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Yongjian Liu, Bin Su, Yu Zhang, Lei Jia, Hanping Li, Zhen Li, Jingwan Han, Tong Zhang, Tianyi Li, Hao Wu, Xiaolin Wang, Jingyun Li, Lin Li
BACKGROUND: Unique recombinant forms (URFs) were generated in dually-infected or multiply-infected individuals, and some of URFs can be transmitted to many people resulting in the emergence of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). We examined whether there was evidence for onward transmission of multiple URFs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 146 MSM subjects with acute/early HIV-1 infection were recruited from the Beijing PRIMO clinical cohort between September 2010 and July 2012...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Majumder Anirban, Roy Chaudhri Soumyabrata, Sanyal Debmalya, Kingshuk Bhattacharjee
Liraglutide is an effective drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this review is to collate evidence on the real-world clinical effectiveness of liraglutide from the published Indian studies. A review of publications was conducted to identify observational studies that assessed the effectiveness of liraglutide among Indian T2DM. Total ten publications were retrieved and these observational studies are compared with the results of the liraglutide randomized controlled trial (RCT) program (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes [LEAD])...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Vytautas Pliauga, Inga Lukonaitiene, Sigitas Kamandulis, Albertas Skurvydas, Rytis Sakalauskas, Aaron T Scanlan, Jurate Stanislovaitiene, Daniele Conte
This study investigated the effect of block periodization (BP) and traditional periodization (TP) approaches on jumping and sprinting performance in collegiate basketball players during an 8-week pre-season period. Ten collegiate male basketball players (mean±SD; age: 21.5±1.7 years; body mass: 83.5±8.9 kg; stature: 192.5±5.4 cm) from the same team were equally assigned to a training group (BP or TP). BP and TP were designed with different numbers of power sessions (BP=8; TP=16) and recovery days (BP=14; TP=8)...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
K S Houschyar, C Tapking, D Duscher, C Wallner, A Sogorski, S Rein, D Pförringer, G Reumuth, K Weissenberg, G Grieb, L K Branski, F Siemers, B Behr, M Lehnhardt
BACKGROUND: Due to the loss of the natural skin barrier function with reduced immune competence as a result of a plasma loss and the numerous intensive care interventions, burn patients are particularly at risk for infection. STUDY DESIGN: systematic review METHODS: A systematic review of German and English literature between 1990 and 2018 analyzes the epidemiological and diagnostic aspects as well as the therapeutic use of antibiotics in infections of burn patients in clinical trials...
February 14, 2019: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Bonhyuk Goo, Seong-Mok Jeong, Jong-Uk Kim, Yeon-Cheol Park, Byung-Kwan Seo, Yong-Hyeon Baek, Tae-Han Yook, Sang-Soo Nam
BACKGROUND: The sequelae of Bell's palsy cause critical problem in facial appearance, as well as social and psychological problems in the patient's life. The aim of the present study is to establish clinical evidence of thread-embedding acupuncture (TEA) in the treatment of sequelae of Bell's palsy. METHOD/DESIGN: This is a patient-assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial with two parallel arms. Fifty-six patients aged 19-65 years, who have experienced sequelae of Bell's palsy for >3 months, will be recruited and screened using the eligibility criteria...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brynmor Lloyd-Evans, David Osborn, Louise Marston, Danielle Lamb, Gareth Ambler, Rachael Hunter, Oliver Mason, Sarah Sullivan, Claire Henderson, Steve Onyett, Elaine Johnston, Nicola Morant, Fiona Nolan, Kathleen Kelly, Marina Christoforou, Kate Fullarton, Rebecca Forsyth, Mike Davidson, Jonathan Piotrowski, Edward Mundy, Gary Bond, Sonia Johnson
BACKGROUND: Crisis resolution teams (CRTs) offer brief, intensive home treatment for people experiencing mental health crisis. CRT implementation is highly variable; positive trial outcomes have not been reproduced in scaled-up CRT care.AimsTo evaluate a 1-year programme to improve CRTs' model fidelity in a non-masked, cluster-randomised trial (part of the Crisis team Optimisation and RElapse prevention (CORE) research programme, trial registration number: ISRCTN47185233). METHOD: Fifteen CRTs in England received an intervention, informed by the US Implementing Evidence-Based Practice project, involving support from a CRT facilitator, online implementation resources and regular team fidelity reviews...
