E lautenbach | Page 3

Jason L Vassy, Heather M McLaughlin, Heather L McLaughlin, Calum A MacRae, Christine E Seidman, Denise Lautenbach, Joel B Krier, William J Lane, Isaac S Kohane, Michael F Murray, Amy L McGuire, Heidi L Rehm, Robert C Green
As genome sequencing technologies increasingly enter medical practice, genetics laboratories must communicate sequencing results effectively to nongeneticist physicians. We describe the design and delivery of a clinical genome sequencing report, including a one-page summary suitable for interpretation by primary care physicians. To illustrate our preliminary experience with this report, we summarize the genomic findings from 10 healthy participants in a study of genome sequencing in primary care.
2015: Public Health Genomics
Pranita D Tamma, Jennifer H Han, Clare Rock, Anthony D Harris, Ebbing Lautenbach, Alice J Hsu, Edina Avdic, Sara E Cosgrove
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) for the treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) bacteremia is controversial. We compared 14-day mortality of PTZ vs carbapenems as empiric therapy in a cohort of patients with ESBL bacteremia who all received definitive therapy with a carbapenem. METHODS: Patients hospitalized between January 2007 and April 2014 with monomicrobial ESBL bacteremia were included. A decrease of >3 doubling dilutions in the minimum inhibitory concentration for third-generation cephalosporins tested in combination with 4 µg/mL of clavulanic acid was used to confirm ESBL status...
May 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
J A Priebe, M Messingschlager, S Lautenbacher
BACKGROUND: The vigilance-(attentional) avoidance hypothesis (VAH) developed for explaining phobic reactions describes an early attentional bias towards a feared stimulus followed by attentional avoidance of this stimulus. Such a pattern of attentional shifts might also be found when processing of pain-related stimuli is required. The purpose of the present study was to test the VAH for pain-associated stimuli, i.e., faces displaying pain, using the method of eye-tracking in a pain-free sample...
July 2015: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Michael Klompas, Deverick Anderson, William Trick, Hilary Babcock, Meeta Prasad Kerlin, Lingling Li, Ronda Sinkowitz-Cochran, E Wesley Ely, John Jernigan, Shelley Magill, Rosie Lyles, Caroline O'Neil, Barrett T Kitch, Ellen Arrington, Michele C Balas, Ken Kleinman, Christina Bruce, Julie Lankiewicz, Michael V Murphy, Christopher E Cox, Ebbing Lautenbach, Daniel Sexton, Victoria Fraser, Robert A Weinstein, Richard Platt
RATIONALE: The CDC introduced ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions in January 2013. Little is known about VAE prevention. We hypothesized that daily, coordinated spontaneous awakening trials (SATs) and spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) might prevent VAEs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the preventability of VAEs. METHODS: We nested a multicenter quality improvement collaborative within a prospective study of VAE surveillance among 20 intensive care units between November 2011 and May 2013...
February 1, 2015: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Jennifer H Han, Brian Johnston, Irving Nachamkin, Pam Tolomeo, Warren B Bilker, Xiangqun Mao, Connie Clabots, Ebbing Lautenbach, James R Johnson
This study examined molecular and epidemiologic factors associated with Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) among hospitalized patients colonized intestinally with fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli between 2002 and 2004. Among 86 patients, 21 (24%) were colonized with ST131. The proportion of ST131 isolates among colonizing isolates increased significantly over time, from 8% in 2002 to 50% in 2004 (P = 0.003). Furthermore, all 19 clonally related isolates were ST131. Future studies should identify potential transmissibility differences between ST131 and non-ST131 strains...
November 2014: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jimish M Mehta, Kevin Haynes, E Paul Wileyto, Jeffrey S Gerber, Daniel R Timko, Steven C Morgan, Shawn Binkley, Neil O Fishman, Ebbing Lautenbach, Theoklis Zaoutis
OBJECTIVE: Although prior authorization and prospective audit with feedback are both effective antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) strategies, the relative impact of these approaches remains unclear. We compared these core ASP strategies at an academic medical center. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study. METHODS: We compared antimicrobial use during the 24 months before and after implementation of an ASP strategy change. The ASP used prior authorization alone during the preintervention period, June 2007 through May 2009...
