Nicoletta Fortunati, Filippo Gatti, Francesco Felicetti, Enrico Brignardello
Cancer therapy-induced bone loss (CTIBL), occurring especially in hormone-treated breast and prostate cancer patients, is a noteworthy long-term consequence of cancer treatments. Because of its negative impact on the quality life of cancer survivors, it deserves much attention. We here summarize the pathophysiology of CTIBL in breast and prostate cancer, its clinical presentation, management, and treatment.
May 4, 2021: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Jin-Yuarn Lin, Tzu-He Yeh
BACKGROUND: Rutaecarpine (Rut) is a plant alkaloid abundant in Euodia ruticarpa which is a Chinese herbal medicine used for treating various cancers. However, the Rut administration effect on prostate cancer in vivo remains unclear. AIM: In the present study we established an allogenic TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer mouse model to evaluate the Rut administration effect and mechanism in vivo. METHODS: To unravel the Rut administration effect on prostate cancer in vivo, C57BL/6J male mice (8 weeks old) were randomly grouped (n = 9), subcutaneously loaded with TRAMP-C1 prostate cancer cells and immediately given daily by gavage with Rut dissolved in soybean oil at 7 mg (low dose), 35 mg (medium dose), and 70 mg/kg b...
May 1, 2021: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Iulia Andras, Emanuel-Darius Cata, Dana Crisan, David Andras, Teodora Telecan, Stefana Tartamus, Maximilian Buzoianu, Andrei Maga, Nicolae Crisan
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI-guided prostate biopsy have become the standard for pros-tate cancer diagnosis. As their implementation is relatively recent, experience is still limited in various centres. MRI-guided biopsy requires basic knowledge in prostate MRI and ultrasound (US), but also in the image processing protocol specific for each device. Standardization of the method is needed to ensure the best results in terms of diagnosis accuracy. We hereby pre-sent our technique for MRI-US fusion guided prostate biopsy and the outcomes after performing more than 600 procedures...
April 22, 2021: Medical Ultrasonography
Shixiang Wang, Huimin Li, Minfang Song, Ziyu Tao, Tao Wu, Zaoke He, Xiangyu Zhao, Kai Wu, Xue-Song Liu
Genome alteration signatures reflect recurring patterns caused by distinct endogenous or exogenous mutational events during the evolution of cancer. Signatures of single base substitution (SBS) have been extensively studied in different types of cancer. Copy number alterations are important drivers for the progression of multiple cancer. However, practical tools for studying the signatures of copy number alterations are still lacking. Here, a user-friendly open source bioinformatics tool "sigminer" has been constructed for copy number signature extraction, analysis and visualization...
May 4, 2021: PLoS Genetics
Peng Zhang, Xiaodong Tan, Daoqiang Zhang, Qi Gong, Xuefeng Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Accumulating evidence shows that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) possess great potential in the diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, this study aimed to construct an lncRNA-based signature to more accurately predict the prognosis of different PCa patients, so as to improve patient management and prognosis. METHODS: Through univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, this study constructed a 4 lncRNAs-based prognosis nomogram for the classification and prediction of survival risk in patients with PCa based on TCGA data...
2021: PloS One
Giangiacomo Beretta, Roberta Manuela Moretti, Rita Nasti, Raffaella Cincinelli, Sabrina Dallavalle, Marina Montagnani Marelli
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men and represents the second leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. PCa is initially androgen-dependent, however, this tumor inevitably progresses as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which represents the most aggressive phase of the pathology. In this work, in two CRPC cell lines (DU145 and PC3), we studied the in vitro inhibitory properties of the tryptophan-derived endogenous metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) and of the lactam form of 3-2'-pyrrilonidinyl-kynurenic acid (3-PKA-L), alkaloids usually present in combination in chestnut honey...
May 4, 2021: Amino Acids
Sang Hun Song, Seok Soo Byun
Decreasing costs of genetic testing and interest in disease inheritance has changed the landscape of cancer prediction in prostate cancer (PCa), and guidelines now include genetic testing for high-risk groups. Familial and hereditary PCa comprises approximately 20% and 5% of all PCa, respectively. Multifaceted disorders like PCa are caused by a combinatory effect of rare genes of high penetrance and smaller genetic variants of relatively lower effect size. Polygenic risk score (PRS) is a novel tool utilizing PCa-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from genome-wide association study (GWAS) to generate an additive estimate of an individual's lifetime genetic risk for cancer...
