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Epilepsy, seizure, neuromodulation

Ali Izadi, Aleksandr Pevzner, Darrin J Lee, Arne D Ekstrom, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene G Gurkoff
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is most prevalent among focal epilepsies, and nearly one-third of patients are refractory to pharmacological intervention. Persistent cognitive and neurobehavioral comorbidities also occur due to the recurrent nature of seizures and medication-related side effects. HYPOTHESIS: Electrical neuromodulation is an effective strategy to reduce seizures both in animal models and clinically, but its efficacy to modulate cognition remains unclear...
January 17, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Alje van Hoorn, Thomas Carpenter, Katy Oak, Richard Laugharne, Howard Ring, Rohit Shankar
Influential theories propose an important role for the autonomic nervous system in social behaviour and emotion regulation. Difficulties with these capabilities occur in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulation technique that stimulates autonomic pathways by means of an electrode implanted around the left vagus nerve in the neck. It is a licenced treatment for epilepsy and depression. This study searches the literature for evidence of VNS effects on behaviour in ASD...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Thapanee Somboon, Madeleine M Grigg-Damberger, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer
Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder in the US, affecting over 2.2 million people. Epilepsy is associated with a number of medical and psychiatric comorbidities, higher health care utilization, cost and substantial economic burden. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is 2-fold more common in adults with epilepsy than age-matched controls and the incidence increases with age. Self-reported daytime sleepiness is not helpful in predicting OSA, possibly related to the ceiling effect of general sleepiness among people with epilepsy from diverse causes...
January 31, 2019: Chest
Roland D Thijs, Rainer Surges, Terence J O'Brien, Josemir W Sander
Epilepsy is one of the most common serious brain conditions, affecting over 70 million people worldwide. Its incidence has a bimodal distribution with the highest risk in infants and older age groups. Progress in genomic technology is exposing the complex genetic architecture of the common types of epilepsy, and is driving a paradigm shift. Epilepsy is a symptom complex with multiple risk factors and a strong genetic predisposition rather than a condition with a single expression and cause. These advances have resulted in the new classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies...
January 24, 2019: Lancet
Ewa E Bres, Andreas Faissner
Astrocytes are heterogeneous cells of the central nervous system whose uptake of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators can influence synaptic signaling. Any malfunction in this process can lead to serious defects in synaptic transmission found in, for example, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or epilepsy.Here we describe how to visualize the uptake of an extracellularly located protein by in vitro cultured astrocytes on the example of tissue plasminogen activator, a serine protease tightly involved in long-term potentiation and seizure generation...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ali Izadi, Katelynn Ondek, Amber Schedlbauer, Inna Keselman, Kiarash Shahlaie, Gene Gurkoff
Focal epilepsies represent approximately half of all diagnoses, and more than one-third of these patients are refractory to pharmacologic treatment. Although resection can result in seizure freedom, many patients do not meet surgical criteria, as seizures may be multifocal in origin or have a focus in an eloquent region of the brain. For these individuals, several U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved electrical stimulation paradigms serve as alternative options, including vagus nerve stimulation, responsive neurostimulation, and stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus...
December 2018: Epilepsia open
Joshua A Adkinson, Bharat Karumuri, Timothy N Hutson, Rui Liu, Omar Alamoudi, Ioannis Vlachos, Leonidas Iasemidis
Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with antiepileptic drug resistant (intractable) epilepsy. This clinical need is only partially fulfilled through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroence-phalogram (EEG) at seizures' onset (the so-called gold standard for focus localization in epilepsy). We herein present a novel method of multivariate analysis of the EEG that appears to be very promising for an objective and robust localization of the epileptogenic focus at seizures' onset...
December 11, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Toni Kulju, Joonas Haapasalo, Sirpa Rainesalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Jukka Peltola
OBJECTIVES: Until now, the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment in epilepsy has consisted of two different modes: normal and magnet stimulation. A new vagus nerve stimulator model (106 AspireSR®, LivaNova, Houston, TX, USA) also allows automatic stimulation (AutoStim). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of autostimulation on seizure frequencies together with energy consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material consisted of 14 patients whose former stimulator model (102/103) was replaced with model 106...
December 14, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEIn this study, the authors investigated high-frequency oscillation (HFO) networks during seizures in order to determine how HFOs spread from the focal cerebral cortex and become synchronized across various areas of the brain.METHODSAll data were obtained from stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) signals in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The authors calculated intercontact cross-coefficients between all pairs of contacts to construct HFO networks in 20 seizures that occurred in 5 patients...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Matthew S Markert, Robert S Fisher
Neuromodulation devices can be safe and effective for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. A body of scientific work supports peripheral, subcortical and cortical targets, each with different fundamental methods of action. Areas covered: High-quality evidence is available for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and responsive neurostimulation (RNS). Mechanistic research in animals and human studies are reviewed, along with key data from VNS, DBS, and RNS clinical trials. Specifically, the authors review some of the science behind the most frequently used medical devices for neuromodulation, the evidence that lead to their adoption, a delineation of the populations that often benefit from these devices, and perspectives on clinical practice to optimize benefit in treatment of seizures...
December 11, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
John P Andrews, Abhijeet Gummadavelli, Pue Farooque, Jennifer Bonito, Christopher Arencibia, Hal Blumenfeld, Dennis D Spencer
Importance: Seizures recur in as many as half of patients who undergo surgery for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Understanding why TLE is resistant to surgery in some patients may reveal insights into epileptogenic networks and direct new therapies to improve outcomes. Objective: To characterize features of surgically refractory TLE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Medical records from a comprehensive epilepsy center were retrospectively reviewed for 131 patients who received a standard anteromedial temporal resection by a single surgeon from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2015...
