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epilepsy comorbidity

Kürşad Aydın, Ayşe Kartal, Esma Keleş Alp
Background/aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of children with cerebral palsy and determine the particular characteristics of the disorder. Materials and methods: The nutritional status of the children was assessed by the Gomez classification using weight-for-age. The Gross Motor Function Classification System was used to determine the gross and fine motor functions. Results: The study was conducted with 197 children (58...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Rowena M A Packer, Sarah L Hobbs, Emily J Blackwell
Epilepsy is a common, complex and often challenging neurological disorder to treat in the dog, with 20-30% of dogs resistant to conventional medical therapies, and associated with cognitive and behavioral comorbidities and early death. Behavioral interventions are an emerging area of focus in the adjunctive treatment of drug-resistant human epilepsy patients, with studies indicating positive effects of a variety of interventions including relaxation-based techniques and behavioral therapy interventions. Behavioral interventions have the potential not only to improve seizure control, but also improve behavioral comorbidities and general quality of life in this hard to treat patient group...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jian Liu, Han-Xiao Zhu, Wan-Li Fu, Xin-Wei Xu, Jun-Zhe Yang, Dan Dai, Yun Li
OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) protein in the hippocampus of model rats of comorbid epilepsy and depression. METHODS: A rat model of epilepsy was established using lithium chloride.pilocarpine. Among these epileptic rats, those with comorbid depression were selected by a battery of behavioral tests starting on the 14th day after establishing the epilepsy model. A depression group was established by unpredicted chronic mild stress (UCMS) and separate housing...
February 11, 2019: Neurological Research
Sudha Kilaru Kessler, Emily McGinnis
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common pediatric epilepsy syndrome with distinct seizure semiology, electroencephalography (EEG) features, and treatment. A diagnosis of CAE can be obtained during an office visit with a careful history, physical exam including prolonged hyperventilation, and a routine EEG. The treatment of choice for CAE with absence seizures only is ethosuximide. Valproic acid and lamotrigine are also effective treatments for many patients, but when compared to ethosuximide, valproic acid has more adverse effects and lamotrigine is less effective...
February 8, 2019: Paediatric Drugs
Antonella Bruni, Iolanda Martino, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Maria Grazia Vaccaro, Michele Trimboli, Cristina Segura Garcia, Pasquale De Fazio, Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate
Objectives: The findings of previous studies focused on personality disorders in epileptic patients are difficult to interpret due to nonhomogeneous samples and noncomparable methods. Here, we aimed at studying the personality profile in patients with mild temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with mTLE (22 males, mean age 40.7 ± 12.1) underwent awake and sleep EEG, 3T brain MRI, and an extensive standardized diagnostic neuropsychiatric battery: Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Beck Depression Inventory-2, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory...
2019: Behavioural Neurology
Ali Izadi, Aleksandr Pevzner, Darrin J Lee, Arne D Ekstrom, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is most prevalent among focal epilepsies, and nearly one-third of patients are refractory to pharmacological intervention. Persistent cognitive and neurobehavioral comorbidities also occur due to the recurrent nature of seizures and medication-related side effects. HYPOTHESIS: Electrical neuromodulation is an effective strategy to reduce seizures both in animal models and clinically, but its efficacy to modulate cognition remains unclear...
January 17, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Thapanee Somboon, Madeleine M Grigg-Damberger, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer
Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder in the US, affecting over 2.2 million people. Epilepsy is associated with a number of medical and psychiatric comorbidities, higher health care utilization, cost and substantial economic burden. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is 2-fold more common in adults with epilepsy than age-matched controls and the incidence increases with age. Self-reported daytime sleepiness is not helpful in predicting OSA, possibly related to the ceiling effect of general sleepiness among people with epilepsy from diverse causes...
January 31, 2019: Chest
Emily L Johnson
Epilepsy affects 65 million people worldwide, and is a leading neurologic cause of loss of quality-adjusted life years. The diagnosis of seizures and epilepsy often depends on a careful history, and is supported with electroencephalogram and imaging. First-line treatment of epilepsy includes medical management. Antiepileptic drugs must be chosen with the patient's particular comorbidities in mind. Drug-resistant epilepsy cases should be referred to an epilepsy specialist and may be evaluated for additional medications, epilepsy surgery, neurostimulation, or dietary therapy...
March 2019: Medical Clinics of North America
Changyun Liu, Yuxing Wen, Huapin Huang, Wanhui Lin, Mingzhu Huang, Rong Lin, Ying Ma
Cognitive impairment is a common comorbidity in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) that severely affects patients' quality of life. Also, serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 6 (5-HT6) receptor plays an important role in cognition. This study aimed to investigate effects of 5-HT6 receptor on learning-memory capacities in epileptic rats. Total of 36 adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into vehicle (n = 6) and epileptic group (n = 30). Status epilepticus (SE) was induced via systemic injection of pilocarpine...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Iliyana Pacheva, Ivan Ivanov, Ralitsa Yordanova, Katerina Gaberova, Fani Galabova, Margarita Panova, Aneliya Petkova, Elena Timova, Iglika Sotkova
The comorbidity of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy has been widely discussed but many questions still remain unanswered. The aim of this study was to establish the occurrence of epilepsy among children with ASD to define the type of epileptic seizures and syndromes, the age of onset of epilepsy, EEG abnormalities, the used antiepileptic drugs and the therapeutic responses for seizures and autistic behavior, as well as to find some correlations between epilepsy and gender, etiology and intellectual disability (ID)...