May 2021: Investigative and Clinical Urology
Gastón López Fontana, Lara Rey, Flavia Santiano, Rodrigo López Fontana, José Daniel López Laur, Leila Zyla, Paula Valdemoros, Martín E Guerrero-Giménez, Juan Manuel Fernández-Muñoz, Silvina Gómez, Flavia Bruna, Juan Manuel Guglielmi, Rubén Carón, Constanza López Fontana
INTRODUCTION: Prolactin (PRL) binds its receptor (PRLR) and stimulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines via STAT5a, MAPK and AKT. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of PRL and PRLR in normal and tumor prostate tissues with different Gleason patterns. METHODS: Samples of normal, benign prostatic hyperplasia and PCa with different Gleason patterns were selected from radical prostatectomy...
May 2021: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Carlos Arroyo, Jorge Campos, Yunam Cuan-Baltazar, Elena Soto-Vega
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of the contrast images obtained with a Primovist® (gadoxetate disodium) Magnetic Resonance Image in order to diagnose benign, malignant and malformations in the urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective image and diagnosis review of Primovist® MRI studies performed in liver insufficient patients without apparent renal abnormalities was done, in order to evaluate the urinary tract for irregularities. RESULTS: A total of 117 Primovist® MRI studies performed between july 2014 and November 2018 were reviewed, 5 were excluded because they were incomplete...
May 2021: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Chi Zhang, Soumik Siddhanta, Debadrita Paria, Yaozheng Li, Chao Zheng, Ishan Barman
A generalized label-free platform for surface-selective molecular sensing in living cells can transform the ability to examine complex events in the cell membrane. While vertically aligned semiconductor and metal-semiconductor hybrid nanopillars have rapidly surfaced for stimulating and probing the intracellular environment, the potential of such constructs for selectively interrogating the cell membrane is surprisingly underappreciated. In this work, a new platform, entitled nano-PROD (nano-pillar based Raman optical detection), enables molecular recording by probing fundamental vibrational modes of membrane constituents of cells adherent on a large-area silver-coated silicon nanopillar substrate fabricated using a precursor solution-based nanomanufacturing process...
May 4, 2021: Small
Evi Lianidou
Liquid biopsy, a minimally invasive approach, is a highly powerful clinical tool for the real-time follow up of cancer and overcomes many limitations of tissue biopsies. Epigenetic alterations have a high potential to provide a valuable source of innovative biomarkers for cancer, owing to their stability, frequency and non-invasive accessibility in bodily fluids. Numerous DNA methylation markers are now tested in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as potential biomarkers, in various types of cancer. DNA methylation in combination with liquid biopsy is very powerful in identifying circulating epigenetic biomarkers of clinical importance...
May 3, 2021: Molecular Oncology
Armando Stabile, Francesco Barletta, Giovanni Motterle, Francesco Pellegrino, Gabriele Sorce, Elio Mazzone, Simone Scuderi, Giuseppe Ottone Cirulli, Vito Cucchiara, Antonio Esposito, Giorgio Gandaglia, Nicola Fossati, Francesco De Cobelli, Francesco Montorsi, R Jeffrey Karnes, Alberto Briganti
BACKGROUND: To assess the diagnostic added value of sampling secondary lesions at prostate mpMRI (SL) in addition to index lesion (IL) in detecting significant prostate cancer (csPCa) when also systematic biopsy (SBx) is performed. METHODS: We relied on a cohort of 312 men with two suspicious lesions at prostate mpMRI who underwent subsequent targeted biopsy of each lesion (TBx) and concomitant SBx at two tertiary-referral centers between 2013 and 2019. The study outcome was the added value of targeting SL (i...
May 3, 2021: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Rianne J Hendriks, Marloes M G van der Leest, Bas Israël, Gerjon Hannink, Anglita YantiSetiasti, Erik B Cornel, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, O Sjoerd Klaver, J P Michiel Sedelaar, Wim Van Criekinge, Hans de Jong, Peter F A Mulders, E David Crawford, Jeroen Veltman, Jack A Schalken, Jelle O Barentsz, Inge M van Oort
BACKGROUND: Risk stratification in men with suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) requires reliable diagnostic tests, not only to identify high-grade PCa, also to minimize the overdetection of low-grade PCa, and reduction of "unnecessary" prostate MRIs and biopsies. This study aimed to evaluate the SelectMDx test to detect high-grade PCa in biopsy-naïve men. Subsequently, to assess combinations of SelectMDx test and multi-parametric (mp) MRI and its potential impact on patient selection for prostate biopsy...
