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tuberculosis presentation

Karl Philipp Puchner, Rodrigo Rodriguez-Fernandez, Matthew Oliver, Zisimangelos Solomos
The epidemiological transitions that have occurred in low and middle income countries (LMIC) during the past decades have led to an increased prevalence on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in these countries, where the burden of infectious diseases (IDs), especially tuberculosis (TB), remains high. Although the true dimensions of this comorbidity have not yet been fully understood, there is a growing amount of data, over the last 10 years, that suggest a clear association between NCDs and TB. In particular, there is a continuously increasing body of evidence that diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory conditions, tobacco use, mental health illnesses and chronic kidney disease increase TB morbidity and mortality and vice versa...
February 20, 2019: Global Public Health
Nitish Virmani, Jyoti Dabholkar
Introduction: Involvement of the salivary glands in tuberculosis is rare, even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic. It can occur by systemic dissemination from a distant focus or, less commonly, as primary involvement. This article focuses on its myriad clinical presentations that pose a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. We discuss the schema of investigations required to confirm the diagnosis and the limitations faced in the low-cost setting of a developing country. Materials and Methods: Medical records, including history, physical examination and imaging findings, and the results of cytological, microbiological and histopathological studies of patients diagnosed with primary tubercular sialadenitis were retrieved and analyzed...
January 2019: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Tinsae Alemayehu, Ayalew Moges, Ayal Mekuanint
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular accidents are rare in children. Rates of stroke in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection are higher than in the uninfected population. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 19-month-old Ethiopian boy who presented with a left-sided body weakness of sudden onset. He was also diagnosed as having human immunodeficiency virus infection. Laboratory tests showed an iron deficiency anemia and imaging revealed tuberculosis of his lungs, spleen, and abdominal lymph nodes as well as an acute ischemic stroke of the right middle cerebral artery region...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Pradeepa H Dakappa, Sathish B Rao, Ganaraja B, Gopalkrishna K Bhat, Chakrapani Mahabala
Body temperature monitoring in most healthcare institutions is limited to checking the presence or absence of fever. Our present study evaluated the 24h continuous tympanic temperature pattern in patients with fever in order to detect typical patterns seen in tuberculosis (TB). This observational study was conducted on 81 undifferentiated fever patients whose recordings were stored using the TherCom device. Unique temperature patterns were analysed and compared. TB patients exhibited a unique temperature pattern, namely a slow temperature elevation followed by slow temperature fall seen in 78...
February 19, 2019: Tropical Doctor
Kunal Bikram Deo, Vishal Sharma, Harshal Mandavdhare, Rajender Kumar Basher, Manish Rohilla, Harjeet Singh
Gall bladder tuberculosis (TB) is a rare entity and differentiation of gall bladder TB from gall bladder malignancy is difficult. We hereby present an unusual case of incidental diagnosis of gall bladder TB during the evaluation of a gall bladder with suspicion of gall bladder cancer in a 49-year-old woman. The diagnosis of gall bladder TB was made with fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the gall bladder mass as the disease was found unresectable after cross-sectional imaging. Even with the advancement of cross-sectional imaging, the differentiation of gall bladder TB from gall bladder malignancy is not possible without tissue diagnosis...
February 19, 2019: Tropical Doctor
Shazia Shad, Farina Hanif, Manzoor Ul Haq, Nasir H Luck, Tahir Aziz, Muhammad Mubarak
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal complications are common in kidney transplant patients, with the most frequent being diarrhea (60%). Chronic diarrhea affects the patient's quality of life, causes fatigue and weight loss and malabsorption, increases the number of hospitalizations, increases serum creatinine levels, and causes alterations in immunosuppressive drug levels. Diarrhea is also associated with an increased risk of graft failure and death. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequencies of common infectious organisms causing chronic diarrhea in renal transplant patients...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Abhay Atmaram Upare, Pradip K Gadekar, H Sivaramakrishnan, Nishigandha Naik, Vijay M Khedkar, Dhiman Sarkar, Amit Choudhari, S Mohana Roopan
Cinnamic acid and its derivatives are known for anti-tubercular activity. The present study reports the synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives via bioisosteric replacement of terminal carboxylic acid with "oxadiazole". A series of cinnamic acid derivatives (styryl oxadiazoles) were designed and synthesized in good yields by reaction of substituted cinnamic acids (2, 15a-15s) with amidoximes. The synthesized styryl oxadiazoles were evaluated in vitro for anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Ra strain...
