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S Sinmyee, V J Pandit, J M Pascual, A Dahan, T Heidegger, G Kreienbühl, D A Lubarsky, J J Pandit
A decision by a society to sanction assisted dying in any form should logically go hand-in-hand with defining the acceptable method(s). Assisted dying is legal in several countries and we have reviewed the methods commonly used, contrasting these with an analysis of capital punishment in the USA. We expected that, since a common humane aim is to achieve unconsciousness at the point of death, which then occurs rapidly without pain or distress, there might be a single technique being used. However, the considerable heterogeneity in methods suggests that an optimum method of achieving unconsciousness remains undefined...
February 20, 2019: Anaesthesia
Thomas J Vajtay, Akhil Bandi, Aman Upadhyay, Mavis R Swerdel, Ronald P Hart, Christian R Lee, David J Margolis
The functional state of denervated muscle is a critical factor in the ability to restore movement after injury- or disease-related paralysis. Here we used peripheral optogenetic stimulation and transcriptome profiling in the mouse whisker system to investigate the time course of changes in neuromuscular function following complete unilateral facial nerve transection. While most skeletal muscles rapidly lose functionality after lower motor neuron denervation, optogenetic muscle stimulation of the paralyzed whisker pad revealed sustained increases in the sensitivity, velocity, and amplitude of whisker movements, and reduced fatigability, starting 48 h after denervation...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tiago Roux-Oliveira, Luiz R Costa, Alexandre V Pino, Paulo Paz
A multivariable deterministic extremum seeking (ES) is being evaluated to construct an adaptive Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control law for the functional Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) of stroke patients. The developed scheme is applied to control the position of the patient's arm so that movements of flexion/extension for its elbow can be produced. The true limitations of a PID controller for these types of applications is that a PID controller is designed for linear systems, but the system which is being controlled is nonlinear...
February 14, 2019: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tânia C Gonçalves, Evelyne Benoit, Michael Kurz, Laetitia Lucarain, Sophie Fouconnier, Stéphanie Combemale, Lucie Jaquillard, Brigitte Schombert, Jean-Marie Chambard, Rachid Boukaiba, Gerhard Hessler, Andrees Bohme, Laurent Bialy, Stéphane Hourcade, Rémy Béroud, Michel De Waard, Denis Servent, Michel Partiseti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: NaV 1.7 channel subtype is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia of the sensory nervous system and plays a central role in the pain signaling process. We investigated a library prepared from original venoms of 117 different animals to identify new selective inhibitors of this target. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used high-throughput screening of a large venom collection using automated patch-clamp experiments on human voltage-gated sodium channel subtypes, and then in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological experiments to characterize the active peptides that have been purified, sequenced and chemically synthesized...
February 19, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sudarshan Munigangaiah, Phil Brown, Mohamed Mohamed, Colin E Bruce, Jayesh M Trivedi, Neil T Davidson
Purpose: In this study, we would like to describe a novel technique for subfascial insertion of magnetically controlled growing rods using chest drain during surgery for early-onset scoliosis. Materials and Methods: Posterior approach, surgical dissection to the spine is performed exposing the relevant anatomy to allow placement of pedicle screws always in the distal construct and pedicle screws or hooks in the proximal construct. To allow easy passage of the Magnetic Expansion Control (MAGEC) rod, as well as easy maneuvering of the rod in either the cranial to caudal direction, we use a chest drain of size 24 French diameter as a tunnel...
October 2018: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
M Burhan Janjua, Brandon Toll, Shashank Ghandi, Michael E Sebert, Dale M Swift, Joshua M Pahys, Amer F Samdani, Steven W Hwang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to elucidate surgical risk factors in neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) with respect to wound site infection after spinal fusion. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all patients treated surgically for NMS between January 2008 and December 2016 (minimum 6 months' follow-up). A sub-cohort of 60 patients with minimum 2 years of follow-up data was also analyzed. RESULTS: In 102 patients (53 boys and 49 girls), the mean age at surgery was 14...