December 3, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Chaoyi Kang, Ting Chia Chang, Jesse Vo, Jayant Charthad, Marcus Weber, Amin Arbabian, Srikanth Vasudevan
Neuromodulation devices have been approved for the treatment of epilepsy and seizures, with many other applications currently under research investigation. These devices rely on implanted battery powered pulse generators, that require replacement over time. Miniaturized ultrasound powered implantable devices have the potential to eliminate the need for batteries in neuromodulation devices. While these devices have been assessed in vitro, long-term in vivo assessment is required to determine device safety and performance...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Maxime O Baud, Vikram R Rao
The current paradigm for treatment of epilepsy begins with trials of antiepileptic drugs, followed by evaluation for resective brain surgery in drug-resistant patients. If surgery is not possible or fails to control seizures, some patients benefit from implanted neurostimulation devices. In addition to their therapeutic benefit, some of these devices have diagnostic capability enabling recordings of brain activity with unprecedented chronicity. Two recent studies using different devices for chronic EEG (i.e...
November 20, 2018: Neurology
Richard Kovács, Zoltan Gerevich, Alon Friedman, Jakub Otáhal, Ofer Prager, Siegrun Gabriel, Nikolaus Berndt
Epilepsy is characterized by the regular occurrence of seizures, which follow a stereotypical sequence of alterations in the electroencephalogram. Seizures are typically a self limiting phenomenon, concluding finally in the cessation of hypersynchronous activity and followed by a state of decreased neuronal excitability which might underlie the cognitive and psychological symptoms the patients experience in the wake of seizures. Many efforts have been devoted to understand how seizures spontaneously stop in hope to exploit this knowledge in anticonvulsant or neuroprotective therapies...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Meiyun Zhang, Chen Wang, Ying Zhang, Ying Chen, Bo Wu, Yuqin Zhang, Fenglou Wang
The integral and individual-scale wavelet entropy of electroencephalogram (EEG) were employed to investigate the information complexity in EEG and to explore the dynamic mechanism of child absence epilepsy (CAE). The digital EEG signals were collected from patients with CAE and normal controls. Time-frequency features were extracted by continuous wavelet transformation. Individual scale power spectrum characteristics were represented by wavelet-transform. The integral and individual-scale wavelet entropy of EEG were computed on the basis of individual scale power spectrum...
April 1, 2018: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Abhijeet Gummadavelli, Hitten P Zaveri, Dennis D Spencer, Jason L Gerrard
Seizures have traditionally been considered hypersynchronous excitatory events and epilepsy has been separated into focal and generalized epilepsy based largely on the spatial distribution of brain regions involved at seizure onset. Epilepsy, however, is increasingly recognized as a complex network disorder that may be distributed and dynamic. Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) is a recent technology that utilizes intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) to detect seizures and delivers stimulation to cortical and subcortical brain structures for seizure control...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Sanjeet S Grewal, Erik H Middlebrooks, Timothy J Kaufmann, Matthew Stead, Brian N Lundstrom, Gregory A Worrell, Chen Lin, Serhat Baydin, Jamie J Van Gompel
When medically intractable epilepsy is multifocal or focal but poorly localized, neuromodulation can be useful therapy. One such technique is deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT). Unfortunately, the ANT is difficult to visualize in standard MRI sequences and its indirect targeting is difficult because of thalamic variability and atrophy in patients with epilepsy. The following study describes the novel use of the fast gray matter acquisition T1 inversion recovery (FGATIR) MRI sequence to delineate the mammillothalamic tract for direct targeting of the ANT through visualizing the termination of the mammillothalamic tract in the ANT...
August 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Franca Tecchio, Carlo Cottone, Camillo Porcaro, Andrea Cancelli, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Giovanni Assenza
Focal epilepsy is a network pathology, where the brain connectivity of the epileptic focus (EF) influences seizure frequency and cortical dysfunction. Growing evidence supports a clinical efficacy of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) in drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). ctDCS effects can be merely attributed to the inhibition of cortical excitability, which is abnormally increased in epilepsy, but its effect on brain network of DRE patients has never been reported. We aimed at exploring the hypothesis that functional connectivity (FC) changes may explain part of ctDCS clinical effects in DRE patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Dario J Englot, Hernan F J Gonzalez, Bryson B Reynolds, Peter E Konrad, Monica L Jacobs, John C Gore, Bennett A Landman, Victoria L Morgan
OBJECTIVE: While epilepsy studies rarely examine brainstem, we sought to examine the hypothesis that temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) leads to subcortical arousal center dysfunction, contributing to neocortical connectivity and neurocognitive disturbances. METHODS: In this case-control study of 26 adult patients with TLE and 26 controls, we used MRI to measure structural and functional connectivity of the cuneiform/subcuneiform nuclei (CSC), pedunculopontine nucleus, and ventral tegmental area...
July 3, 2018: Neurology
Lily C Wong-Kisiel, Thomas Blauwblomme, Mai-Lan Ho, Nathalie Boddaert, Joseph Parisi, Elaine Wirrell, Rima Nabbout
Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is the most common cause of intractable focal epilepsy in children, in whom seizures are most commonly pharmacoresistant from onset. This review summarizes the current understandings of the epidemiology, natural history, and the proposed mechanisms of epileptogenisis in FCD. Advances in neuroimaging techniques have enhanced the recognition of this pathology, which can be subtle. Illustrative neurophysiology and imaging examples are provided to help the clinicians identify diagnostic evidence of suspected FCD...
September 2018: Epilepsy Research
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