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typhoid fever

Jan Nevermann, Andrés Silva, Carolina Otero, Diego P Oyarzún, Boris Barrera, Fernando Gil, Iván L Calderón, Juan A Fuentes
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized proteoliposomes discharged from the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs normally contain toxins, enzymes and other factors, and are used as vehicles in a process that has been considered a generalized, evolutionarily conserved delivery system among bacteria. Furthermore, OMVs can be used in biotechnological applications that require delivery of biomolecules, such as vaccines, remarking the importance of their study. Although it is known that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ( S...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Several decades following the first estimates of the global burden of typhoidal salmonellosis (infections caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi), this disorder remains a major cause of morbidity worldwide with an estimated 17 million cases annually. The risk factors for typhoid include poverty, poor living conditions with unsafe water and lack of adequate sanitation, and unsafe foods-all reasons for the disease burden being highest among such populations including urban slums. A recent review of typhoid trends globally and in specific countries suggests that the relative contributions of these risk factors to disease burden reduction as well as persistence have varied...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kathleen M Neuzil, Andrew J Pollard, Anthony A Marfin
Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health concern, particularly in many low- and middle-income countries. The current threats of increasing antimicrobial resistance, urbanization, and climate change elevate the urgency for better prevention and control efforts for typhoid fever. In 2017, the results of ground-breaking research on typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), the World Health Organization prequalification of a TCV, and global policy and financing decisions have set the stage for the introduction of TCVs into routine immunization programs in endemic countries...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Samuel Kariuki, Cecilia Mbae, Robert Onsare, Susan M Kavai, Celestine Wairimu, Ronald Ngetich, Mohammad Ali, John Clemens, Gordon Dougan
BACKGROUND: Salmonella infections cause a disproportionately high number of deaths in Africa, especially among poor urban populations. The increasing level of multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections is a major cause of concern in these settings where alternative effective treatment is unavailable. Other options for management of these infections must be sought. The knowledge of hotspots in endemic settings can help to prioritize management and control measures in Kenya and the region. METHODS: Using blood cultures, we investigated children presenting with fever of unknown origin for Salmonella infections...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Tarun Saluja
Typhoid fever remains a common and serious disease in populations that live in low- and middle-income countries. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug-resistant strains have been increasing in endemic countries, making treatment prolonged and costly. Improved sanitation and food hygiene have been effective in controlling the disease in the industrialized world, but these steps are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most of the affected areas. Therefore, vaccination is an effective way to prevent the disease for the short to medium term...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Adwoa D Bentsi-Enchill, Joachim Hombach
Typhoid fever is a continuing public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries; however, routine vaccination as a recommended control strategy has not been implemented in the past in most countries. Greater understanding of the typhoid fever burden, the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance, and licensure of a new generation of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) were instrumental in paving the way for the World Health Organization (WHO) to issue a revised global policy on typhoid vaccines in March 2018...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
John A Crump
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever and a human host-restricted organism. Our understanding of the global burden of typhoid fever has improved in recent decades, with both an increase in the number and geographic representation of high-quality typhoid fever incidence studies, and greater sophistication of modeling approaches. The 2017 World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommendation for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines for infants and children aged >6 months in typhoid-endemic countries is likely to require further improvements in our understanding of typhoid burden at the global and national levels...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Megan E Carey, Zoey I Diaz, Anita K M Zaidi, A Duncan Steele
Recognizing that enteric fever disproportionately affects the poorest and the most vulnerable communities that have limited access to improved sanitation, safe water sources, and optimal medical care, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has funded efforts to augment global understanding of the disease since the foundation's inception. At the turn of the century, early efforts focused on characterizing the burden of disease in Asia and evaluating use of the available Vi-polysaccharide vaccines through the Diseases of the Most Impoverished projects at the International Vaccine Institute (IVI)...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Bernie Endyarni Medise, Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko, Iris Rengganis, Hartono Gunardi, Rini Sekartini, Sukamto Koesno, Hindra Irawan Satari, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Jae Seung Yang, Jean-Louis Excler, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Mita Puspita, Rini Mulia Sari, Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar
INTRODUCTION: There is a high global incidence of typhoid fever, with an annual mortality rate of 200,000 deaths. Typhoid fever also affects younger children, particularly in resource-limited settings in endemic countries. Typhoid vaccination is an important prevention tool against typhoid fever. However, the available polysaccharide typhoid vaccines are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. A new typhoid conjugate Vi-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) vaccine has been developed for infant immunization...
2019: PloS One
A Pavli, I Lymperi, T Minitsios, P Katerelos, M Souli, Z Ouzounidou, H C Maltezou
OBJECTIVES: Unemployment in Greece has been increasing as a result of the financial crisis. The aim of this study was to assess the changing trends of business travelers and their pretravel preparation. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, questionnaire-based study. METHODS: The study was conducted between 2008 and 2016 at all Regional Public Health Departments. All travelers seeking pretravel advice during the study period were invited to participate...
February 7, 2019: Public Health
Dorothy D Majewski, Liam J Worrall, Chuan Hong, Claire E Atkinson, Marija Vuckovic, Nobuhiko Watanabe, Zhiheng Yu, Natalie C J Strynadka
Many Gram-negative bacteria, including causative agents of dysentery, plague, and typhoid fever, rely on a type III secretion system - a multi-membrane spanning syringe-like apparatus - for their pathogenicity. The cytosolic ATPase complex of this injectisome is proposed to play an important role in energizing secretion events and substrate recognition. We present the 3.3 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli ATPase EscN in complex with its central stalk EscO. The structure shows an asymmetric pore with different functional states captured in its six catalytic sites, details directly supporting a rotary catalytic mechanism analogous to that of the heterohexameric F1 /V1 -ATPases despite its homohexameric nature...