May 3, 2021: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Ibrahim M Asiri, Ronald C Chen, Henry N Young, Jason Codling, Anant Mandawat, Steven R H Beach, Viraj Master, Janani Rajbhandari-Thapa, Ewan K Cobran
BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) surveillance testing is a cornerstone of prostate cancer survivorship because patients with biochemical recurrence often have no symptoms. However, the investigation of guideline-concordant PSA surveillance across racial groups is limited. We examined racial differences in PSA surveillance testing 5-years post-definitive treatment for localized prostate cancer. METHODS: We created a population-based retrospective cohort from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database for men diagnosed with prostate cancer between the years 2007 to 2011 with Medicare claims through 2016 (N = 21,372)...
May 3, 2021: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Patrick Leo, Andrew Janowczyk, Robin Elliott, Nafiseh Janaki, Kaustav Bera, Rakesh Shiradkar, Xavier Farré, Pingfu Fu, Ayah El-Fahmawi, Mohammed Shahait, Jessica Kim, David Lee, Kosj Yamoah, Timothy R Rebbeck, Francesca Khani, Brian D Robinson, Lauri Eklund, Ivan Jambor, Harri Merisaari, Otto Ettala, Pekka Taimen, Hannu J Aronen, Peter J Boström, Ashutosh Tewari, Cristina Magi-Galluzzi, Eric Klein, Andrei Purysko, Natalie Nc Shih, Michael Feldman, Sanjay Gupta, Priti Lal, Anant Madabhushi
Existing tools for post-radical prostatectomy (RP) prostate cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR) prognosis rely on human pathologist-derived parameters such as tumor grade, with the resulting inter-reviewer variability. Genomic companion diagnostic tests such as Decipher tend to be tissue destructive, expensive, and not routinely available in most centers. We present a tissue non-destructive method for automated BCR prognosis, termed "Histotyping", that employs computational image analysis of morphologic patterns of prostate tissue from a single, routinely acquired hematoxylin and eosin slide...
May 3, 2021: NPJ Precision Oncology
Margaret C Steiner, Jez L Marston, Luis P Iñiguez, Matthew L Bendall, Katherine B Chiappinelli, Douglas F Nixon, Keith A Crandall
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) have been implicated in a variety of diseases including cancers. Recent research implicates HERVs in epigenetic gene regulation. Here we utilize a recently developed bioinformatics tool for identifying HERV expression at the locus-specific level to identify differential expression of HERVs in matched tumor-normal RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Data from 52 prostate cancer, 111 breast cancer, and 24 colon cancer cases were analyzed. Locus-specific analysis identified active HERV elements and differentially expressed HERVs in prostate cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer...
May 3, 2021: Cancer Research
Timothy Gilligan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2021: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Prasanna Sooriakumaran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2021: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Ken Kawamoto, Steven T Okino, Robert F Place, Shinji Urakami, Hiroshi Hirata, Nobuyuki Kikuno, Toshifumi Kawakami, Yuichiro Tanaka, Deepa Pookot, Zhong Chen, Shahana Majid, Hideki Enokida, Masayuki Nakagawa, Rajvir Dahiya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2021: Clinical Cancer Research
Patrick Leo, Sacheth Chandramouli, Xavier Farré, Robin Elliott, Andrew Janowczyk, Kaustav Bera, Pingfu Fu, Nafiseh Janaki, Ayah El-Fahmawi, Mohammed Shahait, Jessica Kim, David Lee, Kosj Yamoah, Timothy R Rebbeck, Francesca Khani, Brian D Robinson, Natalie N C Shih, Michael Feldman, Sanjay Gupta, Jesse McKenney, Priti Lal, Anant Madabhushi
BACKGROUND: The presence of invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma (ICC), an expanse of cells containing punched-out lumina uninterrupted by stroma, in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has been associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, ICC identification has only moderate inter-reviewer agreement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate quantitative machine-based assessment of the extent and prognostic utility of ICC, especially within individual Gleason grade groups...
April 30, 2021: European Urology Focus
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