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non tuberculous mycobacteria

Andrew M Jones
Aside from the traditional CF pathogens, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there are an increasing number of organisms found to have chronic carriage in patients with cystic fibrosis, including gram-negative bacteria, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria and fungal species. Some of these lower prevalence organisms, such as Burkholderia cenocepacia and Mycobacterium abscessus complex, are recognised as true pathogens associated with significant adverse clinical consequences, whilst for others the relative pathogenicity and need for treatment are unclear...
March 1, 2019: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Diana Marangu, Diane Gray, Aneesa Vanker, Marco Zampoli
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical-radiological-pathological characteristics and treatment outcomes of children with suspected exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP). DESIGN: Systematic review. We searched electronic databases and reference lists published between 1967 and 2018, restricted to non-accidental cases. RESULTS: Forty-four studies including 489 participants aged 1 day to 17 years from 13 countries were included. Cultural, medical, and behavioural rationale for oil-use was described...
January 20, 2019: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Nuno Ferreira Monteiro, Susana Peres, Kamal Mansinho
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous organisms. Precise determination of infection numbers is difficult, since reporting them to public health departments is frequently not mandatory; furthermore, isolating a non-tuberculous mycobacteria does not necessarily translate into disease. The aims of this study were to ascertain non-tuberculous mycobacteria data of a tertiary hospital, determine the incidence and approach to colonization versus disease, and the incidence of predisposing comorbidities...
March 29, 2019: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Saira Butt, Amir Tirmizi
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria can cause catheter associated blood stream infections. The causative agents are generally rapid growers that belong to the Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium mucogenicum groups. A 65 year hospitalized patient with temporary central venous catheter who developed Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteremia. Bacteremia cleared after removal of the catheter. Patient was treated initially with 4 weeks of intravenous amikacin, intravenous meropenem, oral doxycycline and oral ethambutol and then deescalated to oral doxycycline and oral ciprofloxacin for 8 weeks...
2019: IDCases
Pei Sze Carmen Tan, Ruad Perera
With over 150 species, non-tuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly recognized to be important human pathogens that pose diagnostic and management challenges. We report a rare case of cervical lymphadenitis and pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium paraffinicum in a 64-year-old man who presented with three-month history of increasing right-sided painless neck lump. His medical history included rheumatoid arthritis, which was managed with leflunomide and methotrexate. Computed tomography scans of his neck and thorax revealed a right lower neck and supraclavicular fossa cystic mass with peripheral enhancement and bilateral multiple small pulmonary nodules...
May 2019: Respirology Case Reports
Bruno Vincent Luukinen, Risto Vuento, Jari Juhani Hirvonen
Today there are numerous different molecular diagnostic assays for detection of tuberculosis (TB) allowing optimization of rapid detection of TB according to the clinical need. In this study, two high throughput TB PCR assays with combined antimicrobial resistance detection, Anyplex™ II MTB/MDR (Seegene) and RealTime MTB + RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance (Abbott), were evaluated for routine use in a clinical setting of low population and low TB-prevalence in Finland. The RealTime MTB assay was 100% concordant (22/22 positive, n=169) with the reference methods (culture and Xpert MTB/RIF PCR assay, Cepheid)...
March 22, 2019: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Jayshree Advani, Renu Verma, Oishi Chatterjee, Praveen Kumar Pachouri, Prashant Upadhyay, Rajesh Singh, Jitendra Yadav, Farah Naaz, Raju Ravikumar, Shashidhar Buggi, Mrutyunjay Suar, Umesh D Gupta, Akhilesh Pandey, Devendra S Chauhan, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Harsha Gowda, T S Keshava Prasad
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been constructive in understanding its evolution, genetic diversity and the mechanisms involved in drug resistance. A large number of sequencing efforts from across the globe have revealed genetic diversity among clinical isolates and the genetic determinants for their resistance to anti-tubercular drugs. Considering the high TB burden in India, the availability of WGS studies is limited. Here we present, WGS results of 200 clinical isolates of M...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jun Zhu, Qingluan Yang, Junjie Pan, Haiming Shi, Bo Jin, Qiying Chen
BACKGROUND: With the rising utilization of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), infections secondary to device implantation are increasingly encountered. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci are usually the predominant causative organisms. A CIED infection due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of pain and swelling at his cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) pocket site, for 4 days...
March 5, 2019: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
M H Phyu, K W Y Kyaw, Z Myint, A Thida, S Satyanarayana, S T Aung
Setting: Myanmar's National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) uses the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay to diagnose rifampicin (RMP) resistance in sputum smear-positive (Sm+) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. The Xpert test may occasionally yield negative results (Xpert-) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, indicating a false-positive sputum smear result, false-negative Xpert result or infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Patients with NTM may respond poorly to first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment. Objective: To assess the burden of Sm+, Xpert- results at the national level and treatment outcomes of Sm+, Xpert- patients in Yangon Region...
December 21, 2018: Public Health Action
Radka Dziedzinská, Michal Slaný, Iva Slaná, Vít Ulmann
Mycobacterium marinum is a slowly growing non-tuberculous (environmental, atypical) mycobacterium with zoonotic potential. It occurs in the aquatic environment and causes diseases in fish and other aquatic animals known as mycobacterioses. In humans, it primarily causes skin infections, which are most commonly located in the upper limbs. The disease commonly appears in connection with the aquarium environment and is thus referred to as fish tank granuloma. As with all mycobacterial diseases, treatment is complicated and lengthy...
