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shoulder girdle

Stephanie Melillo, Philipp Gunz, Hélène Coqueugniot, Stefan Reske, Jean-Jacques Hublin
OBJECTIVES: Purported evolutionary shifts in shoulder structure have been linked to changes in hominin behavior and adaptation. Researchers use clavicle morphology to infer these shifts. However, there is a lack of empirical data underlying such predictive relationships. This study investigates how clavicle morphology affects articulated shoulder girdle and upper thorax configuration in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Landmarks and scalar measurements on the clavicle, scapula, and ribs 1-3 were collected from three-dimensional computed tomographic scans of living humans...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Matthew F Jacques, Rachel C Stockley, Emma I Bostock, Jonathon Smith, Christian G DeGoede, Christopher I Morse
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to present and compare pain between adult males with Duchenne (DMD), Becker's (BMD), Limb-Girdle (LGMD) Facioscapulohumeral (FSHD) forms of Muscular Dystrophy (MD), and healthy controls (CTRL), using three different methods of assessment. METHODS: Pain was assessed using 1) a whole body visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, 2) a generalised body map and 3) a localised body map. RESULTS: All types of MD reported more VAS pain than CTRL, with 97% of all MD participants reporting pain; however, no differences were reported between types of MD...
2019: PloS One
Musa Zaid, Madisyn R Chavez, Adrianna E Carrasco, Melissa N Zimel, Alan L Zhang, Andrew E Horvai, Thomas M Link, Richard J O'Donnell
Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium ) acnes13, 16 is a slow growing, gram-positive bacteria that is naturally found in higher concentrations as skin flora on the chest and back, as well as in other areas with greater numbers of hair follicles.25, 37 Most of the reported cases of C. acnes shoulder girdle infection follow arthroplasty surgery,18, 20, 26, 27, 32, 35 which then often requires debridement, administration of intravenous antibiotics, and surgical revision of the implanted device.12, 15, 21, 28-30 In a recent study, 56% of 193 shoulder revisions had a positive culture, 70% of which grew C...
2019: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
David H Hawkes, Omid A Khaiyat, Anthony J Howard, Graham J Kemp, Simon P Frostick
The shoulder relies heavily on coordinated muscle activity for normal function owing to its limited osseous constraint. However, previous studies have failed to examine the sophisticated interrelationship between all muscles. It is essential for these normal relationships to be defined as a basis for understanding pathology. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to investigate shoulder inter-muscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Twenty healthy subjects were included. Electromyography was recorded from 14 shoulder girdle muscles as subjects performed shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction and extension...
2019: PloS One
Luigi Branca Vergano, Mauro Monesi
Background and aim of the work The term "floating shoulder" was used in a previous paper to describe lesions of at least two components of the SSSC (superior shoulder suspensory complex), a bony-ligamentous structure of the shoulder girdle. Following this article other types of floating shoulder were described, including scapulothoracic dissociation (STD), a rare lesion with potentially devastating consequences, with detachment of the scapular body from the thoracic wall, with following lateralization of the scapula,  fracture of the clavicle or injury of the adiacent sterno-clavear or acromion-clavicular joints...
