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Christine M Batikian, Ally Lu, Kayo Watanabe, Jerome Pitt, Richard M Gersberg
Imidacloprid is a widely used insecticide with high runoff potential posing a significant threat to aquatic ecosystems. In order to determine the spatial and temporal concentrations of imidacloprid in Forester Creek, a tributary to the San Diego River, surface water samples were collected from two sites under wet-weather and dry-weather conditions. Solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were utilized to quantify imidacloprid levels in all samples. Imidacloprid was detected with 100% frequency in surface water samples from Forester Creek with a median concentration of 16...
February 2, 2019: Chemosphere
F Perera, A Ashrafi, P Kinney, D Mills
BACKGROUND: Fossil fuel combustion by-products, including particulate matter (PM2.5 ), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ), are a significant threat to children's health and equality. Various policies to reduce emissions have been implemented to reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change, with sizeable estimated health and economic benefits. However, only a few adverse outcomes in children have been considered, resulting in an undercounting of the benefits to this vulnerable population...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Research
P Grace Tee Lewis, Ting-Yu Chen, Wenyaw Chan, Elaine Symanski
Epidemiology studies relying on one address to assign exposures over time share common methodological limitations in failing to account for mobility that may introduce potential exposure misclassification. Using Texas birth certificate and cancer registry data, we identified predictors of residential mobility among mothers of children diagnosed with early childhood leukemia in Texas from 1995 to 2011. We used U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Air Toxics Assessment data to estimate residential levels of benzene and 1,3-butadiene based on addresses at birth and diagnosis and applied mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression models to evaluate differences in exposure classification between the two time periods...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Yasukazu Takanezawa, Ryosuke Nakamura, Miho Hamaguchi, Kanae Yamamoto, Yuka Sone, Shimpei Uraguchi, Masako Kiyono
Fish consumption has both the risk of methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning and the benefit of obtaining n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). However, the cellular interaction between MeHg and PUFAs remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MeHg and n-3 PUFA exposure on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The results showed that EPA had a negligible effect on MeHg-induced cell death, whereas DHA promoted it...
February 12, 2019: Toxicology Letters
Azita Amiri, Shuang Zhao
Environmental justice (EJ) means socially and economically disadvantaged communities and citizens are entitled to an equally clean environment and resources to enjoy. EJ communities are mostly located close to polluters such as Superfund sites, coal-fired power plants and landfills and are more likely to be exposed to higher levels of environmental hazards than the U.S. population on average. It is often a difficult task to identify EJ communities and the environmental hazards in the communities without using specific EJ screening tools...
February 14, 2019: Public Health Nursing
Scott Faber, Timothy Fahrenholz, Mesay Mulugeta Wolle, John C Kern, Matt Pamuku, Logan Miller, Jeremiah Jamrom, H M Skip Kingston
Analyses of reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and total glutathione (tGSH) in red blood cell samples from 30 children diagnosed with autism and 30 age, gender, and socioeconomic status matched controls were undertaken. The children's ages ranged from 2-9. Samples were obtained from subjects residing in Western Pennsylvania, an area of the United States greatly affected by high levels of mercury deposition and airborne PM 2.5 particulates. Liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry was utilized by following EPA Method 6800 for sample analyses...
February 11, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wataru Miura, Nobuhiko Nagano, Ryota Kato, Aya Okahashi, Kayo Yoshikawa, Kensuke Ohashi, Tsugumichi Koshinaga, Ichiro Morioka
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a fatal complication of short bowel syndrome managed with parenteral nutrition. A clinical cohort study reported the usefulness of parenteral administration of fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids in improving IFALD; however, no biomarker has been developed as yet. The authors report the case of a preterm infant with IFALD complicated by extensive short bowel syndrome. Intravenous administration of omega-3 fatty acids were introduced using Omegaven®at the age of 4 mo for IFALD...
