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urinary tract pathogens

Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Saeid Bouzari
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are recognized as one of the most common infectious diseases in the world that can be divided to different types. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the most prevalent causative agent of UTIs that applied different virulence factors such as fimbriae, capsule, iron scavenger receptors, flagella, toxins, and lipopolysaccharide for their pathogenicity in the urinary tract. Despite the high pathogenicity of UPEC strains, host utilizes different immune systems such as innate and adaptive immunity for eradication of them from the urinary tract...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Abdulaziz Saleh Almulhim, Ahmad Alamer
INTRODUCTION: The objectives of this retrospective review were to: (a) determine the prevalence of resistant Gram-negative bacteraemia among hospitalized patients; (b) evaluate antibiotic use; (c) determine the time taken for Gram staining to final species identification. METHODS: For this retrospective study, information was extracted from patients' electronic medical records. Eligible patients had been admitted to a 300-bed tertiary care hospital in Tucson, Arizona from October 2015 to October 2016, were over 18 years of age and had a positive blood culture for Gram-negative bacteraemia...
February 20, 2019: Journal of International Medical Research
Abdul Hameed, Mariya Al-Rashida, Maliha Uroos, Syeda Uroos Qazi, Sadia Naz, Marium Ishtiaq, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Urease is a nickel containing metallo-enzyme that is commonly found in different bacteria, plants, algae and fungi, and mediates the growth of many pathogenic bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Despite the large number of molecules known to have excellent urease inhibitory activity, there is an alarming lack of urease inhibitor drugs on the market. Area covered: This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the different types of molecules patented as potent urease inhibitors from the year 2012 to 2018...
February 18, 2019: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
A V Kuzmenko, V V Kuzmenko, T A Gyaurgiev
INTRODUCTION: Lower urinary tract infections (LUTI) are the most common urological diseases. Fosfomycin is one of the antibiotic agents with proven efficacy that are most frequently used to treat UTIs. Despite the high effectiveness of antibiotic therapy with this drug, in some patients, the LUTIs persist or recur. It is advisable to prevent the development of recurrent infections using herbal preparations. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated treatment of women with acute uncomplicated cystitis using the plant-based medication Phytolysin...
October 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Tamara Milovanovic, Igor Dumic, Jelena Veličkovic, Milica Stojkovic Lalosevic, Vladimir Nikolic, Ivan Palibrk
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome (CAIDS) has been identified in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), predisposing them to a wide variety of infections. In patients with LC, healthcare-associated infections involving multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria have increased significantly over the last decades. Among them, hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) are the most common. This study aimed to investigate the rates of antimicrobial resistance among patients with LC and HA-UTI and to determine risk factors associated with their development among patients hospitalized in tertiary care facility in Serbia...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Linchuan Wang, Kai-Ha Zhou, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Si-Fang Feng
BACKGROUND: To determine the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a teaching hospital in Northwest China. METHODS: An observational, prospective surveillance was conducted in the RICU from 2013 to 2015. The overall infection rate, distribution of infection sites, device-associated infections and pathogen in the RICU were investigated. Then, the logistic regression analysis was used to test the risk factors for RICU infection...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Justyna E Gołębiewska, Beata Krawczyk, Magdalena Wysocka, Aleksandra Ewiak, Jolanta Komarnicka, Marek Bronk, Bolesław Rutkowski, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień
PURPOSE: To analyse the role of virulence factors (VFs) and host in Klebsiella pneumoniae upper urinary tract infections (UTIs) in renal transplant (RTx) recipients. METHODOLOGY: Clinical and demographic data were registered prospectively. Phylogenetic background of K. pneumoniae isolates was analysed by PCR melting profiles (MP) and the following VFs genes: fimH-1, uge, kpn, ycfM, mrkD, rmpA, magA, hlyA, cnf-1, irp-1, irp-2, fyuA, entB, iutA, iroN by PCR. RESULTS: We studied urine cultures and clinical data from 61 episodes of K...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
A V Kuzmenko, V V Kuzmenko, T A Gyaurgiev
INTRODUCTION: Acute cystitis is the most common type of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. A choice of antibiotics for the treatment depends not only on the spectrum of antimicrobial activity against pathogens, but also on the pharmacokinetic properties, due to high urine concentration after single or double use is needed. In addition, high safety profile and acceptable cost are important. Fosfomycin is one of the drugs whose efficiency in treating of patients with lower urinary tract infection is proved...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Janne Kulpakko, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Erkki Eerola, Pekka E Hänninen
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem worldwide. The most prevalent causative pathogen of UTI is Escherichia coli, focus of this study. The current golden standard for detecting UTI is bacterial culture, creating a major workload for hospital laboratories - cost-effective and rapid mass screening of patient samples is needed. Here we present an alternative approach to screen patient samples with a single-step assay utilising time-resolved luminescence and luminescence modulating biosensing phages...