February 15, 2019: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sungjin Kim, Derek Sieburth
The transcription factor Nrf2 plays a critical role in the organism wide-regulation of the antioxidant stress response. The Nrf2 homolog SKN-1 functions in the intestine cell non-autonomously to negatively regulate neuromuscular (NMJ) function in Caenorhabditis elegans To identify additional molecules that mediate SKN-1 signaling to the NMJ, we performed a candidate screen for suppressors of aldicarb-resistance caused by acute treatment with the SKN-1 activator, arsenite. We identified two receptor tyrosine kinases, EGL-15 (fibroblast growth factor receptor, FGFR) and DAF-2 (insulin-like peptide receptor, IR) that are required for NMJ regulation in response to stress...
February 19, 2019: Genetics
Amelia Evoli, Giovanni Antonini, Carlo Antozzi, Antonio DiMuzio, Francesco Habetswallner, Cesare Iani, Maurizio Inghilleri, Rocco Liguori, Renato Mantegazza, Roberto Massa, Elena Pegoraro, Roberta Ricciardi, Carmelo Rodolico
Myasthenia gravis is a well-treatable disease, in which a prompt diagnosis and an adequate management can achieve satisfactory control of symptoms in the great majority of patients. Improved knowledge of the disease pathogenesis has led to recognition of patient subgroups, according to associated antibodies, age at onset and thymus pathology, and to a more personalized treatment. When myasthenia gravis is suspected on clinical grounds, diagnostic confirmation relies mainly on the detection of specific antibodies...
February 18, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Daria Neyroud, Melina Gonzalez, Sarah Mueller, Daniel Agostino, Sidney Grosprêtre, Nicola A Maffiuletti, Bengt Kayser, Nicolas Place
PURPOSE: No studies have evaluated the potential benefits of wide-pulse high-frequency (WPHF) neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) despite it being an interesting alternative to conventional NMES. Hence, this study evaluated neuromuscular adaptations induced by 3 weeks of WPHF NMES. METHODS: Ten young healthy individuals (training group) completed nine sessions of WPHF NMES training spread over 3 weeks, whereas seven individuals (control group) only performed the first and last sessions...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yvonne Nyavor, Rachel Estill, Hannah Edwards, Hailey Ogden, Kaila Heideman, Kiefer Starks, Christopher Miller, George May, Lance Flesch, John McMillan, Martin Gericke, Larry Forney, Onesmo Balemba
Diabetic patients suffer from gastrointestinal disorders associated with dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis of gut microbiota; however, gender differences are not fully known. Previous studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) causes type two diabetes (T2D) in male mice after 4-8 weeks but only does so in female mice after 16 weeks. This study seeks to determine whether sex influences the development of intestinal dysmotility, enteric neuropathy and dysbiosis in mice fed HFD. We fed 8-week-old C57BL6 male and female mice a standard chow diet (SCD) or a 72% kcal HFD for 8 weeks...
February 18, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Deborah Solomonow-Avnon, Amir Herman, Uriel Giwnewer, Nimrod Rozen, Avi Elbaz, Amit Mor, Alon Wolf
Footwear devices that shift foot center of pressure (COP), thereby impacting lower-limb biomechanics to produce clinical benefit, have been studied regarding degenerative diseases of knee and hip joints, exhibiting evidence of clinical success. Ability to purposefully affect trunk biomechanics has not been investigated for this type of footwear. Fifteen healthy young male subjects underwent gait and electromyography analysis using a biomechanical device that shifts COP via moveable convex elements attached to the shoe sole...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Yongzhong Li, Xuyang Zhang, Jie Dai, Jiasheng Wang, Hao Wu, Junhui Liu, Jian Chen, Yixiao Zhu, Fengdong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) have shown good clinical results. However, there is limited information about the post-operative improvement in back muscle function. We aimed to determine whether changes in neuromuscular patterns, assessed using the flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP), could be observed following PELD surgery. METHODS: Thirty patients participated in the study...
