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adipose tissue inflammation

T V S Tsosura, F Y Chiba, M S L C Mattera, R F Pereira, L T A Cintra, L C Conti, R M Dos Santos, J H P Mateus, C A S Garbin, D H Sumida
AIM: To investigate the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of rats with maternal apical periodontitis (AP) and to explore the effect of maternal inflammation on the initial steps of insulin signaling and the inflammatory pathway in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and periepididymal white adipose tissue (pWAT) of adult offspring. METHODOLOGY: Fifteen female Wistar rats were distributed into a control group (CN), a group with 1 AP (1AP) and group with 4 AP (4AP)...
February 12, 2019: International Endodontic Journal
Lauriane Galle-Treger, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, Benjamin P Hurrell, Emily Howard, Richard Lo, Hadi Maazi, Gavin Lewis, Homayon Banie, Alan L Epstein, Peisheng Hu, Virender K Rehan, Frank D Gilliland, Hooman Allayee, Pejman Soroosh, Arlene H Sharpe, Omid Akbari
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by disturbances in glucose homeostasis and the development of low-grade systemic inflammation, which increase the risk to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently discovered immune population secreting Th2 cytokines. While previous studies show how ILC2s can play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in the adipose tissue, a therapeutic target capable of modulating ILC2 activation has yet to be identified...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Helena Angelica Pereira Batatinha, Jose Cesar Rosa Neto, Karsten Krüger
Many lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity and cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary diseases, are associated with chronic systemic inflammation, which has been shown to contribute to the disease initiation and progression, and also for co-morbidities of these diseases. While the source of inflammation in obese subjects is suggested to be mainly the visceral adipose tissue, smoke-induced inflammation originates in the pulmonary system. Here, chronic cigarette smoking induces oxidative stress, resulting in severe cellular damage...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Sophie N Saxton, Sarah B Withers, Anthony M Heagerty
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is no longer recognised as simply a structural support for the vasculature, and we now know that PVAT releases vasoactive factors which modulate vascular function. Since the discovery of this function in 1991, PVAT research is rapidly growing and the importance of PVAT function in disease is becoming increasingly clear. Obesity is associated with a plethora of vascular conditions; therefore, the study of adipocytes and their effects on the vasculature is vital. PVAT contains an adrenergic system including nerves, adrenoceptors and transporters...
February 12, 2019: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Honglin Yan, Shanchuan Cao, Yan Li, Hongfu Zhang, Jingbo Liu
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to determine whether reduced meal frequency (MF) could restore high-fat diet (HFD)-modified phenotypes and microbiota under the condition of fixed feed allowance. METHODS: A total of 32 barrows with initial weight of 61.6 ± 0.8 kg were assigned to two diets [control diet (CON) versus HFD] and two meal frequencies [12 equal meals/day (M12) versus 2 equal meals/day (M2)], the trial lasted 8 weeks. The lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in adipose tissue as well as the profiles of intestinal microbiota and bacterial-derived metabolites were determined...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
Adriana Mika, Filippo Macaluso, Rosario Barone, Valentina Di Felice, Tomasz Sledzinski
Increased physical activity is an optimal way to maintain a good health. During exercise, triacylglycerols, an energy reservoir in adipose tissue, are hydrolyzed to free fatty acids (FAs) which are then released to the circulation, providing a fuel for working muscles. Thus, regular physical activity leads to a reduction of adipose tissue mass and improves metabolism. However, the reduction of lipid reservoir is also associated with many other interesting changes in adipose tissue FA metabolism. For example, a prolonged exercise contributes to a decrease in lipoprotein lipase activity and resultant reduction of FA uptake...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Rosa Divella, Antonio Mazzocca, Antonella Daniele, Carlo Sabbà, Angelo Paradiso
Western populations are becoming increasingly sedentary and the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing and becoming one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. Also, NAFLD is considered one the new emerging risk factors for development of tumors of the gastro-intestinal tract, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Visceral obesity is an important risk factor for the onset of NAFLD. An accumulation of ectopic fat, including visceral obesity and fatty liver leads to a dysfunction of the adipose tissue with impaired production of adipocytokines which, in turn, favor an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Pierre-Emmanuel Noly, Pauline Labbé, Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Annik Fortier, Albert Nguyen, Eric Thorin, Michel Carrier
