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Lactate homeostasis

Hector Rosas-Hernandez, Claudia Escudero-Lourdes, Manuel A Ramirez-Lee, Elvis Cuevas, Susan M Lantz, Syed Z Imam, Waqar Majeed, Shawn E Bourdo, Merle G Paule, Alexandru S Biris, Syed F Ali
Graphene-based nanomaterials hold the potential to be used in a wide variety of applications, including biomedical devices. Pristine graphene (PG) is an un-functionalized, defect-free type of graphene that could be used as a material for neural interfacing. However, the neurotoxic effects of PG, particularly to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), have not been fully studied. The BBB separates the brain tissue from the circulating substances in the blood and is essential to maintain the brain homeostasis. The principal components of the BBB are brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), which maintain a protectively low permeability due to the expression of tight junction proteins...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
N Krattenmacher, G Thaller, J Tetens
The focus of modern dairy cow breeding programs has shifted from being mainly yield based toward balanced goals that increasingly consider functional traits such as fertility, metabolic stability, and longevity. To improve these traits, a less pronounced energy deficit postpartum is considered a key challenge. On the other hand, feed efficiency and methane emissions are gaining importance, possibly leading to conflicts in the design of breeding goals. Dry matter intake (DMI) is one of the major determinants of energy balance (EB), and recently some efforts were undertaken to include DMI in genomic breeding programs...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Anna Kurpińska, Joanna Suraj, Emilia Bonar, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Marta Stojak, Magdalena Sternak, Agnieszka Jasztal, Maria Walczak
INTRODUCTION: The tumor-promoting rearrangement of the lungs facilitates the process of cancer cell survival in a foreign microenvironment and enables their protection against immune defense. The study aimed to define the fingerprint of the early rearrangement of the lungs via the proteomic profiling of the lung tissue in the experimental model of tumor metastasis in a murine 4 T1 mammary adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studies were performed on 7-8-week-old BALB/c female mice...
February 11, 2019: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Xiaobin Xu, Shijun Fan, Yuanqiao Guo, Ruei Tan, Junyu Zhang, Wenhua Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Nobumasa Kato
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor widely used to manufacture consumer goods. Although the thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting potential of BPA has been thought to be responsible for the neuropsychiatric deficits in the animals that experienced perinatal BPA exposure, the TH availability change at the level of specific brain structures has not been subject to systematic investigation. METHODS: In the present study the impacts of perinatal BPA exposure (0...
February 13, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Thierry Léveillard, Nancy J Philp, Florian Sennlaub
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood⁻retina barrier and facilitates the transepithelial transport of glucose into the outer retina via GLUT1. Glucose is metabolized in photoreceptors via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) but also by aerobic glycolysis to generate glycerol for the synthesis of phospholipids for the renewal of their outer segments. Aerobic glycolysis in the photoreceptors also leads to a high rate of production of lactate which is transported out of the subretinal space to the choroidal circulation by the RPE...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Fernández-Alacid, Ignasi Sanahuja, Borja Ordóñez-Grande, Sergio Sánchez-Nuño, Ginés Viscor, Enric Gisbert, Marcelino Herrera, Antoni Ibarz
Knowledge concerning the health and welfare of fish is important to conserve species diversity. Fish mucosal surfaces, and particularly the skin, are of utmost importance to protect the integrity and homeostasis of the body and to prevent skin infections by pathogens. We performed three trials simulating different environmental and anthropogenic challenges: fish capture (air exposure), bacterial infection and fasting, with the aim of evaluating epidermal mucus as a non-invasive target of studies in fish. In this initial approach, we selected three well-known marine species: meagre (Argyrosomus regius), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) for our study...
December 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Palayyan Salin Raj, Sasi U S Swapna, Kozhiparambil G Raghu
Oxidative stress and associated complications are the major pathological concerns of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). We aim to elucidate the mechanisms by which high glucose (HG) induced alteration in calcium homeostasis and evaluation of the beneficial effect of two concentrations (10 and 25 μM) of ferulic acid (FA). HG was induced in H9c2 cardiomyoblast by treating with glucose (33 mM) for 48 h, and FA was co-treated. [Ca2+ ]i overload was found increased significantly with HG. For elucidation of mechanism, the SERCA pathway and mitochondrial integrity (transmembrane potential and permeability transition pore) were explored...
