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Olivette Laure Matafack Dongmo, Nadine Joissy Epoh, Herve Tchoumbou Tadjoua, Sammer Yousuf, Phelix Bruno Telefo, Leon Azefack Tapondjou, M Iqbal Choudhary
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. is a leguminous multipurpose tree (Fabaceae) indigenous to tropical Africa. Fruits, seeds and stem bark infusions or decoctions of Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. are used to treat many diseases, such as gastric ulcer, rheumatism, malaria, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. AIM OF THE STUDY: This work was conducted to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Mariana Oliveira Mendes, Alexandra Isabel Rosa, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Maria João Nunes, Pedro Dionísio, Elsa Rodrigues, Daniela Costa, Sara Duarte-Silva, Patrícia Maciel, Cecília Maria Pereira Rodrigues, Maria João Gama, Margarida Castro-Caldas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder, mainly characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and by the presence of intracellular inclusions, known as Lewy bodies. Despite SNpc being considered the primary affected region in PD, the neuropathological features are confined solely to the nigro-striatal axis. With disease progression other brain regions are also affected, namely the cerebral cortex, although the spreading of the neurologic damage to this region is still not completely unraveled...
February 13, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Rahmat Adetutu Adisa, Naimat Kolawole, Lateef A Sulaimon, Bathlomew Brai, Abraham Ijaola
Numerous ethnomedicinal uses have been attributed to different parts of Annona senegalensis (ASE), including its uses as food and food additives. The present study investigated toxicological and antioxidant effects of 28 days administration of ethanol extracts of ASE stem bark to Wistar strain albino rats. Acute toxicity test was done to determine lethal dose in Wistar rats while sub-acute toxicity test was conducted on rats divided into four groups (A - control, B - 50 mg/kg, C - 100 mg/kg, D - 150 mg/kg, respectively and treated for 28 days...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
Anastasios Argyropoulos, Stuart Townley, Paul M Upton, Stephen Dickinson, Adam S Pollard
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) continues to increase in the UK, with associated mortality rates remaining significant. Approximately one fifth of hospital admissions are associated with AKI and approximately a third of patients with AKI in hospital develop AKI during their time in hospital. A fifth of these cases are considered avoidable. Early risk detection remains key to decreasing AKI in hospitals, where sub-optimal care was noted for half of patients who developed AKI...
February 14, 2019: BMC Nephrology
Twan Ten Haaf, Carl Foster, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Maria Francesca Piacentini, Selma van Staveren, Leo Koenderman, Jos J de Koning
The aim of this study is to investigate whether the change in (sub)maximal heart rate after intensified training is associated with the change in performance. Thirty subjects were recruited who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests to exhaustion 2 weeks before (pre), 1 week after (post) and 5 weeks after (follow-up) an 8-day non-competitive amateur cycling event (TFL). The exercise volume during the TFL was 7.7 fold the volume during the preparation period. Heart rate and cardiopulmonary parameters were obtained at standardised absolute submaximal workloads (low, medium and high intensity) and at peak level each test...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Sport Science
Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Johnny K Lee, Tsz Yip, Conrad Sernia, Nickolas A Lavidis, Jereme G Spiers
This data article presents complementary results pertaining to the research article entitled "Sub-acute restraint stress progressively increases oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammatory markers while transiently upregulating antioxidant gene expression in the rat hippocampus" (Chen et al., 2018). The present article provides additional gene expression data of selected neuroinflammatory markers and regulatory enzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions. Male Wistar rats aged 7-8 weeks were exposed to control, 1, 2, or 3 episodes of 6-h restraint stress in the light cycle after which the whole brain was quickly removed and the hippocampus excised for relative gene expression analysis...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Margaret R Caplan, Raphael J Landovitz, Thesla Palanee-Phillips, Gonasagrie Nair, Felix Mhlanga, Jennifer E Balkus, Sharon A Riddler, Pamina M Gorbach
Contraceptive adherence during acute and recent HIV-1 infection is important to maternal and child health given the elevated risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission and additional complications of pregnancy. Injectable contraception (IC) is the most common non-barrier modern contraception method used in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Adherence to IC after HIV-1 seroconversion is not well understood. We examined factors associated with IC discontinuation among women in SSA diagnosed with HIV-1 infection while participating in a clinical trial of biomedical HIV-1 prevention...
