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cortisol cycle

D Grimaldi, N A Papalambros, K J Reid, S M Abbott, R G Malkani, M Gendy, M Iwanaszko, R I Braun, D J Sanchez, K A Paller, P C Zee
Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is important for overall health since it affects many physiological processes including cardio-metabolic function. Sleep and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity are closely coupled at anatomical and physiological levels. Sleep-related changes in autonomic function are likely the main pathway through which SWS affects many systems within the body. There are characteristic changes in ANS activity across sleep stages. Notably, in Non-Rapid Eye-Movement sleep, the progression into SWS is characterized by increased parasympathetic activity, an important measure of cardiovascular health...
February 6, 2019: Sleep
Tuan Anh Nguyen, Timothy Chow, Wayne Riggs, Dan Rurak
BACKGROUND: Approximately 1/3 of newborns exposed antenatally to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) exhibit poor neonatal adaptation. Although several potential mechanisms have been proposed, the actual mechanism has not been elucidated. METHODS: We investigated outcomes in neonatal lambs exposed prenatally or postnatally to fluoxetine (FX). Daily FX injections (50 mg) were given intravenously (i.v.) to five pregnant ewes via implanted catheters beginning at 131-132 days gestation (term = 147 days) for 2 weeks...
February 9, 2019: Pediatric Research
David Resuehr, Gang Wu, Russell L Johnson, Martin E Young, John B Hogenesch, Karen L Gamble
Circadian misalignment between sleep and behavioral/feeding rhythms is thought to lead to various health impairments in shift workers. Therefore, we investigated how shift work leads to genome-wide circadian dysregulation in hospital nurses. Female nurses from the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Hospital working night shift ( n = 9; 29.6 ± 11.4 y) and day shift ( n = 8; 34.9 ± 9.4 y) participated in a 9-day study measuring locomotor activity and core body temperature (CBT) continuously. Additionally, cortisol and melatonin were assayed and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested for RNA extraction every 3 h on a day off from work...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Evie G Marcolini, Jennifer S Albrecht, Kinjal N Sethuraman, Lena M Napolitano
Trauma data bank and other research reveal sex disparities in trauma care. Risk-taking behaviors leading to traumatic injury have been associated with sex, menstrual cycle timing, and cortisol levels. Trauma patient treatment stratified by sex reveals differences in access to services at trauma centers as well as specific treatments, such as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and massive transfusion component ratios. Trauma patient outcomes, such as in-hospital mortality, multiple organ failure, pneumonia, and sepsis are associated with sex disparities in the general trauma patient...
March 2019: Anesthesiology Clinics
Lori Delaney, Edward Litton, Frank Van Haren
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Excessive noise has direct adverse physiological and psychological effects, and may also have indirect negative health consequences by reducing sleep quality and quantity. This review presents a synthesis of the epidemiology of noise in the ICU, and the potential interventions designed to attenuate noise and protect patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Noise increases cortisol release, oxygen consumption, and vasoconstriction. ICU noise levels are excessive throughout the 24-h cycle, irrespective of level of intervention or whether the patient is in a side room or open ward...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
M Dziekonski, A Zmijewska, W Czelejewska, P Wojtacha, S Okrasa
Steroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of cyclic changes in the uterus and preparation of intrauterine environment for the egg fertilization, embryo implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. Their secretion by porcine uterus has been demonstrated. The present study aimed to establish the effect of opioid receptors (μ, δ and κ) activation by selective agonists (DAMGO, DPLPE and U 50.488, respectively) on in vitro secretion of steroid hormones (during 6-h and 24-h incubations) by the endometrial explants of gilts on days 2 - 3, 10 - 11, 12 - 3, 15 - 16, 18 - 20 of the estrous cycle and 10 - 11, 12 - 13, 15 - 16 of pregnancy...
October 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
L Yang, W H Dun, K Li, J Yang, K Wang, H J Liu, J X Liu, M Zhang
BACKGROUND: Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), characterized as menstrual pain without pelvic pathology, is associated with pain-related negative mood and hormone fluctuations. Previous studies strongly supported the link between pain and negative mood in affected individuals; however, it remains largely unknown in patients with PDM. METHODS: We focused on the effects how spontaneous pain, negative mood and hormone levels played on the central nervous system in 34 PDM women and 33 matched healthy controls across their cycles (periovulatory phase and menstruation phase) by using T1-weighted and functional imaging...