December 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Swetarka Das, Tanu Garg, Sidharth Chopra, Arunava Dasgupta
Background: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are emerging pathogens of significant worldwide interest because they have inherent drug resistance to a wide variety of FDA-approved drugs and cause a broad range of serious infections. In order to identify new drugs active against non-tuberculous mycobacteria, we identified disulfiram, utilized for treatment of alcohol dependence, as exhibiting potent growth-inhibitory activity against non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Methods: Whole-cell growth inhibition assays were used to screen and identify novel inhibitors...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy, Florian P Maurer, Yen Holicka, Lucy Taylor, Helen Liddy, Katharina Kranzer
Objectives: Our aim was to conduct a multicentre study involving laboratories participating in the European TB Reference Laboratory Network aiming to develop a pilot external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for drug susceptibility testing (DST) of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Methods: The study comprised a survey using a structured questionnaire followed by a pilot EQA round using identical panels of 10 Mycobacterium avium (MAV) and Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) isolates...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
H F Schiff, S Jones, A Achaiah, A Pereira, G Stait, B Green
The frequency of isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species from respiratory specimens is increasing, however the clinical relevance of such identifications vary by mycobacterial species and geographical location. A retrospective study of 853 NTM isolates from respiratory samples from 386 patients over seven years was performed. Clinical records and radiographic information were examined. Clinical significance was assessed by American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria. 25% of all patients with respiratory isolates met criteria for non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD)...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Lika'a Fasih Y Al-Kzayer, Ahmed K Yassin, Khalid Hama Salih, Tomonari Shigemura, Kenji Sano, Ruwaid Behnam Y Al-Simaani, Miyuki Tanaka, Yozo Nakazawa, Yusuke Okuno
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare condition of primary immunodeficiency disorder. Interleukin-12 receptor β1 (IL12RB1) deficiency, is the most common genetic etiology of MSMD, which is characterized by the selective predisposition to clinical disease caused by weakly-virulent mycobacteria, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, and environmental non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of IL12RB1 deficiency to be reported from Iraq...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Shokouh Azam Sarrafzadeh, Maryam Nourizadeh, Maryam Mahloojirad, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti, Mohsen Badalzadeh, Caroline Deswarte, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Zahra Pourpak, Jacinta Bustamante, Mostafa Moin
PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency, triggered by non-tuberculous mycobacteria or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and characterized by severe diseases. All known genetic etiologies are inborn errors of IFN-γ-mediated immunity. Here, we report the molecular, cellular, and clinical features of patients from 15 Iranian families with disseminated disease without vaccination (2 patients) or following live BCG vaccination (14 patients)...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Hajime Kasai, Sugiura Toshihiko, Takayuki Kobayashi, Risa Okamura, Masayuki Oota, Nao Harada, Yoshinobu Wada, Satoshi Oota, Ichiro Yoshino, Yukio Nakatani, Koichiro Tatsumi
Recurrence of an embolized pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is common after coil embolization. A 23-year-old woman who had undergone multiple instances of transcatheter coil embolization was admitted with hypoxia and hemoptysis. A PAVM in the left S6 was found to be recanalized by reperfusion through the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The left S6 was partially resected; the specimen contained necrotic granulomas and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) around the PAVM. Clinicians should consider possible recurrence of PAVM after reperfusion of the pulmonary and bronchial arteries, as well as the risk of NTM infection during follow-up of patients who have undergone repeated coil embolization...
February 1, 2019: Internal Medicine
Jean-François Loret, Nadine Dumoutier
Non-tuberculous species of Mycobacterium are commonly found in a large diversity of water environments, and epidemiological studies suggest that natural or drinking waters are the principal sources of human contamination. Controlling non-tuberculous mycobacteria in water systems is therefore important to prevent infection with these micro-organisms. This review article summarizes the information and data published up to now on the factors favoring the presence of these bacteria in natural and artificial water systems, the effectiveness of water treatment means, and based on this information, identifies possible means to control the presence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in drinking water...
January 19, 2019: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Angel N Desai, Rocío M Hurtado
Purpose of review: Non-tuberculous mycobacterial [NTM] infections in the hospital setting are a complex and often challenging entity. The goal of this review is to discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies for established as well as emerging nosocomial NTM infections. Recent findings: NTM outbreaks have been documented in a variety of hospital settings. Contamination of medical devices or aqueous solutions is often implicated in the spread of infection. More recently, the slow grower M...
June 2018: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
Mike Marvin Ruth, Jasper J N Sangen, Karlijn Remmers, Lian J Pennings, Elin Svensson, Rob E Aarnoutse, Sanne M H Zweijpfenning, Wouter Hoefsloot, Saskia Kuipers, Cecile Magis-Escurra, Heiman F L Wertheim, Jakko van Ingen
BACKGROUND: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are hard to treat. New antimicrobial drugs and smarter combination regimens are needed. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to determine the in vitro activity of bedaquiline against NTM and assess its synergy with established antimycobacterials. METHODS: We determined MICs of bedaquiline for clinically relevant NTM species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis by broth microdilution for 30 isolates. Synergy testing was performed using the chequerboard method for 22 reference strains and clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Benedetto Caroleo, Alberto Migliore, Erika Cione, Stefania Zampogna, Francesco Perticone, Giovambattista De Sarro, Luca Gallelli
BACKGROUND: Either direct or indirect tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha blockers, are usually used to treat psoriatic arthritis (PA), but their use can increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of double skin-knee wound and lung non-tubercular infection in a patient with PA under TNF-alpha blockers therapy. About 1 year after the beginning of adalimumab, a 48-year-old smoker suffering of PA was hospitalized for skin-knee wound...
January 14, 2019: Current Drug Safety
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