February 13, 2019: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Alexandra J White, Clarice R Weinberg, Ellen S O'Meara, Dale P Sandler, Brian L Sprague
BACKGROUND: Breast density is strongly related to breast cancer. Identifying associations between environmental exposures and density may elucidate relationships with breast cancer. Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may influence breast density via oxidative stress or endocrine disruption. METHODS: Study participants (n = 222,581) underwent a screening mammogram in 2011 at a radiology facility in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Zip code residential levels of airborne PAHs and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, and selenium) were assessed using the 2011 EPA National Air Toxics Assessment...
February 13, 2019: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Abdiel E Laureano-Rosario, Andrew P Duncan, Erin M Symonds, Dragan A Savic, Frank E Muller-Karger
Predicting recreational water quality is key to protecting public health from exposure to wastewater-associated pathogens. It is not feasible to monitor recreational waters for all pathogens; therefore, monitoring programs use fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci, to identify wastewater pollution. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict when culturable enterococci concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC) at Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico...
February 2019: Journal of Water and Health
Mohammad Hassan Golzari, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Ehsan Ghaedi, Hamed Mohammadi, Mahmoud Djalali
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, and it is mostly associated with oxidative stress, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) due to its antioxidant properties may play a role in the atherosclerosis development. Although long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of EPA administration on gene expression of PON2 in patients with T2DM...
January 2019: Clinical Nutrition Research
Wanwisa Wongmaneepratip, Kriskamol Na Jom, Kanithaporn Vangnai
Objective: The inhibitory effects of dietary antioxidants, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and quercetin, in marinade were investigated on the formation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA priority 16 PAHs) in grilled pork. Methods: The formation of PAHs in grilled sirloin pork with different marinades after charcoal-grilling for 2 min/side were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Results: Compared with the control marinade treatment (without antioxidant), the addition of diallyl disulfide (500 mg/kg meat sample) in marinade significantly decreased Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (100% ) and heavy PAHs (84%) in charcoal-grilled pork, while the addition of quercetin at the same concentration could reduce 23% and 55% of BaP and heavy PAHs, respectively...
February 7, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
M Safiur Rahman, M D H Khan, Y N Jolly, J Kabir, S Akter, A Salam
Contaminants in road dusts can directly pose significant human health risks through oral ingestion, particle inhalation, and dermal contact. Therefore, this study has been designed to analyze heavy metal contaminations in 88 street dusts collected from the 22 high traffic sites and industrial areas of the Southeast Asian Megacity: Dhaka (capital of Bangladesh) using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. This study revealed that the maximum Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, As, Mn and Cu contents in the street dust samples were 18...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Parthasarathi Chakraborty, Saranya Jayachandran, Jyothi Lekshmy, Prasad Padalkar, Lamjahao Sitlhou, Kartheek Chennuri, Suhas Shetye, Areef Sardar, Rakhee Khandeparker
There is limited knowledge regarding seawater intrusion on Hg distribution in monsoon fed tropical estuarine systems during dry season (February to May). This study examined the influence of resuspension of estuarine sediment and intrusion of Hg bound SPM (HgSPM ) (by the tide) from the outside of an estuary in controlling distribution, mobility, and bioavailability of Hg within the estuarine systems during the dry season. This investigation was carried out in the Mandovi estuary, a monsoon fed tropical estuary from the central west coast of India...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Luca Carena, Davide Vione
In this work the photochemistry of imazethapyr, an imidazolinone herbicide used in rice crops, was modelled in rice paddy water. The photochemical half-life time of the herbicide was assessed by means of the APEX software (Aqueous Photochemistry of Environmentally occurring Xenobiotics) taking into account the direct photolysis, the reactions with hydroxyl radicals (HO) and, in some cases, the reactions with the excited triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (3 CDOM*). We found that direct photolysis and HO reaction can account for a half-life time ranging between 8 and 11 days in May, which is in quite good agreement with the half-life times measured in the field and reported in the literature...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maja Petrovic, Maja Sremacki, Jelena Radonic, Ivana Mihajlovic, Boris Obrovski, Mirjana Vojinovic Miloradov