January 25, 2019: Children
Mariusz S Wiglusz, Jerzy Landowski, Wiesław J Cubała
OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are frequent comorbid disorder in patients with epilepsy (PWEs). The availability of validated screening instruments to detect anxiety disorders in PWEs is limited. The aim of the present study was to validate State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in adult PWEs for the detection of anxiety disorders. METHODS: A total of 96 outpatients with epilepsy completed the self-report symptom scale and were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I disorders (SCID-I)...
January 25, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Roland D Thijs, Rainer Surges, Terence J O'Brien, Josemir W Sander
Epilepsy is one of the most common serious brain conditions, affecting over 70 million people worldwide. Its incidence has a bimodal distribution with the highest risk in infants and older age groups. Progress in genomic technology is exposing the complex genetic architecture of the common types of epilepsy, and is driving a paradigm shift. Epilepsy is a symptom complex with multiple risk factors and a strong genetic predisposition rather than a condition with a single expression and cause. These advances have resulted in the new classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies...
January 24, 2019: Lancet
M Prevos-Morgant, Y Leavy, D Chartrand, L Jurasek, P Osborne Shafer, R Shinnar, M Goodwin
Epilepsy, often considered as a stigmatizing disease, affects 65 million people worldwide and is frequently associated with comorbidities that increase both direct and indirect costs. The degree of impact on quality of life and the cost of care differs depending on the social and health care organizations in place, political, medico-economic and/or socio-cultural contexts. Across the globe, healthcare is provided by nurses in primary care, urgent or emergency care, and within specialized domains of practice...
January 22, 2019: Revue Neurologique
Isabell Brikell, Qi Chen, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Brian M D'Onofrio, Kelsey K Wiggs, Paul Lichtenstein, Catarina Almqvist, Patrick D Quinn, Zheng Chang, Henrik Larsson
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 10%-30% of individuals with epilepsy, yet concerns remain regarding the safety of ADHD medication in this group. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of acute seizures associated with ADHD medication in individuals with epilepsy. METHODS: A total of 21 557 individuals with a seizure history born between 1987 and 2003 were identified from Swedish population registers. Within this study population, we also identified 6773 youth (<19 years of age) who meet criteria for epilepsy, and 1605 youth with continuous antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment...
January 25, 2019: Epilepsia
Oleksii Shandra, Alexander R Winemiller, Benjamin P Heithoff, Carmen Munoz-Ballester, Kijana George, Michael J Benko, Ivan Zuidhoek, Michelle N Besser, Dallece E Curley, G Franklin Edwards, Anroux Mey, Alexys N Harrington, Jeremy P Kitchen, Stefanie Robel
Focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces astrogliosis, a process essential to protect uninjured brain areas from secondary damage. However, astrogliosis can cause loss of astrocyte homeostatic functions and possibly contributes to comorbidities such as post-traumatic epilepsy. Scar-forming astrocytes seal focal injuries off from healthy brain tissue. It is these glial scars that are associated with epilepsy originating in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Yet, the vast majority of human TBIs also present with diffuse brain injury caused by acceleration-deceleration forces leading to tissue shearing...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
S Auvin
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent comorbidities in children with epilepsy with an increased risk of other psychiatric comorbidities and academic underachievement. In children with epilepsy, the attentive form is the most common clinical presentation in pediatric epilepsies. A systemic review and a consensus from the ILAE have been recently published on diagnosis, screening and management of ADHD in children with epilepsy. We give an overview of the pharmacological treatment of ADHD in children with epilepsy based on the lecture given at the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) French Chapter meeting, (October 2018, Lyon)...
January 18, 2019: Revue Neurologique
Richard Stephen Mpango, Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Sylvia Kiwuwa Muyingo, Kenneth D Gadow, Vikram Patel, Eugene Kinyanda
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological disorders and their associated correlates and relations with clinical and behavioural problems among children and adolescents with HIV/AIDS (CA-HIV). METHODS: This study involved a sample of 1070 CA-HIV/caregiver dyads who were evaluated at their 6-month follow-up visit as part of their participation in the longitudinal study, 'Mental health among HIV infected CHildren and Adolescents in KAmpala and Masaka, Uganda (the CHAKA study)'...
January 21, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
Dora Steel, Marion Main, Adnan Manzur, Francesco Muntoni, Pinki Munot
AIM: To explore the clinical course of patients presenting with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1) in childhood, with a view to identifying areas where they differed from older patients and where extra support or monitoring might be required. METHOD: A retrospective case-notes review of children with FSHD1 seen at a tertiary paediatric neuromuscular centre between 2002 and 2016 was performed. Data collected included age at and nature of presentation, path to diagnosis, genetic testing results, motor function, and occurrence of extramuscular features and complications...
January 20, 2019: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Tuba Çelen Yoldaş, Ceren Günbey, Aydan Değerliyurt, Neşe Erol, Elif Özmert, Dilek Yalnızoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Childhood emotional/behavioral problems in children with epilepsy have been reported to be higher compared with those with typical development or with other nonneurologic health conditions. Increasing interest towards understanding these behavioral comorbidities is reflected in literature. However, longitudinal investigations regarding the course of behavioral problems in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy and normal development are rare, and majority of them involve school-aged children...
January 17, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Rebecca Ellen Fasano, Andres Miguel Kanner
In patients with refractory epilepsy, there is a significant risk of postoperative psychiatric complications after epilepsy surgery. The main risk factors for this phenomenon include a lifetime or family history of psychiatric illness; these risk factors can be easily identified through a preoperative evaluation performed by a psychiatrist. Despite this, very few comprehensive epilepsy centers include a psychiatrist on the treatment team. Preoperative evaluations often fail to identify patients at risk of postoperative psychiatric complications, thus missing the opportunity to counsel and prophylactically treat patients at risk...
January 15, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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