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Drugs in emergency

Martina Ventura, Valeria Belleudi, Paolo Sciattella, Riccardo Di Domenicantonio, Mirko Di Martino, Nera Agabiti, Marina Davoli, Danilo Fusco
BACKGROUND: The relationship between guideline adherence and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been widely investigated considering the emergency, acute, post-acute phases separately, but the effectiveness of the whole care process is not known. AIM: The study aim was to evaluate the effect of the multicomponent continuum of care on 1-year survival after AMI. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study selecting all incident cases of AMI from health information systems during 2011-2014 in the Lazio region...
2019: PloS One
Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Silvia Corcione, Antonio Salsano, Filippo Del Puente, Simone Mornese Pinna, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Malgorzata Mikulska, Francesco Santini, Claudio Viscoli
Patients undergoing open-heart surgery may suffer from postoperative complications, including severe infections. Antimicrobials to treat infectious complications in this population should be selected thoughtfully, taking into account three different and fundamental issues: (i) the site of infection; (ii) the suspected or proven causative agent and its susceptibility pattern; and (iii) the risk of suboptimal pharmacokinetic characteristics and potential toxicity of the chosen drug/s. Areas covered: The present narrative review summarizes the current and future antimicrobial options for the treatment of infections developing after open-heart surgery...
February 20, 2019: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Arthur C Houts, Tope Olufade, Rahul Shenolikar, Mark S Walker, Lee S Schwartzberg
PURPOSE: This retrospective study of community oncology patients with breast cancer gene (BRCA)-mutated metastatic breast cancer (MBC) examined treatment outcomes and health resource utilization (HRU) and costs for a sample of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative disease who were either hormone receptor positive (HR+) or triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). METHODS: Evidence from the Vector Oncology Data Warehouse, a repository of electronic medical records/billing data and provider notes, was analyzed...
February 6, 2019: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Yan Peng, Lata Gautam, Sarah W Hall
Pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse including novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are emerging as newer contaminants in the aquatic environment. The presence of such pollutants has implications on the environment as well as public health and therefore their identification is important when monitoring water quality. This research presents a new method for the simultaneous detection of 20 drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in drinking water, including 15 NPS, three traditional illicit drugs and two antidepressants...
February 14, 2019: Chemosphere
Akhlesh K Jain, Suresh Thareja
Nanotechnology has emerged strongly in most of the field of sciences at a tiny scale. At this size, atoms and molecules work differently and present a diversity of amazing and appealing applications. Pharmaceutical nanocarriers comprise nanoparticles, nanospheres, nanocapsules, nanoemulsion, nanoliposomes and nanoniosomes. The major objectives in designing nanocarriers are to manage particle size, surface properties as well as drug release in order to fulfil specific objectives. Hence, characterizations of nanocarriers are very critical to control their desired in vitro and in vivo behaviour...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Isaac M Adjei, Hao Yang, Glendon Plumton, Lorena Maldonado-Camargo, Jon Dobson, Carlos Rinaldi, Huabei Jiang, Blanka Sharma
Strategies that control the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and enable image-guided cell implantation and longitudinal monitoring could advance MSC-based therapies for bone defects and injuries. Here we demonstrate a multifunctional nanoparticle system that delivers resveratrol (RESV) intracellularly to improve osteogenesis and enables photoacoustic imaging of MSCs. RESV-loaded nanoparticles (RESV-NPs), formulated from poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid and iron oxide, enhanced the stability of RESV by 18-fold and served as photoacoustic tomography (PAT) contrast for MSCs...
February 19, 2019: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Sahil Bhatia, Nivedita B Singh, Laila K Shammout, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: The emergence, spread and persistence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a causative pathogen in community-onset (CO) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) have resulted in substantial changes in the management of these infections. The indications for obtaining blood cultures in patients with CO-MRSA SSTIs remain poorly defined. The objectives of this study were to derive and validate a clinical decision rule that predicts the probability of MRSA bacteremia in CO-MRSA SSTIs and to identify a low-risk population for whom blood cultures may be safely omitted...