February 5, 2019: Analytical Biochemistry
Julaluk Noiphung, Wanida Laiwattanapaisal
Point-of-care testing (POCT) for uropathogen detection and chemical screening has great benefits for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs). The goal of this study was to develop a portable and inexpensive paper-based analytical device (PAD) for cultivating bacteria in situ and rapidly testing for nitrite on the same device. The PAD was fabricated using a wax printing technique to create a pattern on Whatman No. 1 filter paper, which was then combined with a cotton sheet to support bacterial growth...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kymora B Scotland, Joey Lo, Thomas Grgic, Dirk Lange
Ureteral stents are commonly used devices in hospital settings. However, their usage is often complicated by associated urinary tract infections as a result of bacterial adhesion onto the indwelling implant surfaces, followed by the formation of layers of biofilm. Once formed, the biofilm is exceedingly difficult to remove, potentially leading to further morbidity and even urosepsis. Urosepsis, where pathogens from the urinary tract enter the bloodstream, has a mortality rate of up to 50% of severely infected patients...
February 8, 2019: Biofouling
Kyle A Bauckman, Rina Matsuda, Cassandra B Higgins, Brian J DeBosch, Caihong Wang, Indira U Mysorekar
Iron is a critical nutrient required by hosts and pathogens. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the principal causative agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs), chelate iron for their survival and persistence. Here, we demonstrate that dietary modulation of iron availability limits UPEC burden in a mouse model of UTI. Mice on a low iron diet exhibit reduced systemic and bladder mucosal iron availability, harbor significantly lower bacterial burden, concomitant with dampened inflammation. Hepcidin is a master regulator of iron that controls iron-dependent UPEC intracellular growth...
February 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
June-Sung Kim, Youn-Jung Kim, Seung Mok Ryoo, Chang Hwan Sohn, Shin Ahn, Dong Woo Seo, Kyoung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim
(1) Background: Septic shock survivors frequently readmit because of subsequent infection. This study aimed to determine the rate and risk factors for same pathogen sepsis readmissions following hospitalization for septic shock. (2) Methods: We performed this retrospective study using data from a prospective septic shock registry at a single urban tertiary center. All the patients were treated with a protocol-driven resuscitation bundle therapy between 2011 and 2016. We collected data from adult (older than 18 years) patients readmitted with sepsis within 90 days of discharge following hospitalization for septic shock...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
George G Zhanel, Alyssa R Golden, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Karyn Wiebe, Courtney K Lawrence, Heather J Adam, Temilolu Idowu, Ronald Domalaon, Frank Schweizer, Michael A Zhanel, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Ayman Noreddin, Joseph P Lynch Iii, James A Karlowsky
Cefiderocol is an injectable siderophore cephalosporin discovered and being developed by Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Japan. As with other β-lactam antibiotics, the principal antibacterial/bactericidal activity of cefiderocol occurs by inhibition of Gram-negative bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins; however, it is unique in that it enters the bacterial periplasmic space as a result of its siderophore-like property and has enhanced stability to β-lactamases. The chemical structure of cefiderocol is similar to both ceftazidime and cefepime, which are third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, respectively, but with high stability to a variety of β-lactamases, including AmpC and extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)...
