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metformin non-glycemic

Galit Weinstein, Kendra L Davis-Plourde, Sarah Conner, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Anne Lee, Andreea M Rawlings, Sanaz Sedaghat, Jie Ding, Erin Moshier, Cornelia M van Duijn, Michal S Beeri, Elizabeth Selvin, M Arfan Ikram, Lenore J Launer, Mary N Haan, Sudha Seshadri
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether classes of diabetes medications are associated with cognitive health and dementia risk, above and beyond their glycemic control properties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Findings were pooled from 5 population-based cohorts: the Framingham Heart Study, the Rotterdam Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, the Aging Gene-Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES) and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA)...
2019: PloS One
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Neil Skolnik, Terry Dex, Louise Traylor, Jason Chao, Charles Shaefer
AIMS: One option recommended by treatment guidelines for the management of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and post-prandial excursions is adding prandial insulin when basal insulin dose is >0.5 IU/kg/day. This recommendation is based on expert opinion, with limited clinical evidence for this threshold dose. In this post-hoc analysis, we construct a clinical-response curve for basal insulin, assessing the impact of increasing doses on glycemic measures, body weight, and hypoglycemia...
February 5, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Saman Bahrambeigi, Bahman Yousefi, Mahdi Rahimi, Vahid Shafiei-Irannejad
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus especially type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing all over the world. In addition to cardiomyopathy and nephropathy, diabetics are at higher risk of mortality and morbidity due to greater risk of bone fractures and skeletal abnormalities. Patients with diabetes mellitus have lower bone quality in comparison to their non-diabetic counterparts mainly because of hyperglycemia, toxic effects of advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs) on bone tissue, and impaired bone microvascular system...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Azhar Hussain, Omar B Latiwesh, Farwa Ali, Mustafa Y G Younis, Jamal A Alammari
Background Plasma uric acid has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Conflicting data regarding plasma uric acid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus and their role in the development and progression of diabetic complications have been observed by many studies. The present study aimed to evaluate plasma uric acid levels in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine the effects of hypoglycemic drugs and pharmacologic insulin on plasma uric acid concentration...
August 17, 2018: Curēus
B S Ankit, Ritvik Agrawal, Ajeet Gadhwal, Chitresh Chahar, R P Agrawal
Objectives: Diabetes mellitus has been claimed to be a risk factor for the development of pancreatic carcinoma. CA 19-9 has a great sensitivity in detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Metformin exhibits a strong and consistent antiproliferative action on several cancer cell lines including pancreatic cancer. We aim to determine the influence of metformin on CA 19-9 levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: Total 193 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were registered for a single centre, cross-sectional study...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
B P Gupta, I Sharma, N Kohli, S Sharma, A Rathi, A K Sharma
In view of the overall health impact of NIDDM, inventers understand the necessity of improving glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. BGR-34 provides an effective treatment option for adults with type 2 diabetes who have been inadequately controlled on lifestyle with or without other oral hypoglycemic agents (OHGAs) such as metformin, sulfonylurea, or a glitazones. BGR-34 is an appropriate option to consider for addition to a managed care drug formulary. Treatment with BGR-34 produced clinically relevant and statistically significant reductions in all three key measures of glucose control studied -FPG, PPBG and HbA1c- when compared with placebo...
October 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Yong Luo, Xue-Qin Wang, Wen-Ji Ni, Bo Ding, Xiang-Hong Xu, Lei Ye, Jian-Hua Ma, Jian Zhu
INTRODUCTION: To determine the clinical efficacy and economic value of insulin lispro 25-Prandilin 25 vs. insulin lispro 25-Humalog mix 25 in treatment of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, case-crossover clinical trial. Participants were randomly allocated to two groups and underwent two kinds of insulin lispro 25 treatment separated by a 1-day washout period...
September 22, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Karun Badwal, Tooba Tariq, Diane Peirce
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a class of medications used for glycemic control in type II diabetes mellitus. Their mechanism of action involves preventing resorption of glucose at the proximal kidney, thereby promoting glucosuria and weight loss. However, they have also been found to be associated with euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA). This case describes a 25-year-old male with a history of type II diabetes on metformin, sitagliptin, and dapagliflozin who was admitted with his third episode of pancreatitis secondary to hypertriglyceridemia...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Weiqing Wang, Luis Nevárez, Ekaterina Filippova, Ki Ho Song, Bei Tao, Liqun Gu, Feng Wang, Pengfei Li, Jun Yang
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly dulaglutide with that of insulin glargine in combination with metformin and/or a sulphonylurea in mainly Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this 52-week, randomized, parallel-arm open-label study, we enrolled patients aged ≥18 years with T2DM for at least 6 months and a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration ≥53.0 mmol/mol (7.0%) and ≤96.7 mmol/mol (11...
August 21, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
György Jermendy, Zoltán Kiss, György Rokszin, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, István Wittmann, Péter Kempler
INTRODUCTION: Adequate persistence to antidiabetic treatment is highly important to achieve proper glycemic control. In this study we evaluate the persistence to treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in a nationwide cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using a central database in Hungary, we analyzed the persistence to the treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (n = 59,900), sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (n = 26,052), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (n = 17,332) at treatment intensification between 2014 and 2016...
