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Carbohydrate craving

Hanan M Abdella, Hameida O El Farssi, David R Broom, Dawn A Hadden, Caroline F Dalton
Previous studies indicate that eating behaviours and food cravings are associated with increased BMI and obesity. However, the interaction between these behaviours and other variables such as age, sex, BMI and genetics is complex. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between eating behaviours and food cravings, and to examine the influence of age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass and obesity-associated ( FTO ) genotype on these relationships. A total of 475 participants (252 female, 223 male, BMI: 25...
February 12, 2019: Nutrients
Ashley E Mason, Laura Saslow, Patricia J Moran, Sarah Kim, Hiba Abousleiman, Alison Hartman, Robert Richler, Samantha Schleicher, Wendy Hartogensis, Elissa S Epel, Frederick Hecht
BACKGROUND: Diet patterns have a profound influence on glycemic control for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and craving-related eating is an important obstacle to dietary adherence. A growing body of research suggests that carbohydrate-restricted (CR) diets can improve glycemic control and reduce medication dependence in T2DM. However, limited data speak to the effects of long-term adherence to CR diets. Mindful eating training has been shown to reduce craving-related eating in overweight populations but has yet to be examined as a behavioral support for dietary adherence in T2DM...
September 19, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Luciana Bronzi de Souza, Karine Anusca Martins, Mariana Morais Cordeiro, Ymárdila de Souza Rodrigues, Bruna Paola Murino Rafacho, Rafael Aiello Bomfim
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of the present study was to assess the anthropometric measures, food intake and food cravings during the menstrual cycle of undergraduate students of the faculty of nutrition. METHODS:  A cross-sectional study was performed with 27 students from a public university in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, who had their food intake evaluated through a 24-hour food recall, their nutritional status evaluated based on anthropometric measures, and food cravings evaluated using the Food Desire Questionnaire...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Lauren E Blau, Natalia C Orloff, Amy Flammer, Carolyn Slatch, Julia M Hormes
An estimated 50% of pregnancies in the U.S. are associated with maternal weight gain that exceeds Institute of Medicine recommendations. The numerous adverse consequences of obesity in gestation, delivery and the postpartum have been widely documented. The role of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) as a predictor of lifetime obesity risk in mothers and their children is also increasingly recognized. Cravings and negative affect are commonly cited triggers of overconsumption in pregnant women. We sought to examine the role of food craving frequency as a mediator in the relation between emotional eating and excess GWG...
December 2018: Eating Behaviors
Stephanie M Krige, Sharmilah Booley, Naomi S Levitt, Tawanda Chivese, Katherine Murphy, Janetta Harbron
This study investigated the dietary intake of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their beliefs relating to the consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and sugary foods and drinks. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 pregnant women with GDM in Cape Town. Dietary intake was assessed using a quantified Food Frequency Questionnaire and beliefs relating to food choices were assessed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The mean energy intake was 7268 KJ, carbohydrate was 220 (±104...
August 28, 2018: Nutrients
Jane Bowen, Emily Brindal, Genevieve James-Martin, Manny Noakes
Higher-protein diets, meal replacements, and greater early weight loss have separately been associated with greater weight loss. We compared a high-protein, meal replacement program with daily energy restriction (DER) to one which provided greater energy restriction adding alternate day fasting (ADF + DER; alternating days of modified-fasting and DER plus 1 ad libitum day/week) on retention, weight loss, physiological, nutritional, and behavioral markers. Participants were randomized to ADF + DER or DER for 16 weeks ( n = 162, age 40 ± 8 years BMI 36 ± 6 kg/m² (Mean ± SD)) plus 8 weeks weight maintenance...
August 23, 2018: Nutrients
Nerylee A Watson, Kathryn A Dyer, Jonathan D Buckley, Grant D Brinkworth, Alison M Coates, Gaynor Parfitt, Peter R C Howe, Manny Noakes, Karen J Murphy
Food cravings are common in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Higher-protein diets are effective in improving satiety but their effect on cravings is unclear. It was hypothesized that a high protein (HP) diet would provide greater reductions in cravings than an isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC). In a randomized controlled trial, 61 adults (54% males) with T2D (means ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2 ; aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed either a HP diet (mean across study: 29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%) for 12-weeks each of weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance (WM)...
September 2018: Nutrition Research
Sridevi Krishnan, Karan Agrawal, Rebecca R Tryon, Lucas C Welch, William F Horn, John W Newman, Nancy L Keim
OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between circulating endocannabinoids and craving during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. This report is a secondary analysis of a trial registered in as NCT01407692. METHODS: Seventeen premenopausal women were studied during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle. Previously we had reported fasting plasma estradiol, progesterone, leptin associations with luteal phase cravings for carbohydrate, fat, sweet-rich foods, and eating behavior...
October 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Mariarita Caroleo, Amedeo Primerano, Marianna Rania, Matteo Aloi, Valentina Pugliese, Fabio Magliocco, Gilda Fazia, Andrea Filippo, Flora Sinopoli, Marco Ricchio, Franco Arturi, Susana Jimenez-Murcia, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, Pasquale De Fazio, Cristina Segura-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Considering that specific genetic profiles, psychopathological conditions and neurobiological systems underlie human behaviours, the phenotypic differentiation of obese patients according to eating behaviours should be investigated. The aim of this study was to classify obese patients according to their eating behaviours and to compare these clusters in regard to psychopathology, personality traits, neurocognitive patterns and genetic profiles. METHODS: A total of 201 obese outpatients seeking weight reduction treatment underwent a dietetic visit, psychological and psychiatric assessment and genotyping for SCL6A2 polymorphisms...