January 21, 2019: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Marius Vögelin, Richard Cathomas, Niklaus Kamber, Thomas Fehr
Two years after diagnosis of a metastatic neuroendocrine gastrin-secreting tumour and after several cycles of chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, a 56-year-old woman presented with hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, hypertension, leg oedema and new-onset diabetes mellitus. Further investigations revealed renal potassium loss confirmed by a transtubular potassium gradient of 16, fully suppressed serum aldosterone, but instead highly elevated blood levels of morning cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone as well as increased urinary excretion of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolites...
January 18, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Łukasz Tota, Anna Piotrowska, Tomasz Pałka, Małgorzata Morawska, Wioletta Mikuľáková, Dariusz Mucha, Magdalena Żmuda-Pałka, Wanda Pilch
The aim of the paper was to assess indicators of muscle and intestinal damage in triathletes. The study involved 15 triathletes whose objective for the season was to start in the XTERRA POLAND 2017 event (1,500-m swimming, 36-km cycling, and 10-km mountain running). Before the 14-week preparatory period, the competitors' body composition was measured, aerobic capacity was tested (graded treadmill test) and blood samples were collected to determine markers showing the level of muscle and intestinal damage. Subsequent tests for body composition were carried out before and after the competition...
2019: PloS One
Florent Gobert, Jacques Luauté, Véronique Raverot, François Cotton, Frédéric Dailler, Bruno Claustrat, Fabien Perrin, Claude Gronfier
Circadian rhythmicity (CR) is involved in the regulation of all integrated functions, from sleep-wake cycle regulation to metabolic function, mood and cognition. However, the interdependence of CR, cognition and consciousness has been poorly addressed. To clarify the state of CR in coma and to determine the chronological relationship between its recovery and consciousness after brain lesions, we conducted a longitudinal observational study investigating how the state of CR was chronologically related with the recovery of behavioural wakefulness, cognition and/or awareness...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Pineal Research
Andrew Antolic, Mengchen Li, Elaine Mary Richards, Celia W Curtis, Charles E Wood, Maureen Keller-Wood
We have identified effects of elevated maternal cortisol (induced by maternal infusion 1 mg/kg/d) on fetal cardiac maturation and function using an ovine model. Whereas short term exposure (115-130d gestation) increased myocyte proliferation and Purkinje fiber apoptosis, infusions until birth caused bradycardia with increased incidence of arrhythmias at birth, and increased perinatal death, despite normal fetal cortisol concentrations from 130d to birth. Statistical modeling of the transcriptomic changes in hearts at 130 and 140 days suggested that maternal cortisol excess disrupts cardiac metabolism...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jacquelyn M Walejko, Andrew Antolic, Jeremy P Koelmel, Timothy J Garrett, Arthur S Edison, Maureen Keller-Wood
Our laboratory has previously shown in an ovine model of pregnancy that abnormal elevations in maternal cortisol during late gestation lead to increased fetal cardiac arrhythmias and mortality during peripartum. Furthermore, transcriptomic analysis of the fetal heart suggested alterations in TCA cycle intermediates and lipid metabolites in animals exposed to excess cortisol in utero. Therefore, we utilized a sheep model of pregnancy to determine how chronic increases in maternal cortisol alter maternal and fetal serum prior to birth and neonatal cardiac metabolites and lipids at term...
January 8, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Annika Benz, Maria Meier, Mara Mankin, Eva Unternaehrer, Jens C Pruessner
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a well-established biomarker for the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in healthy as well as clinical samples. Cortisol rise during the first 60 min after awakening is often used as a proxy of HPA axis regulation in health and disease. Ultradian pulsatility of cortisol is known to superimpose its circadian rhythmicity with the CAR being the first rise after awakening. However, the exact length of the complete first pulse (rise and fall) after awakening, as well as the association between the CAR, the complete first pulse, and successive ultradian pulses, has not yet been studied systematically...
