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Learning skills

Navine G Haworth, Linda K Jones
OBJECTIVE: To explore final-year students and new graduates from 2 North American chiropractic colleges regarding perceptions of the clinical educational experience in a hospital vs the institutional clinical setting. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used for this research. Students and new graduates were invited to participate from a United States and Canadian chiropractic college. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 49 students and 14 new graduates lasting 60 minutes...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Chiropractic Education
Rogério Manuel Ferrinho Ferreira, Ana Clara Pica Nunes
OBJECTIVE: To acknowledge the importance given to continuous training in the development of professor skills. METHOD: A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study involving fifteen (15) career professors, selected intentionally, from the scientific nursing area of two public higher education institutions in Portugal. Data were collected using the discussion groups technique and analyzed using the content analysis technique. This process was submitted to the evaluation of two experts, resulting in agreement coefficients, which offer guarantees regarding the inferences and the categorization process...
February 18, 2019: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Deborah J Fidler, Emily Schworer, Mark A Prince, Elizabeth A Will, Amy W Needham, Lisa A Daunhauer
Infants learn about objects by exploring them. Typically developing infants actively explore objects through visual, manual, and oral modalities. Attenuated exploratory behavior has been observed in various neurodevelopmental disorders, including Down syndrome (DS), presumably limiting learning options. However, a direct link between exploration and overall developmental functioning has not been characterized. This study used a Latent Profile Analysis framework to examine within-syndrome variability in exploratory behavior in infants with DS and the developmental correlates of different exploratory behavior profiles...
February 18, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Zachary H Garfield, Robert L Hubbard, Edward H Hagen
This study tested four theoretical models of leadership with data from the ethnographic record. The first was a game-theoretical model of leadership in collective actions, in which followers prefer and reward a leader who monitors and sanctions free-riders as group size increases. The second was the dominance model, in which dominant leaders threaten followers with physical or social harm. The third, the prestige model, suggests leaders with valued skills and expertise are chosen by followers who strive to emulate them...
February 19, 2019: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
Rebecca Bailey, Stephanie M Jones
A growing body of research explores the ways in which regulatory skills are important contributors to school readiness, school success, and other positive developmental outcomes in childhood and throughout the lifespan. Research and theory suggest that children with strong regulatory skills may be better equipped to manage the complex academic, social, and emotional demands of early learning and school environments; and alternatively, deficits in regulatory skills can lead to problems in school adjustment, academic outcomes, and other measures of well-being...
February 19, 2019: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
Subha Ramani, Karen D Könings, Shiphra Ginsburg, Cees Pm van der Vleuten
Feedback is defined as a regulatory mechanism where the effect of an action is fed back to modify and improve future action. In medical education, newer conceptualizations of feedback place the learner at the center of the feedback loop and emphasize learner engagement in the entire process. But, learners reject feedback if they doubt its credibility or it conflicts with their self-assessment. Therefore, attention has turned to sociocultural factors that influence feedback-seeking, acceptance, and incorporation into performance...
February 19, 2019: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Amy K Nuttall, Laura C Froyen, Lori E Skibbe, Ryan P Bowles
The present study examined the influence of mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms on children's early literacy skills. Home learning-related parenting (HLE) was examined as a mediator of these associations. Families (N = 465) were recruited through preschools. Results indicate an actor effect of fathers', but not mothers', depressive symptoms on HLE parenting such that fathers who reported more depressive symptoms engaged in fewer HLE activities. A partner effect of fathers' depressive symptoms on HLE parenting indicated that higher levels of fathers' depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of mothers' home learning activities...
February 19, 2019: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sandy Engelhardt, Simon Sauerzapf, Andreas Brčić, Matthias Karck, Ivo Wolf, Raffaele De Simone
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive mitral valve repair is considered a challenging procedure. Mastering the necessary skills takes years of training and clinical experience. To date, reconstructive surgery is performed mainly by a few surgeons with a strong track record, whereas trainees have only limited opportunities to practise. METHODS: A high-fidelity training simulator was equipped with novel silicone replicas of patient-specific mitral valves containing all of the anatomical components of the valve...
February 19, 2019: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Charlotte Denniston, Elizabeth K Molloy, Chee Yan Ting, Qi Fei Lin, Charlotte E Rees
OBJECTIVES: The literature focuses on teaching communication skills in the 'classroom', with less focus on how such skills are informally learnt in the healthcare workplace. We grouped healthcare work based on the cure:care continuum to explore communication approaches based on work activities. This study asks: 1) How do healthcare professionals believe they learn communication in the workplace? 2) What are the differences (if any) across the 'type of work' as represented by the cure:care continuum? DESIGN: This qualitative study used semi-structured individual interviews...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Consuelo M Kreider, Sharon Medina, Mackenzi R Slamka
Learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by neurological differences that result in difficulties meeting learning and productivity expectations. Young people with LD and ADHD experience difficulties in self-managing academic, social, daily living, and health/wellness demands. Students with LD/ADHD must work longer and harder than peers, which makes managing time and productivity a critical skill for school success. This study examined the strategies that college students with LD/ADHD used to overcome obstacles related to time and productivity within their everyday life contexts...