February 14, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Brian M Bonk, James W Weis, Bruce Tidor
Despite tremendous progress in understanding and engineering enzymes, knowledge of how enzyme structures and their dynamics induce observed catalytic properties is incomplete, and capabilities to engineer enzymes fall far short of industrial needs. Here we investigate the structural and dynamic drivers of enzyme catalysis for the rate-limiting step of the industrially important enzyme ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) and identify a region of the conformational space of the bound enzyme-substrate complex that, when populated, leads to large increases in reactivity...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tyrone Reden L Sy, Retna Siwi Padmawati, Emmanuel S Baja, Riris Andono Ahmad
BACKGROUND: The Philippines has a high burden of TB and HIV, yet the WHO estimates that only 13% of Filipino TB patients know their HIV status. This is partly attributable to the lack of trained HIV counselors and medical technologists (or laboratory technicians) at the primary healthcare level. In Africa where resources and manpower are also scarce, TB/HIV care is already delegated to community health workers. Evidence is scant however about the acceptability and feasibility of engaging community health workers to provide HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among TB patients in the Philippines...
February 13, 2019: BMC Public Health
Igor B Rogozin, Abiel Roche-Lima, Artem G Lada, Frida Belinky, Ivan A Sidorenko, Galina V Glazko, Vladimir N Babenko, David N Cooper, Youri I Pavlov
Cancer genomes accumulate nucleotide sequence variations that number in the tens of thousands per genome. A prominent fraction of these mutations is thought to arise as a consequence of the off-target activity of DNA/RNA editing cytosine deaminases. These enzymes, collectively called activation induced deaminase (AID)/APOBECs, deaminate cytosines located within defined DNA sequence contexts. The resulting changes of the original C:G pair in these contexts (mutational signatures) provide indirect evidence for the participation of specific cytosine deaminases in a given cancer type...
February 12, 2019: Cancers
Angela U Pathmanathan, Maria A Schmidt, Douglas H Brand, Evanthia Kousi, Nicholas J van As, Alison C Tree
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraprostatic fiducial markers (FM) improve the accuracy of radiotherapy (RT) delivery. Here we assess geometric integrity and contouring consistency using a T2*-weighted (T2*W) sequence alone, which allows visualization of the FM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients scanned within the Prostate Advances in Comparative Evidence (PACE) trial (NCT01584258) had prostate images acquired with computed tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging: T2-weighted (T2W) and T2*W sequences...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Shusen Zhang, Ruoyan Cao, Qiulan Li, Mianfeng Yao, Yu Chen, Hongbo Zhou
Background: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in the competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks in that they regulate protein-coding gene expression by sponging microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the understanding of the ceRNA network in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) remains limited. Methods: Expression profile data regarding mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs as well as clinical information on 122 TSCC tissues and 15 normal controls from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were collected...
2019: PeerJ
Jennifer Chung, Louis-Mathieu Stevens, Maral Ouzounian, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Ismail Bouhout, François Dagenais, Andréanne Cartier, Mark Peterson, Munir Boodhwani, Ming Hao Guo, John Bozinovski, Michael H Yamashita, Carly Lodewyks, Rony Atoui, Bindu Bittira, Darrin Payne, Christopher Tarola, Michael W A Chu
BACKGROUND: Contemporary outcomes following surgical management of thoracic aortic disease have improved; however, the impact of sex-related differences is poorly understood. METHODS: A total of 1653 patients (498 (30.1%) female) underwent thoracic aortic surgery with hypothermic circulatory arrest between 2002 and 2017 in ten institutions of the Canadian Thoracic Aortic Collaborative. Outcomes of interest were in-hospital death, stroke and a modified Society of Thoracic Surgeons-defined composite (STS-COMP) for mortality or major morbidity (stroke, renal failure, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, prolonged ventilation)...