The municipal solid waste landfill in Novi Sad, Serbia is in its operative status from early 1980s and represents potential significant source of environmental compartments pollution and the threat to human health as a result of undeveloped waste management practice. Residues of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) as toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic chemicals were investigated in ambient air of landfill site in Novi Sad. Passive air sampling technique was used for the purpose of ambient air sampling...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elba Garreta-Lara, Antonio Checa, David Fuchs, Romà Tauler, Silvia Lacorte, Craig E Wheelock, Carlos Barata
Neuro-active pharmaceuticals have been reported to act as endocrine disruptors enhancing reproduction in the model crustacean Daphnia manga at environmental concentrations of ng/L. Oxylipins and more specifically eicosanoids, which are lipid mediators formed from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), are known to regulate reproduction together with other physiological processes in insects. In D. magna, the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and their putative role in the regulation of reproduction has been studied using transcriptomics, genomics and exposures to cyclooxygenase inhibitors...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Matthew D Rand, Samuel W Caito
BACKGROUND: Understanding methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity requires a complete understanding of its fundamental toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic characteristics in the human body. The biological half-life (t1/2 ) of MeHg is a kinetic property that directly influences the body burden of Hg that results from repeated exposures such as can occur with fish and seafood consumption. The t1/2 of MeHg in humans is approximately 50 days, equivalent to an elimination rate (kel ) of 0.014 day-1 ...
February 8, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Palika Abayakoon, Ruwan Epa, Marija Petricevic, Christopher Bengt, Janice W-Y Mui, Phillip L van der Peet, Yunyang Zhang, James P Lingford, Jonathan M White, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Spencer J Williams
Sulfoglycolysis is a metabolic pathway dedicated to the catabolism of the sulfosugar sulfoquinovose (SQ) into smaller organosulfur fragments. An estimated 10 billion tonnes of SQ fluxes through sulfoglycolysis pathways each year, making it a significant aspect of the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. Delineating the molecular details of sulfoglycolysis requires authentic samples of the various metabolites in these pathways. To this end, we have established chemical and chemoenzymatic methods for the synthesis of the key organosulfur metabolites sulfoquinovosylglycerol (SQGro), SQ (also in 13C 6 -labelled form), sulfofructose (SF), sulfofructose-1-phosphate (SFP), sulfolactaldehyde (SLA) and 2,3-dihydropropanesulfonate (DHPS), as well as an improved route to the chromogenic sulfoquinovosidase substrate 4-nitrophenyl α-sulfoquinovoside...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Alan J Garber, Martin J Abrahamson, Joshua I Barzilay, Lawrence Blonde, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Michael A Bush, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Vivian A Fonseca, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Paul S Jellinger, Janet B McGill, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Paul D Rosenblit, Guillermo E Umpierrez
A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure; ACE = American College of Endocrinology; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; apo B = apolipoprotein B; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BAS = bile acid sequestrant; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; ER = extended release; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; HeFH = heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-P = low-density-lipoprotein particle; Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; PCSK9 = proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 serine protease; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SU = sulfonylurea; SGLT2 = sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose; T2D = type 2 diabetes; TZD = thiazolidinedione...
January 2019: Endocrine Practice
George Helman, Imran Shah, Antony J Williams, Jeff Edwards, Jeremy Dunne, Grace Patlewicz
Generalized Read-Across (GenRA) is a data driven approach which makes read-across predictions on the basis of a similarity weighted activity of source analogues (nearest neighbors). GenRA has been described in more detail in the literature (Shah et al., 2016; Helman et al., 2018). Here we present its implementation within the EPA's CompTox Chemicals Dashboard to provide public access to a GenRA module structured as a read-across workflow. GenRA assists researchers in identifying source analogues, evaluating their validity and making predictions of in vivo toxicity effects for a target substance...
February 4, 2019: ALTEX
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