February 7, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Shalini, Matt D Johansen, Laurent Kremer, Vipan Kumar
This manuscript discloses the design and synthesis of a series of C-4 functionalized 1,8-naphthalimide-heterocyclic hydrazide conjugates along with their anti-mycobacterial and cytotoxic evaluation. The present work assumes significance as it describes the first report on the amalgamation of C-4 substituted naphthalimides with various heterocyclic hydrazides. However, contrary to the rationale behind the synthesis of the conjugates, none of them inhibited the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the tested concentrations though these were non-cytotoxic towards the Vero kidney epithelial cell line...
February 18, 2019: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Miaomiao Yang, Haiping Zhang, Bilin Tao, Hongqiu Pan, Lihuan Lu, Honggang Yi, Shaowen Tang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Reactive metabolites from anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs can result in abnormal accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which plays an important role in anti-TB drug-induced liver injury (ATLI). Liver cells could keep the production of ROS in balance by antioxidant activities. The heme oxygenase 1, encoded by the HMOX1 gene and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1, encoded by the NQO1 gene are crucial mediators of cellular defense against ROS. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between HMOX1 and NQO1 polymorphisms and ATLI in Chinese anti-TB treatment population...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Margarida Correia-Neves, Gabrielle Fröberg, Liudmyla Korshun, Sofia Viegas, Paula Vaz, Nehaben Ramanlal, Judith Bruchfeld, Beston Hamasur, Patrick Brennan, Gunilla Källenius
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered the most onerous of infectious diseases according to recent reports from the World Health Organization. Available tests for TB diagnosis present severe limitations, and a reliable point-of-care (POC) diagnostic test does not exist. Neither is there a test to discern between the different stages of TB, and in particular to predict which patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and no clinical signs are more at risk of advancing to overt disease. We here review the usefulness of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) as a diagnostic marker for active and latent TB and, also, aspects of the immune response to LAM relevant to such tests...
February 2019: ERJ Open Research
Fatehi Elzein, Nabeel Qatan, Abdullah Alghamdi, Ali Albarrak, Kiran Kalam
Mycotic tuberculous aneurysm is extremely rare. The aorta is the main affected artery however; iliac and less commonly femoral arteries can also be affected. In 75% of the cases a contagious focus leads to infection through erosion of the vessel wall; on the other hand direct seeding of the blood vessel wall via the vasa vasorum may occur in 25%. In a large number of patients it may be a manifestation of miliary tuberculosis. In this case report we describe an immunocompetent patient who presented with bilateral superficial femoral artery aneurysms, followed by bilateral testicular swellings and inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm, as a presentation of military tuberculosis...
2019: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Nishit Bhatnagar, Ankit Kataria, Purushotham Lingaiah, Yugal Karkhur
Introduction: The commonly recognized causes of post-operative neurological deterioration in spinal tuberculosis are inadequate decompression, damage to vascular supply of the spinal cord, and multi-drug resistant organisms. There are no known cases of syringomyelia developing after surgical decompression of spinal tuberculosis. Case presentation: A teenage girl presented with rapid onset quadriparesis secondary to a tubercular epidural abscess extending from C4-T8...
2019: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Rekhapalli Rajasekhar, Madhivanan Karthigeyan, Pravin Salunke, Kirti Gupta
PURPOSE: Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) presenting as solitary vertebral body lesion is infrequently seen and usually limited to one or two levels. We report a case of an isolated JXG with extensive cervical spinal (bony and extradural) involvement in a 6-year-old child. There was a diagnostic dilemma as the radiologic and intraoperative picture resembled tuberculosis. The spinal reconstruction was also challenging due to involvement of multiple vertebral levels and necessitated an anterior C1 screw...