February 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Mark De Ste Croix, Michal Lehnert, Eliska Maixnerova, Amr Zaatar, Zdenek Svoboda, Michal Botek, Renata Varekova, Petr Stastny
Poor neuromuscular control and fatigue have been proposed as a risk factor for non-contact injuries especially around peak height velocity (PHV). This study explored the effects of competitive soccer match-play on neuromuscular performance and muscle damage in male youth soccer players. 24 youth players aged 13-16y were split into a PHV group (-0.5 to 0.5y) and post PHV group (1.0-2.5y) based on maturity off-set. Leg stiffness, reactive strength index (RSI), muscle activation, creatine kinase (CK), and muscle soreness were determined pre and post a competitive soccer match...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Eric Lichtenstein, Oliver Faude, Aline Zubler, Ralf Roth, Lukas Zahner, Roland Rössler, Timo Hinrichs, Jaap H van Dieën, Lars Donath
Background: Assessing traditional neuromuscular fall risk factors (i.e., balance, gait, strength) in the elderly has so far mainly been done independently. Functional and integrative testing approaches are scarce. The present study proposes an agility course for an integrative assessment of neuromuscular and also cardiocirculatory capacity in seniors - and tests its criterion validity and reliability. Methods: Thirty-six seniors (age: 69.0 ± 2.8 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2 ; sex: 19 males/17 females; weekly physical activity: 9...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Chetan P Phadke, Luciana Vierira, Sunita Mathur, Gerson Cipriano, Farooq Ismail, Chris Boulias
Background: Passive leg cycling is an important clinical tool available for rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Passive cycling can be used to derive exercise-related benefits in patients with poor motor control. There have been a number of studies examining the effects of passive cycling on a variety of outcomes. There is need for a systematic assessment of the cycling parameters and the associated clinical changes in cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and musculoskeletal outcomes after passive cycling...
2019: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Dhritiman Chakrabarti, Sriganesh Kamath, K R Madhusudan Reddy, Deepti B Srinivas, Nitin Manohar, Dheeraj Masapu
Background and Aims: The study was conceived to elucidate the effects of dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjunct to propofol (total intravenous anesthesia) on anesthetic dose reduction and anesthesia recovery parameters in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA) surgeries. Material and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted on 49 patients (25 with dexmedetomidine, 24 without). After standardized anesthetic induction, anesthesia was maintained using propofol (via target controlled infusion, titrated to maintain BIS between 40 and 60), fentanyl (0...
October 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Pâmela Buratti, Caroline Covatti, Lígia Aline Centenaro, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Marcia Miranda Torrejais
Knowledge of skeletal muscle adaptations is important to understand the functional deficits in cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to investigate the morphofunctional characteristics of skeletal muscle in a CP animal model. Initially, pregnant Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline or lipopolysaccharide over the last five days of pregnancy. The control group (n = 8) consisted of male pups born to females injected with saline. The CP group (n = 8) consisted of male pups born to females injected with lipopolysaccharide, which were submitted to perinatal anoxia [day of birth, postnatal day 0 (P0)] and sensorimotor restriction (P1-P30)...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
A Munro, D McKeen, J Coolen
A 70 kg, 34-year-old woman at 29 weeks-of-gestation required intrauterine transfusion for Rh (D) alloimmunization. In the ambulatory treatment clinic, 19 mg of rocuronium was administered intramuscularly in split doses into the fetal buttock. The fetus moved and inadvertent maternal neuromuscular blockade occurred, leading to respiratory distress. The patient was transferred to the operating room where she had poor muscle tone, worsening dyspnea and dysphonia. Sugammadex 100 mg was administered intravenously and complete resolution of neuromuscular blockade was demonstrated using a Neuromuscular Transmission™ monitor...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Tak Kyu Oh, Ah-Young Oh, Jung-Hee Ryu, Bon-Wook Koo, In-Ae Song, Sun Woo Nam, Hee-Jung Jee
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is associated with fewer postoperative complications, but its impact on 30-day unplanned readmission is unclear. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective observational study of patients after major abdominal surgery between 2010 and 2017, where rocuronium was the only neuromuscular blocker used. The primary endpoint was the difference in incidence of 30-day unplanned readmission between reversal with sugammadex or neostigmine. The secondary endpoints were the length of hospital stay after surgery and related hospital charges (total charges excluding those related to surgery and anaesthesia)...
March 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Somnath Bose, Xinling Xu, Matthias Eikermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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