September 2014: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jason L Vassy, Denise M Lautenbach, Heather M McLaughlin, Sek Won Kong, Kurt D Christensen, Joel Krier, Isaac S Kohane, Lindsay Z Feuerman, Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby, J Scott Roberts, Lisa Soleymani Lehmann, Carolyn Y Ho, Peter A Ubel, Calum A MacRae, Christine E Seidman, Michael F Murray, Amy L McGuire, Heidi L Rehm, Robert C Green
BACKGROUND: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is already being used in certain clinical and research settings, but its impact on patient well-being, health-care utilization, and clinical decision-making remains largely unstudied. It is also unknown how best to communicate sequencing results to physicians and patients to improve health. We describe the design of the MedSeq Project: the first randomized trials of WGS in clinical care. METHODS/DESIGN: This pair of randomized controlled trials compares WGS to standard of care in two clinical contexts: (a) disease-specific genomic medicine in a cardiomyopathy clinic and (b) general genomic medicine in primary care...
March 20, 2014: Trials
Franziska Lautenbach, Sylvain Laborde, Silvia Achtzehn, Markus Raab
The aims of this study were to examine the influence of salivary cortisol on tennis serve performance in a controlled setting and to investigate if cortisol predicts unique variance in performance beyond a subjective anxiety measure (i.e., Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 [CSAI-2]). Twenty-three tennis players performed two series of second tennis serves separated by an anxiety induction (i.e., arithmetic task). Cortisol was assessed six times during the experiment. Results show that cortisol response and a drop in serving performance are positively correlated (r=...
April 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Henry F Chambers, John G Bartlett, Robert A Bonomo, Christine Chiou, Sara E Cosgrove, Heather R Cross, Robert S Daum, Michele Downing, Scott R Evans, Jane Knisely, Barry N Kreiswirth, Ebbing Lautenbach, Brenda S Mickley, Robin Patel, Melinda M Pettigrew, Keith A Rodvold, Brad Spellberg, Vance G Fowler
Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with developing a clinical research agenda and conducting clinical studies to address the growing public health threat of antibacterial resistance. The ARLG has identified 4 high-priority areas of research: infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention, and diagnostics. The ARLG will be accepting proposals from the scientific community for clinical research that addresses 1 or more of these high-priority areas...
June 2014: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Miriam Kunz, Parvaneh Mohammadian, Bertold Renner, Stephan Roscher, Gerd Kobal, Stefan Lautenbacher
UNLABELLED: Abstract Background: Chemo-somatosensory evoked potentials (CSSEPs) elicited by chemical stimulation (CO₂ gas) of the nasal mucosa have been shown to be sensitive enough to pick up even weak analgesic effects. With the present study we wanted to investigate whether CSSEPs are also a sensitive tool to capture endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms elicited by conditioned pain modulation (CPM; where a first conditioning stimulus reduces the sensitivity for a second test stimulus) with a conditioning stimulus of rather low noxious load...
June 2014: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Miriam Kunz, Jessica Peter, Sonja Huster, Stefan Lautenbacher
The experience of pain and disgust share many similarities, given that both are aversive experiences resulting from bodily threat and leading to defensive reactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether facial expressions are distinct enough to encode the specific quality of pain and disgust or whether they just encode the similar negative valence and arousal level of both states. In sixty participants pain and disgust were induced by heat stimuli and pictures, respectively. Facial responses (Facial Action Coding System) as well as subjective responses were assessed...
2013: PloS One
Miriam Kunz, Kenneth Prkachin, Stefan Lautenbacher
Studies of facial responses during experimental and clinical pain have revealed a surprising phenomenon, namely, that a considerable number of individuals respond with a smile. So far, it is not known why smiling occurs during pain. It is possible that the "smile of pain" is socially motivated (e.g., reinforcing social bonds while undergoing an unpleasant experience). The present studies were conducted in an attempt to address the role of social motives in smiling during pain. In two studies, we varied the quantitative (level of sociality) and qualitative (properties of the relationship between interactants) components of the situations in which participants received painful stimulation...