February 15, 2019: European Spine Journal
Valérie Guillet, Patricia Bordes, Cécile Bon, Julien Marcoux, Virginie Gervais, Ambre Julie Sala, Suzana Dos Reis, Nawel Slama, Israel Mares-Mejía, Anne-Marie Cirinesi, Laurent Maveyraud, Pierre Genevaux, Lionel Mourey
SecB chaperones assist protein export by binding both unfolded proteins and the SecA motor. Certain SecB homologs can also control toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems known to modulate bacterial growth in response to stress. In such TA-chaperone (TAC) systems, SecB assists the folding and prevents degradation of the antitoxin, thus facilitating toxin inhibition. Chaperone dependency is conferred by a C-terminal extension in the antitoxin known as chaperone addiction (ChAD) sequence, which makes the antitoxin aggregation-prone and prevents toxin inhibition...
February 15, 2019: Nature Communications
Abdulrahman Hakami, Evita Zwartkruis, Teodora Radonic, Johannes M A Daniels
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids are included in the group of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and derive from pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. The incidence of these tumors is increasing, but disease awareness remains low among clinicians. The synchronous presentation of lung cancer and mycobacterial infection is well known but the combination of pulmonary carcinoid and mycobacterial infection is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We treated a 45-year-old female who presented with recurrent pneumonia...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
S C Ring, D C Purfield, M Good, P Breslin, E Ryan, A Blom, R D Evans, M L Doherty, D G Bradley, D P Berry
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease of cattle generally caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a bacterium that can elicit disease humans. Since the 1950s, the objective of the national bTB eradication program in Republic of Ireland was the biological extinction of bTB; that purpose has yet to be achieved. Objectives of the present study were to develop the statistical methodology and variance components to undertake routine genetic evaluations for resistance to bTB; also of interest was the detection of regions of the bovine genome putatively associated with bTB infection in dairy and beef breeds...
2019: PloS One
Anwin Joseph Kavanal, Joyita Bharati, Shelvin Kumar Vadi, Krishan Lal Gupta, Rajender Kumar, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
We present a case of a 22-year-old man with history of allogenic renal transplantation on immunosuppression, who underwent F-FDG-PET/CT to characterize a lesion in the transplanted kidney on ultrasonogram and contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging. PET/CT revealed FDG avid lesion in the transplanted kidney and mural thickening involving the distal ileum, ileocecal junction, and ileocolic lymph nodes. Subsequent histopathological examination from the renal lesion revealed renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Wilma Groenewald, Ricardo A Parra-Cruz, Christof M Jäger, Anna K Croft
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a persistent pathogen, partly due to its lipid rich cell wall, of which mycolic acids (MAs) are a major component. The fluidity and conformational flexibilities of different MAs in the bacterial cell wall significantly influence its properties, function, and observed pathogenicity; thus, a proper conformational description of different MAs in different environments (e.g., in vacuum, in solution, in monolayers) can inform about their potential role in the complex setup of the bacterial cell wall...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Molecular Modeling
L Brockhaus, J Brune, R Battegay, S Gerull, M Nägele, V Bättig
A patient with acute myeloid leukemia developed disseminated tuberculosis with cerebral involvement in the early phase of induction chemotherapy before allogenic stem cell transplantation. He presented with persisting fever of unknown origin, and initially misinterpreted organ lesions in CT scans.
February 14, 2019: Der Internist
Camilla Vieira Esteves, Wellington H Yanaguizawa, Celso A Lemos, Fábio A Alves, Oslei Paes de Almeida, Norberto Nobuo Sugaya
Oral manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) are not so frequent, and the lesions may emerge in immunosuppressed patients as a secondary expression of pulmonary TB. The following two case reports focus on the clinical challenge of early diagnosis of painful ulcerative lesions in oral mucosa that occurred in two senior females, both human immunodeficiency virus negative patients, however receiving immunosuppressing medication. The patients did not present classic symptoms of TB. Nevertheless, based on different studies, extrapulmonary TB should still be considered as differential diagnosis for the oral mucosa lesions developed by these patients...
February 14, 2019: Special Care in Dentistry
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