February 13, 2019: AIDS Care
Peter Valent, Wolfgang Kern, Gregor Hoermann, Jelena D Milosevic Feenstra, Karl Sotlar, Michael Pfeilstöcker, Ulrich Germing, Wolfgang R Sperr, Andreas Reiter, Dominik Wolf, Michel Arock, Torsten Haferlach, Hans-Peter Horny
The development of leukemia is a step-wise process that is associated with molecular diversification and clonal selection of neoplastic stem cells. Depending on the number and combinations of lesions, one or more sub-clones expand/s after a variable latency period. Initial stages may develop early in life or later in adulthood and include premalignant (indolent) stages and the malignant phase, defined by an acute leukemia. We recently proposed a cancer model in which the earliest somatic lesions are often age-related early mutations detectable in apparently healthy individuals and where additional oncogenic mutations will lead to the development of an overt neoplasm that is usually a preleukemic condition such as a myelodysplastic syndrome...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Holly J Acton, Douglas Mulholland, William C Torreggiani
OBJECTIVES: Interventional radiology plays a central role in the management of complicated acute pancreatitis, contributing to image-guided drainages, treating haemorrhagic complications and maintaining the patency of the biliary tree. In addition, many of these patients require long-term venous access for antibiotics or parenteral feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and level of involvement of the interventional radiology in this sub-group of patients. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective review of all admissions for acute pancreatitis over a 5-year period...
February 13, 2019: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Han-Tao Li, Chih-Hong Lee, Tony Wu, Mei-Yun Cheng, Wei-En Johnny Tseng, Chun-Wei Chang, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Hsing-I Chiang, Chih-Yin Lin, Bao-Luen Chang, Wey-Ran Lin, Siew-Na Lim
BACKGROUND: The incidence of cefepime-induced neurotoxicity (CIN) has been previously underestimated, and there have only been sporadic reports from critical neurological settings. The present study aimed to investigate the potential factors associated with disease development, electroencephalography (EEG) sub-classification, and outcome measures. METHODS: The 10-year medical records of patients who underwent EEG between 2007 and 2016 at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan, and developed encephalopathy after cefepime therapy were retrospectively reviewed...
February 12, 2019: Neurocritical Care
Naruya Ishizue, Shinichi Niwano, Hiroe Niwano, Jun Oikawa, Hironori Nakamura, Takehiro Hashikata, Tazuru Igarashi, Tamami Fujiishi, Tomoharu Yoshizawa, Jun Kishihara, Akira Satoh, Hidehira Fukaya, Junya Ako
The effect of DPP-4 inhibitor on the electrical and structural remodeling in myocardial injury has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that linagliptin, DPP-4 inhibitor, suppresses myocardial remodeling in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial injury model.Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups: 1) sham group, 2) ISP group (subcutaneous ISP injection of 70 mg/kg), and 3) ISP + linagliptin (ISP + Lin) (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) group. Serum was sampled on day 1 (acute phase) and day 7 (sub-acute phase) to evaluate derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (d-ROMs)...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
Nicholas Rogers, John Hermiz, Mehran Ganji, Erik Kaestner, Kıvılcım Kılıç, Lorraine Hossain, Martin Thunemann, Daniel R Cleary, Bob S Carter, David Barba, Anna Devor, Eric Halgren, Shadi A Dayeh, Vikash Gilja
Electrocorticography (ECoG) is becoming more prevalent due to improvements in fabrication and recording technology as well as its ease of implantation compared to intracortical electrophysiology, larger cortical coverage, and potential advantages for use in long term chronic implantation. Given the flexibility in the design of ECoG grids, which is only increasing, it remains an open question what geometry of the electrodes is optimal for an application. Conductive polymer, PEDOT:PSS, coated microelectrodes have an advantage that they can be made very small without losing low impedance...
February 11, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Qixiao Zhai, Xue Gong, Chen Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen
Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin widely found in fruits and vegetables. Several reviews and studies have hypothesized that in vivo PAT toxicity is related to gut barrier dysfunction, but evidence for this is not substantial. The goal of the present study was to further demonstrate the role of the gut barrier in food-borne PAT toxicity. In vitro assays showed that PAT exposure induced significant cell death, inhibited the mRNA expressions of tight junction proteins and increased gut permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayers...