February 2, 2019: Drugs
Oren Ziv, Mordechai Kraus, Racheli Holcberg, Anat Bahat Dinur, Sofia Kordeluk, Dan Kaplan, Hadar Naidorf Rosenblatt, Shalom Ben-Shimol, David Greenberg, Eugene Leibovitz
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology, microbiology, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes distribution and serious bacterial infections (SBIs) occurrence in infants <2 months of age with tympanocentesis-documented acute otitis media (AOM), before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). METHODS: The medical records of all hospitalized infants with AOM who underwent tympanocentesis during 2005-2014 were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 303 infants with AOM who were diagnosed by an ENT specialist, 182 underwent tympanocentesis, 92 during 2005-2009 (prevaccine period) and 90 during 2010-2014 (postvaccine period)...
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Lucile Pinault, Eric Chabrière, Didier Raoult, Florence Fenollar
Urinary tract infections are among the most common reasons for antimicrobial treatment, early diagnosis could have a significant impact by enabling rapid administration of the adapted antibiotic and preventing complications. The current delay between sample receipt and pathogen identification is about 24-48 hours, which could be significantly shortened by an accurate direct method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is already used for the identification of pathogens in clinical laboratories and constitutes a promising tool for direct diagnosis...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Anna Woźniak-Biel, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska, Jakub Burdzy, Kamila Korzekwa, Sebastian Ploch, Alina Wieliczko
Enterococci are a natural component of the intestinal flora of many organisms, including humans and birds. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause fatal infections of the urinary tract and endocarditis in humans, whereas in poultry symptoms are joint disease, sepsis, and falls in the first week of life. The study covered 107 Enterococcus strains-56 isolated from humans and 51 from turkeys. Among the isolates investigated Enterococcus faecalis was detected in 80.36% of human and 80.39% of turkey samples. Enterococcus faecium was identified in 8...
January 30, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Alessandra Pacitto, Paolo Prontera, Gabriela Stangoni, Maurizio Stefanelli, Stefania Ceppi, Carla Cerri, Grazia Gurdo, Annalisa Mencarelli, Susanna Esposito
Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by megaloblastic anemia, benign mild proteinuria, and other nonspecific symptoms. Several pathogenetic variants in the amnionless ( AMN ) or cubilin ( CUBN ) genes have been described in IGS. We describe a case of IGS with urinary tract infection and mild but persistent proteinuria at onset in an 11-month-old female child. With the appearance of macrocytic anemia, aphthous stomatitis, and neurological signs, IGS was clinically suspected, and vitamin B12 parenteral therapy was started...
January 27, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chiaki Tao, Noriko Kinoshita, Kensuke Shoji, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Rumiko Eura, Katsuhiko Ueoka, Mitsuru Kubota, Akira Ishiguro, Isao Miyairi
The significance of anaerobic bacteria as a pathogen in urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is unclear. A two-month-old infant presenting with poor feeding received a diagnosis of polymicrobial anaerobic UTI by next-generation sequencing and was found to have obstructive uropathy. Anaerobic bacteria may be a cause of UTI in children with urinary tract obstruction.
January 25, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Alaa Atamna, Hani Hamud, Waseem Daud, Tzippy Shochat, Jihad Bishara, Avishay Elis
An unabsorbed dietary iron supplementation can modify the colonic microbiota equilibrium and favor the growth of pathogenic strains over barrier strains. Nevertheless, the impact of oral iron supplements (OIS) use on the clinical outcomes of patients with gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) has not been evaluated. To explore the impact of OIS on the outcomes of patients with GNB. A retrospective study conducted in a tertiary hospital including patients with GNB during 2011-2016. The entire cohort was divided into chronic OIS users (study group) and nonusers (control group)...
January 26, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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