November 15, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Peter Michael Kilgour, Lesley Watson, Marc Williams
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A healthy 8-year-old boy presented to the ED with acute left shoulder pain. He had been playing football and his left arm was pulled by an opposition team member. He fell to the ground and landed on his left shoulder causing pain. On examination after analgesia, active and passive movement of the shoulder joint was possible in all directions but range of motion was limited by pain. There was no visible swelling or bruising throughout the shoulder girdle. A radiograph of the shoulder was obtained (figure 1)...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Marina Sallum Barusso-Grüninger, Julia Gianjoppe-Santos, Anna Claudia Sentanin, Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo
PURPOSE: It is unclear whether activities of daily living (ADL) and quality-of-life scales reflect real ADL limitations. The aim of the study was to assess the limitation during ADL simulation and to identify whether the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) Scale and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) are able to reflect the patient's real limitations during ADL simulation. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (age = 69 ± 8 y; forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1] = 1...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Marina Machado Cid, Ana Beatriz Oliveira, Leticia Bergamin Januario, Julie N Côté, Roberta de Fátima Carreira Moreira, Pascal Madeleine
PURPOSE: The higher prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among women compared with men could be explained by sex-gender differences related to biological and physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex differences in motor coordination during a sustained and repetitive motor task. METHODS: Seventeen healthy females and 21 healthy males participated. The surface electromyography (sEMG) of the trapezius portions and serratus anterior were recorded...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Samuele Contemori, Roberto Panichi, Andrea Biscarini
According to scapulohumeral rhythm, shoulder abduction is followed through scapular upward rotation to ensure joint mobility and stability. Of interest, the shoulder abduction can be performed holding the scapula in different positions and in association with scapular elevation, with possible effects on shoulder muscle activity. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the activity of relevant shoulder muscles and the activity ratios between the scapulothoracic muscles, during shoulder abduction performed in different combinations of scapular position (neutral, retracted, protracted) and scapular elevation...
January 16, 2019: Human Movement Science
Natascha Westphal, Kristin Mahlow, Jason James Head, Johannes Müller
BACKGROUND: The evolution of elongated body forms in tetrapods has a strong influence on the musculoskeletal system, including the reduction of pelvic and pectoral girdles, as well as the limbs. However, despite extensive research in this area it still remains unknown how muscles within and around bony girdles are affected by these reductions. Here we investigate this issue using fossorial amphisbaenian reptiles, or worm lizards, as a model system, which show substantial variation in the degree of reductions of girdles and limbs...
January 10, 2019: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Raymond A Huml, Olga Uspenskaya-Cadoz, Jill Dawson, Zachary Slifer
BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a complex, inheritable, and rare muscle disease that affects the entire body. The major symptom of FSHD is progressive weakening and loss of skeletal muscles. The usual location of these weaknesses at onset is the origin of the name: face (facio), shoulder girdle (scapulo), and upper arms (humeral). FSHD appears to have varying molecular and genetic determinants with commensurate differences in disease progression. METHODS: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (MD) is probably the most prevalent form of MD but has neither disease-modifying treatments nor a cure...
January 10, 2019: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Jennifer A Groves, Cody Gillman, Cierra N DeLay, Todd T Kroll
The mammalian homolog of Drosophila empty spiracles 2 (Emx2) is a homeobox transcription factor that plays central roles in early development of the inner ear, pelvic and shoulder girdles, cerebral cortex, and urogenital organs. The role for Emx2 is best understood within the context of the development of the neocortical region of the cortex, where Emx2 is expressed in a high posterior-medial to low anterior-lateral gradient that regulates the partitioning of the neocortex into different functional fields that perform discrete computational tasks...
January 9, 2019: Protein Journal
Yanan Sun, Hai Chen, Yan Lu, Jianying Duo, Lin Lei, Yasheng OuYang, Yifeng Hao, Yuwei Da, Xin-Ming Shen
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD) are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases characterized by weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles. Twenty-four recessive LGMD (types R1-R24) and five dominant LGMD (types D1-D5) have been identified with characterization of mutations in various genes. To date, LGMD D3 (previously known as LGMD1G) has been characterized in only two families with Brazilian or Uruguayan origin. Each was caused by a distinct mutation at codon 378 in the prion-like domain of HNRNPDL encoding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D like (HNRNPDL), an RNA processing protein...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Neurology
Simon M Rosalie, James M Malone
INTRODUCTION: Here we report a case study of an experienced amateur female racing driver (age = 59) with self-reported fatigue of the muscles of the shoulder girdle post bilateral mastectomy and breast reconstruction. This case study describes how adjustment of her driving posture affected measures of muscle fatigue (sEMG) and driving performance (lap-time). METHODS: Bilateral surface electromyographic activity of sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, anterior deltoid and pectoralis major, angles of inclination of the cervical and lumbar spine in the sagittal plane and lap-times were measured at: 1) baseline, 2) after an initial adjustment of driving posture, and 3) after a readjustment of driving posture...