February 11, 2019: Food & Function
Bryony Armson, Jemma Wadsworth, Tito Kibona, Deogratius Mshanga, Veronica L Fowler, Nick J Knowles, Valérie Mioulet, Richard Reeve, Donald P King, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Tiziana Lembo
Under-reporting of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) masks the true prevalence in parts of the world where the disease is endemic. Laboratory testing for the detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is usually reliant upon the collection of vesicular epithelium and fluid samples that can only be collected from acutely infected animals, and therefore animals with sub-clinical infection may not be identified. Milk is a non-invasive sample type routinely collected from dairy farms that has been utilised for surveillance of a number of other diseases...
February 10, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jessica A Timms, Caroline L Relton, Gemma C Sharp, Judith Rankin, Gordon Strathdee, Jill A McKay
The aetiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is unclear. Genetic abnormalities have been identified in a number of ALL cases, although these alone are not sufficient for leukaemic transformation. Various in utero and post-natal environmental exposures have been suggested to alter risk of childhood ALL. DNA methylation patterns can be influenced by environmental exposures, and are reported to be altered in ALL, suggesting a potential mediating mechanism between environment and ALL disease risk...
February 10, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Cheng-Shuang Huang, Mei Tan, Xiang-Mei Zhang, Xi Luo, Run-Mei Tian, Qiong Su, Liu-Song Wu, Yan Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of STAT3 gene in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and its correlation with clinical characteristics. METHODS: The real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the level of STAT3 mRNA in bone marrow samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia(AML), and its relevance with clinical characteristics and prognosis were statistically analyzed. Western blot was employed to detect the STAT3 protein level in AML patients...
February 2019: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Shakier Samie, Kim M Trollope, Lydia-Marié Joubert, Nokwanda P Makunga, Heinrich Volschenk
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Limitations of clinical antifungal treatments and drug-resistance are drivers of the search for novel antifungal strategies. Extracts prepared from the tubers of the medicinal plant, Pelargonium sidoides, are known for their antiviral and antibacterial activities and are used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of acute respiratory infections. Their impact on fungi has not been well characterised. Here, we provide a first report on the antifungal activity of a P...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Paola Brivio, Giulia Corsini, Marco Andrea Riva, Francesca Calabrese
Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant approved in 2013 by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). It combines the modulation of serotonin receptors activity with the inhibition of serotonin transporter (SERT). In this study, we aim at establishing the effect of chronic vortioxetine treatment (5 mg/kg twice/daily) in modulating neuroplastic mechanisms as well as hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) activity under basal condition and in response to an acute challenge...
February 5, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Simone Pappacena, Michael Bailey, Luca Cabrini, Giovanni Landoni, Andrew Udy, David V Pilcher, Paul Young, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Sub-Arachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) are the most common causes of severe acute brain injury in younger Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Dysglycemia (abnormal peak glycemia, glycemic variability, mean glycemia, nadir glycemia) is common in these patients but its comparative outcome associations are unclear. METHODS: In a retrospective, cross-sectional, study of adults admitted to Australian and New Zealand ICUs with TBI and SAH (TBI&SAH) from 2005 to 2015, we studied the relationship between multiple aspects of early (first 24 hours) dysglycemia and mortality and compared TBI and SAH patients with the general ICU population and with each other...
February 7, 2019: Minerva Anestesiologica
Ethan Nyberg, Ashley Farris, Aine O'Sullivan, Ricardo Rodriguez, Warren L Grayson
Large craniofacial bone defects remain a clinical challenge due to their complex shapes and large volumes. Stem cell-based technologies that deliver osteogenic stem cells have shown remarkable regenerative potential but are hampered by the need for extensive in vitro manipulation prior to implantation. To address this, we explored the bone forming potential of the clinically-relevant stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells obtained from human lipoaspirate. SVF cells can be isolated for acute use in the operating room and contain a sub-population of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) that can develop mineralized tissue...
February 8, 2019: Tissue Engineering. Part A
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