February 10, 2019: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Minori Ishitobi, Toshio Hosaka, Naru Morita, Ken Kondo, Toshitaka Murashima, Atsuko Kitahara, Kazuto Takahashi, Yoshikazu Sumitani, Toshiaki Tanaka, Toshihiko Yokoyama, Takuma Kondo, Hitoshi Ishida
AIMS: It was recently reported that lactate acts as a metabolic mediator and rises in the diabetic state, but the physiological effects are as yet poorly understood. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the significance of serum lactate elevation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Fasting serum lactate levels, hematological and inflammatory serum markers and anthropometric parameters, obtained employing bioelectric impedance analysis, were measured in 103 patients with T2DM...
January 31, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Muhammad Akram, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah, Naveed Munir, Muhammad Daniyal, Imtiaz Mahmood Tahir, Zahed Mahmood, Muhammad Irshad, Muhammad Akhlaq, Sabira Sultana, Rida Zainab
The hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt acts as an essential component of cellular metabolism in maintaining carbon homeostasis. The HMP shunt comprises two phases viz. oxidative and nonoxidative, which provide different intermediates for the synthesis of biomolecules like nucleotides, DNA, RNA, amino acids, and so forth; reducing molecules for anabolism and detoxifying the reactive oxygen species during oxidative stress. The HMP shunt is significantly important in the liver, adipose tissue, erythrocytes, adrenal glands, lactating mammary glands and testes...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Shankarappa Manjunatha, Priska Summer, Srinivas Gopala, Piotr Zabeilski, Surendra Dasari, Patrick M Vanderboom, Ian R Lanza, Katherine A Klaus, K Sreekumaran Nair
Despite the strong association between diabetes and dementia, it remains to be fully elucidated how insulin deficiency adversely affects brain functions. We show that insulin deficiency in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice decreased mitochondrial ATP production and/or citrate synthase and cytochrome oxidase activities in the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. Concomitant decrease in mitochondrial fusion proteins and increased fission proteins in these brain regions likely contributed to altered mitochondrial function...
January 24, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Gerald A Dienel
Glycogen levels in resting brain and its utilization rates during brain activation are high, but the functions fulfilled by glycogenolysis in living brain are poorly understood. Studies in cultured astrocytes have identified glycogen as the preferred fuel to provide ATP for Na+ ,K+ -ATPase for the uptake of extracellular K+ and for Ca2+ -ATPase to pump Ca2+ into the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies in astrocyte-neuron co-cultures led to the suggestion that glycogen-derived lactate is shuttled to neurons as oxidative fuel to support glutamatergic neurotransmission...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Patrick J Gleeson, Ilaria Alice Crippa, Wasineenart Mongkolpun, Federica Zama Cavicchi, Tess Van Meerhaeghe, Serge Brimioulle, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Jean-Louis Vincent, Jacques Creteur
OBJECTIVES: To characterize renin in critically ill patients. Renin is fundamental to circulatory homeostasis and could be a useful marker of tissue-perfusion. However, diurnal variation, continuous renal replacement therapy and drug-interference could confound its use in critical care practice. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Single-center, mixed medical-surgical ICU in Europe. PATIENTS: Patients over 18 years old with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate greater than 30 mL/min/1...
February 2019: Critical Care Medicine
Yang Zhang, Jia Min
PURPOSE: Preoperative carbohydrate loading (CHO) could improve insulin sensitivity and promoted postoperative recovery under general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CHO on gynecological patients. METHODS: A group of 58 female patients undergoing surgery were randomized to either fast overnight (the FAST group) or receive 800 ml of CHO the evening before and 400 ml 2 h before anesthesia (the CHO group).The perioperative well-being and the nutritional status, as determined by blood samples for three biochemical assays (the base status, the status after the operation, and the status on the first day after the operation), were recorded...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
David M Keohane, Trevor Woods, Yvonne McCarthy, Patrick O'Connor, Sean Underwood, Michael G Molloy
This repeated-measures case series describes the changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition and systemic inflammation in 4 well-trained athletes pre- and post-completion of an unsupported transatlantic rowing race. The acute effects of endurance exercise have been well described previously, but the enduring consequences of ultra-endurance on the cardiorespiratory, metabolic and immune systems are largely unknown. This study explores these physiological adaptations following 2 weeks of recovery. Cardiorespiratory fitness testing, body composition analysis, and blood sampling for inflammatory cytokines were recorded immediately before race departure and repeated 14 days following race completion...
