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up today benzodiazepins

Christine Jungk
Analgesia and sedation of patients in the neuro intensive care unit, in particular in case of intracranial hypertension, remains a challenge even today. A goal for analgesia and sedation should be set for each individual patient (RASS -5 in case of intracranial hypertension) and should be re-evaluated repeatedly based on standardized scores (RASS plus EEG monitoring where appropriate, NCS). There are no sufficient evidence-based sedation algorithms in this patient cohort. Remifentanil, sufentanil and fentanyl have been proven safe and effective for continuous application; however, bolus application should be avoided...
November 2015: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Dirk K Wissenbach, Markus R Meyer, Daniela Remane, Anika A Philipp, Armin A Weber, Hans H Maurer
Today, immunoassays and several chromatographic methods are in use for drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology and in doping control. For further proof of the authors' new metabolite-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) screening concept, the detectability of drugs of abuse and their metabolites using this screening approach was studied. As previously reported, the corresponding reference library was built up with MS(2) and MS(3) wideband spectra using a LXQ linear ion trap with electrospray ionization in the positive mode and full scan information-dependent acquisition...
July 2011: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
M Strumpf, U Linstedt, A Wiebalck, M Zenz
Today, a wide range of efficient analgesic and non-analgesic drugs for the treatment of back pain are available. However, drugs should never be the only mainstay of a back pain treatment program. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) are widely used in acute back pain. NSAIDs prescribed at regular intervals are effective to reduce simple back pain. The different NSAIDs are effective for the reduction of this pain. They have serious adverse effects, particularly at high doses, in the elderly, and on long-term administration...
December 2001: Der Schmerz
C Debien, M B De Chouly De Lenclave, P Foutrein, D Bailly
UNLABELLED: The interferon alpha stands as a reference both in oncology and virology. But its efficiency is limited by frequent somatic as well as neuropsychic side effects. As a matter of fact, the reduction or the ending of a chemotherapy treatment come chiefly from the psychiatric complications caused by the use of interferon. For about 30% of patients, various psychic disorders are noticed: personality disorders, mood disorders, anxiety states, suicidal tendencies, manic and psychotic symptoms...
July 2001: L'Encéphale
A Doble
Between 1987 and 1989, the different protein subunits that make up the receptor for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were identified. These make up the alpha, beta, gamma and delta families, for each of which exist several subtypes. This receptor is the molecular target of modern hypnotic drugs (i.e. benzodiazepines, zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon). In the 10 years that have followed this milestone, significant progress has been made in exploring the molecular mechanisms of hypnotic drug action...
1999: Journal of Psychopharmacology
G Lambrecht, J Gross, U Hacksell, U Hermanni, C Hildebrandt, X Hou, U Moser, B M Nilsson, O Pfaff, M Waelbroeck
The muscarinic pharmacology of C1-methyl-substituted chiral compounds related to McN-A-343 and of (R)- and (S)-dimethindene has been studied. Among the McN-A-343 analogues, the (S)-enantiomers were more potent and had higher affinity than the (R)-isomers. The quaternary compound (S)-BN 228 was found to be the most potent M1-selective agonist known today (pEC50: M1/rabbit vas deferens = 7.83; M2/guinea-pig atria = 6.35; M3/guinea-pig ileum = 6.29). In both the atria and ileum the tertiary carbamate, (S)-4-F-MePyMcN, was a competitive antagonist (pA2 value = 7...
1995: Life Sciences
H K Lublin
The research criteria of treatment-resistance in schizophrenia are reviewed and discussed, and the following definition for the use in the clinic is proposed: At least two periods of treatment with conventional antipsychotics from two different chemical classes at adequate doses for a period of at least four weeks, each without significant symptomatic relief. In addition, patients have to meet the criteria of clinical significant psychopathology, reduced psychosocial function or reduced quality of life. The article also reviews efficacy studies and the recommendations for the psychopharmacological treatment of therapy-resistant schizophrenia...
November 24, 1997: Ugeskrift for Laeger
S Baehrendtz, J Höjer
In Sweden the pattern of consumption of hypnotics has changed over the last two decades in favour of benzodiazepines (BZ), at the expense, mainly, of barbiturates. The agents chosen in cases of self-induced poisoning relfect this altered pattern of consumption. The frequency of BZ poisoning alone or in combinations at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of one of the largest hospitals in Stockholm increased by an average of 13% per year between 1972 and 1986. Today BZ poisoning constitutes 57% of all self-induced poisonings with hypnotics and sedatives...
1988: European Journal of Anaesthesiology. Supplement
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