February 13, 2019: Children
Nora Wiium, Reidar Säfvenbom
Engagement in organized sports is associated with developmental factors, such as, healthy growth, cognitive abilities, psychological well-being and lower substance use. Research also suggest that the spontaneous free play that characterises self-organized physical activity (PA) provides young people with opportunities to learn social skills, such as self-regulation and conflict-resolution skills. We assessed associations between participation in the two activity types and several demographics along with developmental factors (e...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
German I Parisi, Ronald Kemker, Jose L Part, Christopher Kanan, Stefan Wermter
Humans and animals have the ability to continually acquire, fine-tune, and transfer knowledge and skills throughout their lifespan. This ability, referred to as lifelong learning, is mediated by a rich set of neurocognitive mechanisms that together contribute to the development and specialization of our sensorimotor skills as well as to long-term memory consolidation and retrieval. Consequently, lifelong learning capabilities are crucial for computational learning systems and autonomous agents interacting in the real world and processing continuous streams of information...
February 6, 2019: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
A Gatebe Kironji, Jacob T Cox, Jill Edwardson, Dane Moran, James Aluri, Bryn Carroll, Chi Chiung Grace Chen
BACKGROUND: Many medical and nursing schools offer opportunities for students to participate in global health experiences abroad, but little is known about the efficacy of pre-departure training in preparing students for these experiences. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim was to identify characteristics of pre-departure training associated with participants' reporting a high level of preparedness for their global health experiences. Secondary objectives included identifying students' preferred subjects of study and teaching modalities for pre-departure training...
November 5, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Heather Armson, Jocelyn M Lockyer, Marygrace Zetkulic, Karen D Könings, Joan Sargeant
OBJECTIVES: Coaching in medical education has recently gained prominence, but minimal attention has been given to key skills and determining how they work to effectively ensure residents are progressing and developing self-assessment skills. This study examined process-oriented and content-oriented coaching skills used in coaching sessions, with particular attention to how supervisors use them to enhance resident acceptance of feedback to enhance learning. METHODS: This qualitative study analysed secondary audiotaped data from 15 supervisors: resident dyads during two feedback sessions, 4 months apart...
February 18, 2019: Medical Education
M Ershad, R Rege, Ann Majewicz Fey
PURPOSE: Automatic skill evaluation is of great importance in surgical robotic training. Extensive research has been done to evaluate surgical skill, and a variety of quantitative metrics have been proposed. However, these methods primarily use expert selected features which may not capture latent information in movement data. In addition, these features are calculated over the entire task time and are provided to the user after the completion of the task. Thus, these quantitative metrics do not provide users with information on how to modify their movements to improve performance in real time...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Helena Duch, Maria Marti, William Wu, Robin Snow, Vanessa Garcia
CARING is a preventive, play-based, parent-child intervention designed to promote preschoolers' social-emotional development by strengthening their bonds with their parents. We describe the qualitative impact of the CARING Preschool program on Latino preschool children and their parents. One hundred and eleven Latino families participated in a larger study of the efficacy of the CARING preschool program. Of these families, 40 participated in this qualitative study. We invited families to participate in a focus group after completing the intervention...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Primary Prevention
Jason L Neva, Jennifer A Ma, Dan Orsholits, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Lara A Boyd
Pairing an acute bout of lower-limb cycling exercise with skilled motor practice enhances acquisition and learning. However, it is not known whether an acute bout of exercise enhances a specific form of motor learning, namely motor adaptation, and if subsequent inter-limb transfer of this adaptation is enhanced. Seventeen young healthy participants performed a bout of cycling exercise and rest, on separate days, prior to right-arm reaching movements to visual targets under 45° rotated feedback of arm position (acquisition), followed by an immediate test of inter-limb transfer with the untrained left arm...
February 18, 2019: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
John Opfer, Dan Kim, Christopher J Young, Francesca Marciani
Memory for numbers improves with age. One source of this improvement may be learning linear spatial-numeric associations, but previous evidence for this hypothesis likely confounded memory span with quality of numerical magnitude representations and failed to distinguish spatial-numeric mappings from other numeric abilities, such as counting or number word-cardinality mapping. To obviate the influence of memory span on numerical memory, we examined 39 3- to 5-year-olds' ability to recall one spontaneously produced number (1-20) after a delay, and the relation between numeric recall (controlling for non-numeric recall) and quality of mapping between symbolic and non-symbolic quantities using number-line estimation, give-a-number estimation, and counting tasks...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Victor Gonzalez-Sanchez, Sofia Dahl, Johannes Lunde Hatfield, Rolf Inge Godøy
Virtuosity in music performance is often associated with fast, precise, and efficient sound-producing movements. The generation of such highly skilled movements involves complex joint and muscle control by the central nervous system, and depends on the ability to anticipate, segment, and coarticulate motor elements, all within the biomechanical constraints of the human body. When successful, such motor skill should lead to what we characterize as fluency in musical performance. Detecting typical features of fluency could be very useful for technology-enhanced learning systems, assisting and supporting students during their individual practice sessions by giving feedback and helping them to adopt sustainable movement patterns...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Madaline B Harrison, Nicole Chiota-McCollum
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and educational value of an arts-based curriculum for neurology residents, with the following specific learning objectives: to enhance communication and observational skills, increase awareness of point of view, and deepen appreciation of the narrative content of illness. METHODS: Narrative medicine and visual thinking exercises, adopted from the study of literature and art history, were offered as monthly sessions in the neurology residents' conference schedule...
February 19, 2019: Neurology
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