February 13, 2019: Circulation
Andrea Petrella, Glen Belfry, Matthew Heath
Ten minutes of aerobic or resistance training can 'boost' executive function in older adults. Here, we examined whether the magnitude of the exercise benefit is influenced by exercise intensity. Older adults (N=17: mean age=73 years) completed a volitional test to exhaustion (VO2peak ) via treadmill to determine participant-specific moderate (80% of lactate threshold (LT)), heavy (15% of the difference between LT and VO2peak ) and very-heavy (50% of the difference between LT and VO2peak ) exercise intensities...
February 9, 2019: Brain Research
Sarah Knerr, Erin J A Bowles, Kathleen A Leppig, Diana S M Buist, Hongyuan Gao, Karen J Wernli
Background: Genetic testing to determine BRCA status has been available for over two decades, but there are few population-based studies of test diffusion. We report ten-year trends in BRCA testing in an integrated health care system with longstanding access to genetic services. Methods: A cohort of women aged 18 years and older was created to ascertain BRCA testing (n = 295,087). Annual testing rates between 2005 and 2015 were calculated in all women with and without incident (i...
February 8, 2019: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
S Cleaveland, S M Thumbi, M Sambo, A Lugelo, K Lushasi, K Hampson, F Lankester
For more than 100 years, canine rabies vaccination has been available as a tool for rabies control and elimination. However, domestic dogs still remain a major reservoir for rabies, and although canine rabies has been eliminated through mass dog vaccination in some parts of the world, the disease continues to kill tens of thousands of people every year in Africa and Asia. This review focuses on the situation on those two continents, presenting evidence to show that canine rabies elimination is both epidemiologically and operationally feasible, and could be achieved across a wide range of settings in Africa and Asia...
August 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Helen Warwick, Sara Tai, Warren Mansell
Bipolar disorder (BD) is considered a severe and lifelong mental health diagnosis. However, there is growing evidence of people defying the odds and recovering. Processes underlying recovery remain poorly understood. This study aimed to explore these recovery processes and extend on the length of recovery defined within previous research. Twelve people previously diagnosed with BD who had not experienced an episode of depression and/or mania for four or more years, were interviewed. Standardised diagnostic interviews (SCID-RV) confirmed past diagnosis and recovery time...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Jeanne Dekerle, P Ansdell, L Schäfer, A Greenhouse-Tucknott, J Wrightson
PURPOSE: The assessment of voluntary activation of the knee extensors using transcranial magnetic stimulation (VATMS ) is routinely performed to assess the supraspinal function. Yet methodological scrutiny of the technique is scarce. The aim of the present study was to examine face validity and reliability of VATMS and its two main determinants (superimposed twitch during a maximal voluntary contraction [SIT100% ] and estimated resting twitch [ERT]). METHODS: SIT100%, ERT, and VATMS were measured on ten healthy males (age 24 ± 5 years) before and following intermittent isometric fatiguing exercise on two separate occasions...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Andrea Miró-Canturri, Rafael Ayerbe-Algaba, Younes Smani
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens pose a well-recognized global health threat that demands effective solutions; the situation is deemed a global priority by the World Health Organization and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Therefore, the development of new antimicrobial therapeutic strategies requires immediate attention to avoid the ten million deaths predicted to occur by 2050 as a result of MDR bacteria. The repurposing of drugs as therapeutic alternatives for infections has recently gained renewed interest...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Melanie Krüger, Joachim Hermsdörfer
The processes underlying motor decision-making have recently caught considerable amount of scientific attention, focusing on the integration of empirical evidence from sensorimotor control research with psychological theories and computational models on decision-making. Empirical studies on motor decision-making suggest that the kinematics of goal-directed reaching movements are sensitive to the level of target uncertainty during movement planning. However, the source of uncertainty as a relevant factor influencing the process of motor decision-making has not been sufficiently considered, yet...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Patrick L Anders, Elizabeth M Stellrecht, Elaine L Davis, W D McCall
Critical thinking is widely recognized as an essential competency in dental education, but there is little agreement on how it should be assessed. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the availability of instruments that could be used to measure critical thinking in dental students and to evaluate psychometric evidence to support their use. In January 2017, an electronic search of both the medical and education literature was performed on nine databases. The search included both keyword and Medical Subject Heading terms for critical thinking, higher education/health sciences education, measurement/ assessment, and reproducibility of results...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Dental Education
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