December 12, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
Vincenzo Di Stefano, Carmine Attanasi, Camilla Ferrante, Antonio Di Muzio
Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a rare condition, characterised by weakness of the cervical paraspinal muscles with sagging of the head. It is usually seen in association with neurological disorders and rarely can follow radiotherapy. We report a case of a 54-year-old man survivor of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), who developed DHS 28 years after radiotherapy. He was referred to our department due to progressive weakness and atrophy of cervical paraspinal and shoulder girdle musculature. Physical and neurophysiological examination, electromyography and MRI confirmed the diagnosis of DHS...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sophie Regnault, Stephanie E Pierce
Although evolutionary transformation of the pectoral girdle and forelimb appears to have had a profound impact on mammalian locomotor and ecological diversity, both the sequence of anatomical changes and the functional implications remain unclear. Monotremes can provide insight into an important stage of this evolutionary transformation, due to their phylogenetic position as the sister-group to therian mammals and their mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived features. Here we build a musculoskeletal computer model of the echidna pectoral girdle and forelimb to estimate joint ranges of motion (ROM) and muscle moment arms (MMA)-two fundamental descriptors of biomechanical function...
November 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Stefanie Hirsiger, Anita Hasler, Philipp Fürnstahl, Christian Gerber
BACKGROUND: Chronic anterior sternoclavicular (SC) instability is a rare but potentially disabling condition. It can arise in conjunction with trauma or hyperlaxity, or both. Numerous surgical techniques have been described, but no gold standard exists. SC instability is often position-dependent and can be reduced with the arm in a specific position. METHODS: To directly address this issue, we used a technique of corrective osteotomy of the clavicle with the goal to reorient the articular portion of the medial end of the clavicle so that it remains stable in all functional positions of the arm...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Roderick T Wells, Aaron B Camens
The extinct marsupial 'lion' Thylacoleo carnifex was Australia's largest mammalian carnivore. Despite being the topic of more discussion than any other extinct Australian marsupial (excepting perhaps the Thylacine), basic aspects of its palaeobiology, including its locomotory repertoire, remain poorly understood. Recent discoveries allowed the first reconstruction of an entire skeleton including the first complete tail and hitherto-unrecognised clavicles. Here we describe these elements and re-assess the biomechanics of the postcranial skeleton via comparisons with a range of extant terrestrial, scansorial and arboreal Australian marsupials...
2018: PloS One
Clara Gallego Cerveró, Julio Martín Ruiz, Laura Ruiz Sanchis, Concepción Ros Ros
BACKGROUND: Wind musicians suffer injuries resulting from muscle overuse and poor postural habits, often due to the lack of required physical fitness. For this reason, it is important to study and analyze the characteristics of their activity in order to select appropriate preventive exercises. METHODS: 10 clarinetists, who were experiencing joint pain due to instrumental practice, followed a specific program of physical activity, 3 times a week for 2 months. To assess postural changes after its implementation, the Langlade test and muscle pain scale were used at the beginning and the end of the program...
December 2018: Medical Problems of Performing Artists
Xavier Gasparutto, Erik van der Graaff, Frans C T van der Helm, Dirkjan H E J Veeger
In baseball pitching, biomechanical parameters have been linked to ball velocity and potential injury risk. However, although the features of a biomechanical model have a significant influence on the kinematics and kinetics of a motion, this influence have not been assessed for pitching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the choice of the trunk and shoulder features, by comparing two models using the same input. The models differed in thoraco-humeral joint definition (moving or fixed with the thorax), joint centre estimation, values of the inertial parameters and computational framework...
November 28, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
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