December 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ashley G B Willmott, Mark Hayes, Carl A James, Jeanne Dekerle, Oliver R Gibson, Neil S Maxwell
This experiment aimed to investigate the efficacy of twice-daily, nonconsecutive heat acclimation (TDHA) in comparison to once-daily heat acclimation (ODHA) and work matched once- or twice-daily temperate exercise (ODTEMP, TDTEMP) for inducing heat adaptations, improved exercise tolerance, and cytokine (immune) responses. Forty males, matched biophysically and for aerobic capacity, were assigned to ODHA, TDHA, ODTEMP, or TDTEMP. Participants completed a cycling-graded exercise test, heat acclimation state test, and a time to task failure (TTTF) at 80% peak power output in temperate (TTTFTEMP : 22°C/40% RH) and hot conditions (TTTFHOT : 38°C/20% RH), before and after 10-sessions (60 min of cycling at ~2 W·kg-1 ) in 45°C/20% RH (ODHA and TDHA) or 22°C/40% RH (ODTEMP or TDTEMP)...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Miguel Gómez-Boronat, Nuria Sáiz, María J Delgado, Nuria de Pedro, Esther Isorna
The circadian system controls temporal homeostasis in all vertebrates. The light-dark (LD) cycle is the most important zeitgeber ("time giver") of circadian system, but feeding time also acts as a potent synchronizer in the functional organization of the teleost circadian system. In mammals is well known that food intake during the rest phase promotes circadian desynchrony which has been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the impact of a misalignment of LD and feeding cycles in the entrainment of fish circadian oscillators is largely unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Elizabeth R May, Linda A Frank, Mee-Ja M Sula
BACKGROUND: Schipperkes develop bilaterally symmetrical alopecia preceded by lightening of the hair coat not associated with systemic clinical signs. The alopecia is presumptively diagnosed as Alopecia X but has never been investigated. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe clinical features, histopathological and laboratory abnormalities associated with symmetrical, noninflammatory alopecia in schipperkes. ANIMALS: Three healthy and eight affected schipperkes...
February 2019: Veterinary Dermatology
Katsuhiro Ito, Toshihiro Uchida, Yumi Manabe, Yu Miyazaki, Haruki Itoh, Mutsuki Mishina, Hiroshi Okuno
A 66-year-old man had undergone multiple treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including 11 cycles of nivolumab, which was discontinued because of disease progression. About three weeks after discontinuing nivolumab, he reported suffering from worsening of dyspnea. Pulse oximetry showed no desaturation. His cardiovascular and pulmonary functions were normal. His dyspnea slowly worsened with no underlying diagnosis. Two months after symptoms developed, he was diagnosed with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency...
October 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Shakoor Ba-Ali, Adam Elias Brøndsted, Henrik Ullits Andersen, Birgit Sander, Poul Jørgen Jennum, Henrik Lund-Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diurnal melatonin, cortisol, and activity/rest levels, as well as sleep quality, in patients with and without nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We included 25 diabetic patients with DR and 29 without DR. A total of 21 healthy subjects constituted the control group. We assessed the circadian rhythm by actigraphy and diurnal salivary melatonin and cortisol measurements. Sleep quality was evaluated by actigraphy and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaires...
October 31, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Renya Rodriguez Mortera, Yasmin Bains, Alejandro Gugliucci
In this review, we highlight the specific metabolic effects of fructose consumption that are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with obesity. The specifics effects of fructose on the liver are particularly germane to the development of a vicious cycle that starts with liver steatosis driving insulin resistance. These effects include 1) increased de novo lipogenesis, 2) increased liver fat, 3) dyslipidemia 4) increased uric acid production which feeds back on increased fructose metabolism and, 5) increased methylglyoxal and Maillard reaction that may affect adenosyl-monophosphate-dependent kinase Fructose increases cortisol activation especially in visceral fat...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
William R Lovallo, Andrew J Cohoon, Ashley Acheson, Kristen H Sorocco, Andrea S Vincent
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Persons with blunted stress reactivity have poor impulse control and also show increased risk for alcoholism. Exposure to early life adversity (ELA) contributes to blunted reactivity, but individual differences in susceptibility to ELA are not well understood. This study aimed to determine whether exposure to ELA has a greater impact on stress reactivity in young adults with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) compared with young adults with no family history of alcoholism (FH-)...
November 21, 2018: Addiction
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