OBJECTIVES: A strong relationship between high circulating angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) levels, a proinflammatory adipokine, and cardiovascular diseases has been reported. Our objective was to determine whether plasma ANGPTL2 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels change postoperatively in patients who underwent heart valve surgery and/or coronary artery bypass grafting. We hypothesized that a corrective cardiac surgery would decrease ANGPTL2 levels. METHODS: In 47 prospectively recruited patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 16), valve replacement (n = 16), or both (n = 15), we measured plasma ANGPTL2 and hs-CRP levels preoperatively, at 24 hours, at 3 to 5 days (hospital discharge), and at 30 to 90 days (follow-up) after surgery...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Hyun-Young Na, Byung-Cheol Lee
Insulin resistance is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, and chronic inflammation is known to be a major mechanism of insulin resistance and is a therapeutic target. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant mice and to investigate its mechanism based on inflammatory responses. Mice were fed a HFD to induce insulin resistance and then administered SB for nine weeks. Body weight, glucose, lipid, insulin, epididymal fat pad and liver weights, and histologic characteristics were evaluated to determine the effect on insulin resistance...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liping Ju, Junfeng Han, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yujie Deng, Han Yan, Congrong Wang, Xiaohua Li, Shuqin Chen, Miriayi Alimujiang, Xu Li, Qichen Fang, Ying Yang, Weiping Jia
In obesity, adipocytes exhibit high metabolic activity accompanied by an increase in lipid mobilization. Recent findings indicate that autophagy plays an important role in metabolic homeostasis. However, the role of this process in adipocytes remains controversial. Therefore, we performed an overall analysis of the expression profiles of 322 lysosomal/autophagic genes in the omental adipose tissue of lean and obese individuals, and found that among 35 significantly differentially expressed genes, 34 genes were upregulated...
February 11, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Reza Khorramirouz, Seyedeh M Kameli, Kiarad Fendereski, Seyedeh S Daryabari, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue-engineered amniotic membrane (AM) in the treatment of myocardial infarction lesions. MATERIALS & METHODS: 20 rats were subjected to coronary arterial ligation in order to induce myocardial infarction injury. Decellularized human AMs were seeded with 2 × 105 adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and were implanted in the infarcted hearts. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations indicated the regeneration of cardiomyocytes and reduction of inflammation and fibrosis in the patch-implanted group compared with a control group, 14 days after the surgery...
February 11, 2019: Regenerative Medicine
J A Suárez-Cuenca, A S Ruíz-Hernández, A A Mendoza-Castañeda, G A Domínguez-Pérez, A Hernández-Patricio, E Vera-Gómez, G De la Peña-Sosa, D Z Balderas-Lares, J Montoya-Ramírez, R Blas-Azotla, M Ortíz-Fernández, M Salamanca-García, A Melchor-López, P Mondragón-Terán, A Contreras-Ramos, S L Alcaraz-Estrada
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis represents a cardiovascular risk. Chronic inflammation is a key factor for atherogenic progression. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risks. We aimed to explore whether NLR was related with surrogate pro-atherogenic promoters driving atherogenic progression, as measured by Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one patients with obesity candidates for bariatric surgery were recruited from Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre", ISSSTE, Mexico City...
February 11, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, Jilu P Mole, Erika Leonaviciute, Rebecca Sims, Emma J Kidd, Benyamin Ertefai, Aurora Kelso-Mitchell, Florence Gidney, Fabrizio Fasano, John Evans, Derek K Jones, Roland J Baddeley
Midlife obesity is a risk factor of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) but why this is the case remains unknown. As systemic inflammation is involved in both conditions, obesity-related neuroinflammation may contribute to damage in limbic structures important in LOAD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that systemic inflammation would mediate central obesity related effects on limbic tissue microstructure in 166 asymptomatic individuals (38-71 years old). We employed MRI indices sensitive to myelin and neuroinflammation [macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) and kf ] from quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) together with indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate the effects of central adiposity on the fornix, parahippocampal cingulum, uncinate fasciculus (compared with whole brain white matter and corticospinal tract) and the hippocampus...