February 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Judith Wurtman, Richard Wurtman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe and explain the relationships between mood disturbances and the development of obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: That depression, anxiety, PTSD, or severe stresses can promote obesity as a side-effect of the drugs used to treat them, or through "carbohydrate craving" to enhance brain serotonin synthesis and alleviate dysphoria by consuming foods that are rich in both carbohydrates and fats. That seasonal affective disorder and severe PMS can independently cause patients to overconsume foods rich in both carbohydrates and fats...
March 2018: Current Obesity Reports
Stephan Bachlechner, Melanie Y Denzer-Lippmann, Jan Wielopolski, Marie Fischer, Andrea Buettner, Arndt Doerfler, Christof Schöfl, Gerald Münch, Johannes Kornhuber, Norbert Thürauf
Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Erica L Goodman, Lauren Breithaupt, Hunna J Watson, Christine M Peat, Jessica H Baker, Cynthia M Bulik, Kimberly A Brownley
Research suggests that individuals with high liking for sweets are at increased risk for binge eating, which has been minimally investigated in individuals with binge-eating disorder (BED). Forty-one adults (85% female, 83% white) with binge eating concerns completed a sweet taste test and measures of eating disorder behaviors and food cravings. A subset of participants with BED completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; N=21) and a 24-hour dietary recall (N=26). Regression models were used to compare highest sweet preferers (HSP [N=18]) to other sweet preferers (OSP [N=23]) and were used to assess associations between sweet taste preference and outcome variables...
January 2018: Eating Behaviors
Martin Nørgaard, Melanie Ganz, Claus Svarer, Patrick M Fisher, Nathan W Churchill, Vincent Beliveau, Cheryl Grady, Stephen C Strother, Gitte M Knudsen
Background: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a subtype of Major Depressive Disorder characterized by seasonally occurring depression that often presents with atypical vegetative symptoms such as hypersomnia and carbohydrate craving. It has recently been shown that unlike healthy people, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption to the environmental stressor of winter in females with the short 5-HTTLPR genotype, a specific subgroup previously reported to be at increased risk for developing SAD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Belinda Lennerz, Jochen K Lennerz
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in obesity remains low, and recently food addiction has been delineated as an underlying etiologic factor with therapeutic relevance. Specifically, current treatment focuses on reduced food intake and increase of physical activity, whereas interventions for addiction encompass behavioral therapy, abstinence, and environmental interventions such as taxation, restrictions on advertising, and regulation of school menus. CONTENT: Here, we reviewed the pertinent literature on food addiction with a specific focus on the role of high-glycemic-index carbohydrates in triggering addictive symptoms...
January 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Marie-Laure Cléry-Melin, Philip Gorwood, Serge Friedman, Christian Even
BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is mainly characterized by a seasonal pattern of depressive recurrences over the years. However, few studies have been conducted on the long-term course of patients with SAD, whose findings raised questions about the diagnosis stability over time. This study aimed to better characterize the diagnosis evolution, and determine prognosis markers. METHODS: An initial cohort of 225 outpatients diagnosed as having a SAD, was assessed at baseline (T1) for clinical symptoms and response to bright light therapy...
February 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jess A Gwin, Kevin C Maki, Heather J Leidy
Background: Higher-protein (HP) energy-restriction diets improve weight management to a greater extent than normal-protein (NP) versions. Potential mechanisms of action with regard to assessment of eating behaviors across the day have not been widely examined during energy restriction. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to test whether the consumption of an HP energy-restriction diet reduces carbohydrate and fat intakes through improvements in daily appetite, satiety, and food cravings compared with NP versions and to test whether protein type within the NP diets alters protein-related satiety...
December 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Nicolas Simioni, Julien Labreuche, Hélène Behal, Olivier Cottencin, Benjamin Rolland
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a prolonged detoxification treatment could decrease the relapse rate at 3 months after alcohol cessation in alcohol-dependent individuals through decreasing the levels of postdetoxification craving and anxiety. METHODS: Twenty-six adult patients with alcohol dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) who began an outpatient alcohol cessation program with an initial drinking goal of abstinence were enrolled in a 3-month, parallel, randomized (1:1 ratio), controlled, open-label, pilot trial...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Isabel Morales-Muñoz, Seppo Koskinen, Timo Partonen
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a recurrent depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern. In addition to some specific symptoms such as sad mood, low energy or carbohydrate craving, this mood disorder is also characterized by the presence of sleeping problems and alcohol disorders. Interestingly, there is a strong link between alcohol use and sleeping deficits. Although previous studies have focused extensively on the sleep patterns in SAD patients and patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD), no research has yet been conducted on subjects with comorbid SAD and AUD...
August 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Erica M Schulte, Julia K Smeal, Ashley N Gearhardt
OBJECTIVES: The current study investigates which foods may be most implicated in addictive-like eating by examining how nutritionally diverse foods relate to loss of control consumption and various subjective effect reports. Subjective effect reports assess the abuse liabilities of substances and may similarly provide insight into which foods may be reinforcing in a manner that triggers an addictive-like response for some individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Online community...
2017: PloS One
N Dalkner, M Platzer, S A Bengesser, A Birner, F T Fellendorf, R Queissner, A Painold, H Mangge, D Fuchs, B Reininghaus, H P Kapfhammer, S J Holasek, E Z Reininghaus
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) have a significantly increased risk of obesity-related conditions. The imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure is assumed to be a major risk factor for obesity in BD. This study analyzed food craving in relation to anthropometric, metabolic, and neurobiological parameters in a well-characterized cohort of euthymic individuals with BD. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-five patients completed the Food-Craving Inventory assessing four categories of food craving (fat, fast-food, sweets and carbohydrate craving)...
October 2018: Clinical Nutrition
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