January 14, 2019: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Fatima Zahra Ouardi, Hammou Anarghou, Hafsa Malqui, Nabila Ouasmi, Mohammed Chigr, Mohamed Najimi, Fatiha Chigr
Environmental factors such as pesticides are considered key determinants of brain damage and brain dysfunction. In the present work, we investigated the effect of an organophosphate pesticide, i.e., malathion, administrated peri- and postnatally on the antioxidant system as well as on acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in the brains of mice pups during the three postnatal weeks. Furthermore, we analyzed the behavior of the offspring just after weaning to assess the eventual effect of the pesticide on anxiety traits and social interaction...
January 12, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Ruiying Wang, Min Wang, Shan Wang, Ke Yang, Ping Zhou, Xueheng Xie, Qi Cheng, Jingxue Ye, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity remains an important concern in drug discovery and clinical medication. Meanwhile, Sophora tonkinensis Gapnep. (S. tonkinensis) held great value in the clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine, but cardiotoxic effects were reported, with matrine, oxymatrine, cytisine, and sophocarpine being the primary toxic components. METHODS: In this study, impedance and extracellular field potential (EFP) of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) were recorded using the cardio non-labeled cell function analysis and culture system (Cardio-NLCS)...
January 11, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Qingsong Hu, Chunlai Li, Shouyu Wang, Yajuan Li, Bo Wen, Yanyan Zhang, Ke Liang, Jun Yao, Youqiong Ye, Heidi Hsiao, Tina K Nguyen, Peter K Park, Sergey D Egranov, David H Hawke, Jeffrey R Marks, Leng Han, Mien-Chie Hung, Bing Zhang, Chunru Lin, Liuqing Yang
Despite the structural conservation of PTEN with dual-specificity phosphatases, there have been no reports regarding the regulatory mechanisms that underlie this potential dual-phosphatase activity. Here, we report that K27-linked polyubiquitination of PTEN at lysines 66 and 80 switches its phosphoinositide/protein tyrosine phosphatase activity to protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity. Mechanistically, high glucose, TGF-β, CTGF, SHH, and IL-6 induce the expression of a long non-coding RNA, GAEA (Glucose Aroused for EMT Activation), which associates with an RNA-binding E3 ligase, MEX3C, and enhances its enzymatic activity, leading to the K27-linked polyubiquitination of PTEN...
January 10, 2019: Cell Research
Nathan A Snyder, Mitchell V Palmer, Timothy A Reinhardt, Kyle W Cunningham
Milk is a hallmark of mammals that is critical for normal growth and development of offspring. During biosynthesis of lactose in the Golgi complex, H+ is produced as a byproduct and there is no known mechanism for maintaining luminal pH within the physiological range.  Here, using conditional, tissue-specific knockout mice, immunostaining, and biochemical assays, we test whether the putative H+ /Ca2+ /Mn2+  exchanger known as TMEM165 (transmembrane protein 165) participates in normal milk production.  We find TMEM165 is crucial in the lactating mammary gland for normal biosynthesis of lactose and for normal growth rates of nursing pups...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Oleg Pisarenko, Irina Studneva, Alexander Timoshin, Oksana Veselova
Disturbed homeostasis of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the causes of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury during open-heart surgery. This study was designed to explore mechanisms of action of dinitrosyl iron complexes with reduced glutathione ({(GS- )2 Fe+ (NO+ )2 }+ , DNIC-GS) added to crystalloid cardioplegia or reperfusion solution in isolated working rat hearts. Hearts of male Wistar rats were subjected to cardioplegic arrest by St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution (STH) and normothermic global ischemia followed by reperfusion...
January 6, 2019: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Dezhen Wang, Sen Yan, Jin Yan, Miaomiao Teng, Zhiyuan Meng, Ruisheng Li, Zhiqiang Zhou, Wentao Zhu
Previous in vitro studies have implied that triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) may act as an obesogen. However, its specific contributions to the progression of obesity and related metabolic diseases are still unclear in vivo in mice. In this study, we evaluated the effects of in utero and lactational exposure to three doses of TPHP (10, 100, and 1000 μg/kg BW) on obesity and metabolic dysfunctions in adult male mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD), by examining body weight, liver weight, histopathology, blood biochemistry, gene expression, and gut microbiota compositions and metabolic functions...
December 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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