October 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
John M Dennis, William E Henley, Michael N Weedon, Mike Lonergan, Lauren R Rodgers, Angus G Jones, William T Hamilton, Naveed Sattar, Salim Janmohamed, Rury R Holman, Ewan R Pearson, Beverley M Shields, Andrew T Hattersley
OBJECTIVE: The choice of therapy for type 2 diabetes after metformin is guided by overall estimates of glycemic response and side effects seen in large cohorts. A stratified approach to therapy would aim to improve on this by identifying subgroups of patients whose glycemic response or risk of side effects differs markedly. We assessed whether simple clinical characteristics could identify patients with differing glycemic response and side effects with sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones...
September 2018: Diabetes Care
Russell Scott, Jerry Morgan, Zachary Zimmer, Raymond L H Lam, Edward A O'Neill, Keith D Kaufman, Samuel S Engel, Annaswamy Raji
AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin with the sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and mild renal insufficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with HbA1c ≥7.0 to ≤9.5% (≥53 to ≤80 mmol/mol) and estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 to <90 mL/min/1.73m2 on metformin (≥1500 mg/d) ± sulfonylurea were randomized to sitagliptin 100 mg (n = 307) or dapagliflozin 5 mg titrated to 10 mg (n = 306) once daily for 24 weeks...
July 18, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Christian Seerup Frandsen, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad, Jens Juul Holst
Despite intensified insulin treatment, many persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not achieve glycemic and metabolic targets. Consequently, non-insulin chemical therapies that improve glycemic control and metabolic parameters without increasing the risk of adverse events (including hypoglycemia) are of interest as adjunct therapies to insulin. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the efficacy and safety of non-insulin therapies, including pramlintide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4), sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1 and SGLT2) inhibitors, metformin, sulfonylureas, and thiazolidinediones as add-on therapies to insulin in T1D...
June 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Olorunfemi Raphael Molehin, Omotade Ibidun Oloyede, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha
White Butterfly (Clerodendrum volubile) leaf is commonly used in traditional medicine for the management of various diseases including diabetes without the full understanding of the scientific basis for its use. This study sought to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effect of C. volubile leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of C. volubile was prepared and its effect assessed on relevant enzymes associated with diabetes. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly separated into 10 groups each containing five rats...
October 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Lawrence Blonde, Susana Dipp, Daniel Cadena
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex disease, and while lifestyle interventions remain the cornerstone of therapy, most patients will also require pharmacotherapy. Current diabetes treatment guidelines and algorithms recommend an individualized approach to setting glycemic goals and selecting treatment. Although a single antihyperglycemic agent may be appropriate as the initial T2DM pharmacotherapy, the progressive nature of the disease due to declining pancreatic β-cell function will result in the vast majority of T2DM patients eventually requiring two or more antihyperglycemic agents...
July 2018: Advances in Therapy
Cathy A Pinto, Jeanette M Stafford, Tongtong Wang, R Ravi Shankar, Jean M Lawrence, Grace Kim, Catherine Pihoker, Ralph B D'Agostino, Dana Dabelea
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe recent medication patterns and changes in medication patterns and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Using data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of treatments for adolescents and young adults with incident T2D in 2 periods (2002-2005 vs 2008/2012), and a longitudinal analysis of medications and glycemic control for a subset with baseline and follow-up visits...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Rajnish Kumar Yadav, Jitendra K Rawat, Swetlana Gautam, Manjari Singh, Manish Kumar, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Subhadeep Roy, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Gaurav Kaithwas
Mefloquine was retrieved as a glucagon -like peptide-1 receptor agonist and, therefore, evaluated for its antidiabetic potential against non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in experimental animals. NIDDM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide (60 + 110 mg/kg) in albino wistar rats. The experimental animals were scrutinised for electrocardiographic (ECG) and heart rate variability (HRV) factors to study the autonomic dysfunction along with blood glucose, serum insulin, and liver glycogen levels for glycemic control...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Huma Arshad Cheema, Hassan Suleman Malik, Nadia Waheed, Iqra Mushtaq, Zafar Fayyaz, Mohammad Nadeem Anjum
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by dysregulation of glycemic and lipid metabolism. We report five BSCL cases with typical clinical pictures and complications. These, to the best of our knowledge, represent the first case series from Pakistan. BSCL is characterized by marked atrophy of adipose tissue, acromegaly, acanthosis nigricans and tall stature. We could not perform genetics studies in any patient owing to non-availability of genetic laboratory in Pakistan...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Sarah J Hallberg, Amy L McKenzie, Paul T Williams, Nasir H Bhanpuri, Anne L Peters, Wayne W Campbell, Tamara L Hazbun, Brittanie M Volk, James P McCarter, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate restriction markedly improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but necessitates prompt medication changes. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of a novel care model providing continuous remote care with medication management based on biometric feedback combined with the metabolic approach of nutritional ketosis for T2D management. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after 1-year study of this continuous care intervention (CCI) and usual care (UC)...
April 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Victor A Gault, Christian Hölscher
Enzyme-resistant receptor agonists of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) have shown positive therapeutic effects in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM has detrimental effects on brain function and impairment of cognition and memory formation has been described. One of the underlying mechanisms is most likely insulin de-sensitization in the brain, as insulin improves cognitive impairments and enhances learning. Treatment with GLP-1 receptor agonists improves memory formation and impairment of synaptic plasticity observed in animal models of diabetes-obesity...
February 2018: Peptides
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