral obesity and muscle mass on postoperative complications...
February 4, 2019: World Journal of Surgery
Ting Yu, Li Zhao, Xin Huang, Baoyi Xie, Jincai Zhang, Dongying Xuan
This study aimed to explore periodontal and systemic immune response of overweight hosts to periodontitis. Forty C57 BL/6J male mice were divided into high (HF) or low fat (LF) diet groups and fed with the two diets, respectively, for 8 weeks. Each diet group was then divided into periodontitis (P) or control (C) groups (n = 10 per group) for 10-day ligation or sham-ligation. Overweight-related parameters including body weight were measured. Alveolar bone loss (ABL) was morphometrically analyzed and periodontal osteoclasts were stained...
2019: BioMed Research International
Su Young Jung, Sang Hoon Kim, Seung Geun Yeo
Hearing loss (HL) is a major public health problem. Nutritional factors can affect a variety of diseases, such as HL, in humans. Thus far, several studies have evaluated the association between nutrition and hearing. These studies found that the incidence of HL was increased with the lack of single micro-nutrients such as vitamins A, B, C, D and E, and zinc, magnesium, selenium, iron and iodine. Higher carbohydrate, fat, and cholesterol intake, or lower protein intake, by individuals corresponded to poorer hearing status...
February 1, 2019: Nutrients
Stephen J McCall, Zhuoyang Li, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Elizabeth Sullivan, Marian Knight
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal BMI>50kg/m2 during pregnancy and maternal and perinatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An international cohort study was conducted using data from separate national studies in the UK and Australia. Outcomes of pregnant women with BMI>50 were compared to those of pregnant women with BMI<50. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the association between BMI>50 and perinatal and maternal outcomes...
2019: PloS One
Hedong Han, Tiantian Zhu, Yibin Guo, Yiming Ruan, Eyal Herzog, Jia He
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that obesity could improve prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF), known as the "obesity paradox." However, the association between bariatric surgery (BS) and HF outcomes is not well established. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of prior BS on outcomes of HF patients. SETTING: Inpatient hospital admissions from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for years 2006 to 2014 was queried for adults with a primary diagnosis of HF...
January 9, 2019: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Rafael Diaz-Nieto, Panagis M Lykoudis, Brian R Davidson
BACKGROUND: Nutritional problems are common in patients requiring liver transplantation. Recipient obesity or malnutrition are thought to increase postoperative complications. Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used prior to major surgery but its value specifically in liver transplant assessment has not been established. This is a retrospective study assessing the correlation between the BMI of individuals undergoing liver transplant and the development of postoperative infectious complications...
January 31, 2019: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
M A Lumsden, J Sassarini
The females of most species die soon after ceasing to reproduce, their purpose in life being to ensure survival of their kin. Human females may live more than one-third of their lives after they cease to reproduce, a property shared by few species, one of which is Orca whales. Orcas have been extensively studied because families live together in stable units or pods and individual whales have distinctive markings, enabling them to be identified. The females survive long after the menopause, one possible reason for this being that the older females provide a survival advantage since they are seen to lead the pods more often than younger females or males, thus providing a survival advantage in times of food shortage...
February 4, 2019: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Michael S Miller, Martin Kang, James C Cornwall, C Y Maximilian Png, Michael Marin, Peter Faries, Rami Tadros
BACKGROUND: There is varying evidence regarding the effects of BMI on outcomes of EVAR. This study investigates the effects of BMI on an index of peri-operative and post-operative outcomes after EVAR. METHODS: 492 patients who underwent elective EVAR at Mount Sinai Hospital were included in this study. Patients were classified as either normal weight (BMI=18.5-25), overweight (BMI=25-30), or obese (BMI>30). Chi-squared tests were used to determine significant differences between weight classes across an index of outcomes...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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