2013: Pain Research and Treatment
Jennifer H Han, Warren B Bilker, Irving Nachamkin, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Susan E Coffin, Darren R Linkin, Baofeng Hu, Pam Tolomeo, Neil O Fishman, Ebbing Lautenbach
OBJECTIVE: Optimal strategies for limiting the transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp (ESBL-EK) in the hospital setting remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a urine culture screening strategy on the incidence of ESBL-EK. DESIGN: Prospective quasi-experimental study. SETTING: Two intervention hospitals and one control hospital within a university health system from 2005 to 2009...
November 2013: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Timothy Glen Gaulton, Mark Gordon Weiner, Knashawn Hodge Morales, David Foster Gaieski, Jimish Mehta, Ebbing Lautenbach
Sepsis is a major cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Nevertheless, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the epidemiology of sepsis in obese people, who now represent more than one-third of the population in the United States. The objective of this study was to measure the association between obesity and mortality from presumed sepsis. A retrospective cohort study was used of 1,779 adult inpatients with presumed sepsis at a Tertiary Care Academic Institution from March 1, 2007 to June 30, 2011...
March 2014: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Jennifer H Han, Warren B Bilker, Irving Nachamkin, Pam Tolomeo, Xiangqun Mao, Neil O Fishman, Ebbing Lautenbach
OBJECTIVE: Infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (FQREC) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Fluoroquinolone resistance likely arises at the level of gastrointestinal colonization. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the development of FQREC gastrointestinal tract colonization in hospitalized patients, including the impact of antibiotics prescribed during hospitalization. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2002 to 2004 within a university health system...
October 2013: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jennifer H Han, Joel Maslow, Xiaoyan Han, Sharon X Xie, Pam Tolomeo, Evelyn Santana, Lesley Carson, Ebbing Lautenbach
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess risk factors for the development of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli gastrointestinal tract colonization in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 at 3 LTCFs. Residents initially colonized with FQ-susceptible E. coli were followed by means of serial fecal sampling for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization for up to 12 months or until discharge or death...
February 1, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jennifer H Han, Irving Nachamkin, Pam Tolomeo, Xiangqun Mao, Warren B Bilker, Ebbing Lautenbach
The objective of this study was to characterize the temporal variability of fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms among Escherichia coli colonizing the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients. Patients with new fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC) colonization were followed with serial fecal sampling until discharge or death. Genetic mechanism(s) of resistance for all FQREC isolates was characterized, including mutations in gyrA and parC and efflux pump overexpression. Of 451 subjects, 73 (16.2%) became newly colonized with FQREC...
August 2013: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jennifer H Han, Irving Nachamkin, Theoklis E Zaoutis, Susan E Coffin, Darren R Linkin, Neil O Fishman, Mark G Weiner, Baofeng Hu, Pam Tolomeo, Ebbing Lautenbach
We describe the prevalence of and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) in hospitalized patients. The prevalence of colonization with ESBL-EK was 2.6%. Colonization was associated with cirrhosis, longer duration of hospital stay prior to surveillance, and prior exposure to clindamycin or meropenem.
December 2012: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
K A Feemster, Y Li, A R Localio, J Shults, P Edelstein, E Lautenbach, T Smith, J P Metlay
This study investigates neighbourhood variation in rates of pneumococcal bacteraemia and community-level factors associated with neighbourhood heterogeneity in disease risk. We analysed data from 1416 adult and paediatric cases of pneumococcal bacteraemia collected during 2005-2008 from a population-based hospital surveillance network in metropolitan Philadelphia. Cases were geocoded using residential address to measure disease incidence by neighbourhood and identify potential neighbourhood-level risk factors...
August 2013: Epidemiology and Infection
J A Priebe, P Rieckmann, S Lautenbacher
Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and a resulting dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathways including the basal ganglia. Beside motor symptoms, different types of pain (e.g., dystonic musculoskeletal pain or central pain) occur in a considerable number of patients. In addition, abnormalities in pain processing have been observed in PD patients, which may present as increased pain sensitivity. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in disturbed pain processing of PD, however, are still poorly understood...
December 2012: Der Schmerz
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