February 7, 2019: Nature Communications
Rasha I Salama, Mohamed H Emara, Hanan M Mostafa, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Sherein Mohamed Alnabawy, Samah A Elshweikh, Mariam Salah Zaghloul
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is the most frequent infection worldwide and it has been postulated that it predisposes to multiple enteric pathogens and diarrheal diseases. Salmonella infection is common in tropical and under developed communities and is associated with wide range of diseases from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. This study aimed at detecting the impact of H pylori infection on the incidence of salmonella infections.The study participants were sampled from cohorts of patients in four university hospitals in different Egyptian Governorates...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sonia Domingos-Pereira, Karthik Sathiyanadan, Stefano La Rosa, Lenka Polák, Mathieu F Chevalier, Rim Hojeij, Paul Martel, Laurent Derré, Jacques-Antoine Haefliger, Patrice Jichlinski, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger
Preclinical data shows that intravesical instillation of Ty21a/Vivotif®, a commercial vaccine against typhoid fever, is an effective alternative option to standard Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy for nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Here we characterized the inflammatory effects of Ty21a on the bladder and investigated the immune mechanisms underlying tumor-regression towards the use of this bacterial vaccine in NMIBC patients. MB49 bladder tumor-bearing mice had significantly improved survival after intravesical instillations of Ty21a doses of 106 to 108 colony-forming units...
January 29, 2019: Cancer Immunology Research
Winsley Rose, Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Sindhu, Asha Mary Abraham, Gagandeep Kang, Jacob John
OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to estimate population based dengue incidence estimates in children with fever >3 days. METHODS: The study used the 'National Surveillance System for Enteric Fever in India' (NSSEFI) cohort at the Vellore site. Children aged 6 months to 14 years from a peri-urban setting in Vellore were followed up for a year for the presence of fever. All children who had fever >3days were eligible for blood culture to diagnose typhoid. All children that presented with fever >3days on alternate days of the week were also tested for dengue...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Aloko Sinmisola, Oluwasesan M Bello
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ackee plant (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) (Sapindaceae) is used in Sub-Saharan African where it has its origin and in different parts of the world (The Caribbean, North and South America, Europe) traditionally to manage numerous ailments like backache, constipation, cancer, fever in young children, gonorrhea, dysentery, psychosis, hernia, stomach ache, malaria, rheumatism, typhoid and several others. It is used for aesthetic purposes, in cosmetics, food, medicine, as a source of wood and its fruit aril is the main constituent of the Jamaican National Dish...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hammad S N'cho, Kudzai P E Masunda, Innocent Mukeredzi, Portia Manangazira, Emmaculate Govore, Clemence Duri, Rachael D Aubert, Haley Martin, Elizabeth Gonese, Michael Vere, Beth A Tippett Barr, Shirish Balachandra, Jonathan Strysko, William W Davis, Grace D Appiah, Eric Mintz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Anuradha Rose, Amrita Sekhar
INTRODUCTION: Controlled Human Infection Models (CHIM) have been used in vaccine development to up-select and down-select potential vaccine candidates, provide proof of vaccine efficacy and have also been used as a basis for licensure of vaccines for cholera and typhoid by regulatory agencies. CHIM IN DENGUE VACCINES DEVELOPMENT: Dengue fever results in ∼400 million infections a year and is of significant health concern especially in India. There are currently no antivirals for the disease and the only licensed vaccine for dengue is not widely used owing to safety concerns...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Kevin Chatham-Stephens, Felicita Medalla, Michael Hughes, Grace D Appiah, Rachael D Aubert, Hayat Caidi, Kristina M Angelo, Allison T Walker, Noël Hatley, Sofia Masani, June Nash, John Belko, Edward T Ryan, Eric Mintz, Cindy R Friedman
In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports increasing the number of cases to 5,372 (2)...
January 11, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ben Masiira, Lydia Nakiire, Christine Kihembo, Edson Katushabe, Nasan Natseri, Immaculate Nabukenya, Innocent Komakech, Issa Makumbi, Okot Charles, Francis Adatu, Miriam Nanyunja, Solomon Fisseha Woldetsadik, Ibrahima Socé Fall, Patrick Tusiime, Alemu Wondimagegnehu, Peter Nsubuga
BACKGROUND: Uganda is a low income country that continues to experience disease outbreaks caused by emerging and re-emerging diseases such as cholera, meningococcal meningitis, typhoid and viral haemorrhagic fevers. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was adopted by WHO-AFRO in 1998 as a comprehensive strategy to improve disease surveillance and response in WHO Member States in Africa and was adopted in Uganda in 2000. To address persistent inconsistencies and inadequacies in the core and support functions of IDSR, Uganda initiated an IDSR revitalisation programme in 2012...
January 9, 2019: BMC Public Health
Zhidong Liu, Guoyong Ding, Ying Zhang, Jiahui Lao, Yanyu Liu, Jing Zhang, Liang Lu, Qiyong Liu, Baofa Jiang
Floods may influence different types of diarrheal diseases and epidemiological studies of pathogen-specific diarrhea due to floods in China are still needed. In addition, few studies have been conducted to quantify the lag and cumulative risk of diarrheal disease due to floods in Guangxi, China. Our study aimed to identify different types of diarrheal diseases that were sensitive to floods and to quantify their lag and cumulative impact. A matched analysis based on time series data of floods and infectious disease from 2006 to 2010 was conducted in Guangxi, China...
December 31, 2018: Environmental Research
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