February 19, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Chaeho Moon, Hugh D C Smyth, Alan B Watts, Robert O Williams
Orally inhaled products have well-known benefits. They allow for effective local administration of many drugs for the treatment of pulmonary disease, and they allow for rapid absorption and avoidance of first-pass metabolism of several systemically acting drugs. Several challenges remain, however, such as dosing limitations, low and variable deposition of the drug in the lungs, and high drug deposition in the oropharynx region. These challenges have stimulated the development of new delivery technologies. Both formulation improvements and new device technologies have been developed through an improved understanding of the mechanisms of aerosolization and lung deposition...
February 19, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Nicole Pribut, Adriaan E Basson, Willem A L van Otterlo, Dennis C Liotta, Stephen C Pelly
Since the discovery of HIV as the etiological agent of AIDS, the virus has infected millions of people each year. Fortunately, with the use of HAART, viremia can be suppressed to below detectable levels in the infected individuals, which significantly improves their quality of life and prevents the onset of AIDS. However, HAART is not curative and issues relating to adherence and drug resistance may lead to the re-emergence of viremia, the development of AIDS, and ultimately death. To address a pressing need for the development of new and efficacious antiretroviral agents with activity against viruses bearing prevalent resistant mutations, we have designed two generations of benzimidazolone derivatives as HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors...
February 14, 2019: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Hao Zhou, Li Chen, Hongtian He
Intraoperative and postoperative effects of platelet transfusion on antiplatelet drug-related intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients were investigated. A retrospective study on 82 ICH patients undergoing emergency surgical treatment caused by antiplatelet drugs was conducted. Among them, 51 patients treated with platelet transfusion served as the observation group and 31 patients without platelet transfusion as the control group. The intraoperative and postoperative bleeding volume, blood transfusion volume and the rate of secondary bleeding were compared between observation and control group under the guidance of thromboelastography (TEG)...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hudson Dutra Rezende, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni Dias, Ralph Michel Trüeb
The post-Finasteride syndrome (PFS) has been claimed to occur in men who have taken oral finasteride to treat hair loss or benign prostatic hyperplasia. While the incidence of persistent sexual, mental, and physical side effects despite quitting finasteride is unknown, and the condition is not recognized by the scientific community, individuals who suffer from PFS do present with very distinctive and homogenous symptoms. The concept has emerged from reports of nondermatologists, neuroendocrinological research, case reports, and uncontrolled studies...
November 2018: International Journal of Trichology
Paul G Ambrose, Brian D VanScoy, Brian M Luna, Jun Yan, Amber Ulhaq, Travis Nielsen, Sue Rudin, Kristine Hujer, Robert Bonomo, Luis Actis, Eric Skaar, Brad Spellberg
There has been a renewed interest in combining traditional small-molecule antimicrobial agents with non-traditional therapies to potentiate antimicrobial effects. Apotransferrin, which decreases iron availability to microbes, is one such approach. We conducted a 48-h one-compartment in vitro infection model to explore the impact of apotransferrin on the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin. The challenge panel included four Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values ranging from 0...
February 19, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mario Romani, Dina Carina Hofer, Elena Katsyuba, Johan Auwerx
Niacin, the first anti-dyslipidemic drug, has been at the centerstage of lipid research for many decades before the discovery of statins. However, to date, despite its remarkable effects on lipid profiles, the clinical outcomes of niacin treatment on cardiac events is still debated. In addition to its historically well-defined interactions with central players of lipid metabolism, niacin can be processed by eukaryotic cells to synthesize a crucial cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ acts as a cofactor in key cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and DNA repair...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Lipid Research
Rachael R Schulte, Richard H Ho
The organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a superfamily of drug transporters involved in the uptake and disposition of a wide array of structurally divergent endogenous and exogenous substrates, including steroid hormones, bile acids, and commonly used drugs, such as anti-infectives, anti-hypertensives, and cholesterol lowering agents. In the past decade, OATPs, primarily OATP1A2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3, have emerged as potential mediators of chemotherapy disposition, including drugs such as methotrexate, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, irinotecan and its important metabolite SN-38, and certain tyrosine kinase inhibitors...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Pharmacology
Xiaoyang Sun, Yu Xie, Xiaoshen Sun, Yao Yao, Hujun Li, Zhenyu Li, Ruosi Yao, Kailin Xu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy of plasma cells that produce a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein. Despite significant advances in the treatment of MM, challenges such as resistance to therapy remain. Currently, inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is emerging as a potential method for treating cancers. Numerous HDAC inhibitors are being studied for use in monotherapy or in conjunction with other agents for MM. In this study, we investigated the anti-myeloma effect of Nexturastat A (NexA), a novel selective HDAC6 inhibitor...