February 5, 2019: NeuroImage
Hao Yu, Zhigao Song, Hongbin Zhang, Kehong Zheng, Junfang Zhan, Qing Luo, Jingbo Sun, Li Liang, Xiaojiang Dai, Liangping Wu
BACKGROUND: Current studies indicate that inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a pathogenic characteristic of insulin resistance. However, the significance of visceral WAT inflammation after bariatric surgery remains unclear. METHODS: Duodenojejunal bypass plus sleeve gastrectomy (DJB-SG) was performed on Goto-Kakisaki rats. Weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the DJB-SG group were compared to those in a sham surgery (SHAM) group every 2 weeks...
February 8, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Huqun Li, Shiyong Peng, Shihong Li, Shouqing Liu, Yifan Lv, Ni Yang, Liangyu Yu, Ya-Hui Deng, Zhongjian Zhang, Maosheng Fang, Yunxiang Huo, Ying Chen, Taohua Sun, Weiyong Li
Olanzapine is a second-generation anti-psychotic drug used to prevent neuroinflammation in patients with schizophrenia. However, the long-term administration of olanzapine leads to insulin resistance (IR); the mechanisms of this effect remains poorly understood. Using cellular and rodent models of IR induced by olanzapine, we found that chronic olanzapine treatment induces differential inflammatory cytokine reactions in peripheral adipose and the central nervous system. Long-term treatment of olanzapine caused metabolic symptoms, including IR, by markedly elevating the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα; these findings are consistent with observations from schizophrenia patients chronically treated with olanzapine...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Dhruv Jha, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
Metabolic syndrome is an agglomeration of disorders including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and characterized as chronic mild inflammation which elevates the circulatory inflammatory markers. This could be due to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and hypoxia as a consequence of high fat diet (HFD) intake. The present study focuses on the effects of HFD on lactate and mitochondrial metabolism as well as tissue dependent changes in glucose transporter (GLUT) expression in liver, skeletal muscles and adipose tissue of mouse...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Takahiro Ohkura, Teizo Yoshimura, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Toshiaki Ohara, Rie Marutani, Kaya Usami, Akihiro Matsukawa
Chronic low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissues triggers the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, leading to the metabolic syndrome, a serious health condition with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke. In the present study, we investigated whether Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, plays a role in the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Irene T Lee, Alexandria Atuahene, Hale Ergin Egritag, Ling Wang, Michael Donovan, Christoph Buettner, Eliza B Geer
Context: While glucocorticoids (GCs) have potent anti-inflammatory actions, patients with hypercortisolism due to Cushing's disease (CD) have increased circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines that may contribute to their insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms and tissues that account for the increased systemic inflammation in patients with CD are unknown. Objective: To determine if chronic endogenous GC exposure due to CD is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in humans...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alecia M Blaszczak, Anahita Jalilvand, Joey Liu, Valerie P Wright, Andrew Suzo, Bradley Needleman, Sabrena Noria, William Lafuse, Willa A Hsueh, David Bradley
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation both systemically and within specific tissues, including adipose tissue (AT). In murine models of obesity, there is a shift in the inflammatory profile of the AT immune cells, with an accumulation of proinflammatory M1 macrophages that surround the expanding adipocyte. However, much less is known about the immune cell composition and how to best define AT macrophages in humans. Objective . The goals of the current study were to determine the contribution of macrophages to the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in lean versus obese human visceral AT (VAT); examine the expression of common M1, M2, and pan macrophage markers; and determine the association of specific macrophage types with known biomarkers of obesity-related cardiometabolic disease...
2019: Journal of Diabetes Research
Ching-Ping Yang, Ya-Yu Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Yi-Jheng Hong, Keng-Ying Liao, Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Ping-Ho Pan, Chun-Jung Chen, Wen-Ying Chen
Atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, are commonly prescribed to patients with schizophrenic symptoms and other psychiatric disorders. However, weight gain and metabolic disturbance cause adverse effects, impair patient compliance and limit clinical utility. Thus, a better understanding of treatment-acquired adverse effects and identification of targets for therapeutic intervention are believed to offer more clinical benefits for patients with schizophrenia. Beyond its nutritional effects, studies have indicated that supplementation of chromium brings about beneficial outcomes against numerous metabolic disorders...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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