February 19, 2019: Bioscience Reports
Zhong Ying, Irene Wang, Ingmar Blümcke, Juan Bulacio, Andreas Alexopoulos, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Katja Kobow, Lisa Marie Niestroj, Dennis Lal, Konrad Koelble, Imad Najm
We comprehensively studied the clinical presentation, stereo-EEG and MRI findings, histopathological diagnosis, and brain somatic mutations in a retrospective series of drug-resistant patients with difficult-to-localize epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia at the bottom of a sulcus (BOS-FCD). We identified 10 patients with BOS-FCD from the Cleveland Clinic epilepsy surgery database submitted for intracranial video-EEG monitoring. Brain MRI, including voxel-based morphometric analysis and surgical tissue submitted for histopathology, was reviewed...
February 18, 2019: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Courtney A Haney, Anita Charpentier, Zahava Turner, Stacey K Bessone, Sarah C Doerrer, Eric H Kossoff
INTRODUCTION: Since its creation, patients on ketogenic diet are told to avoid liquid medications due to theoretical concerns of "hidden" carbohydrates. However, switching from liquid to tablet formulations can be problematic, especially for infants and young children. We theorized that increasing the daily ketogenic ratio might compensate for liquid antiseizure drug carbohydrates. METHODS: Two tables were created (for 3:1 and 4:1 ketogenic ratios), with variables including daily volume of antiseizure drugs and calories...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Child Neurology
Christopher J Lowe, Keana R Mirmajlesi, Emily T DiMartini, Adam J Gormley, David I Shreiber
Targeted drug delivery is a promising approach to enhance the accumulation of therapies in diseased tissues while limiting off-site effects. Ligand-receptor interactions are traditionally identified to deliver therapies, and although specific, this can be costly and often suffers from limited sensitivity. An emerging approach is to target intermediary species that modulate disease progression. Here, we propose novel methods of targeting therapies by using native free radicals as a homing signal. Elevated concentrations of free radicals are a characteristic comorbidity of many different diseases...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Drug Targeting
Caroline Twarog, Sarinj Fattah, Joanne Heade, Sam Maher, Elias Fattal, David J Brayden
Salcaprozate sodium (SNAC) and sodium caprate (C10 ) are two of the most advanced intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) that have been tested in clinical trials for oral delivery of macromolecules. Their effects on intestinal epithelia were studied for over 30 years, yet there is still debate over their mechanisms of action. C10 acts via openings of epithelial tight junctions and/or membrane perturbation, while for decades SNAC was thought to increase passive transcellular permeation across small intestinal epithelia based on increased lipophilicity arising from non-covalent macromolecule complexation...
February 13, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Samaresh Sau, Alex Petrovici, Hashem O Alsaab, Ketki Bhise, Arun K Iyer
Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL1) is an emerging strategy for anti-cancer therapy. However, transient expression of PDL1 and difficulty in tumor stroma penetration has limited the utility of anti-PDL1 therapy. To overcome these limitations, we report a new conjugate between the clinically approved PDL1 antibody (PDL1 AB) and drug Doxorubicin (Dox), named PDL1-Dox. We conjugated PDL1-Dox through a hydrazone linker containing a polyethylene glycol (PEG) spacer, which allows it to dissociate in a tumor environment and improves solubility...
February 16, 2019: Cancers
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