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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31024972/impact-of-obesity-on-acyclovir-induced-nephrotoxicity
#1
Katie E Barber, Jamie L Wagner, Kayla R Stover
Background: Obesity is a major medical issue nationally, with rates continually increasing. In obese patients, minimal data exist for appropriate dosing of acyclovir to decrease the rates of nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: A retrospective case-control of patients who received intravenous acyclovir for >48 hours at the University of Mississippi Medical Center over a 4-year period were evaluated to elucidate the prevalence of acyclovir-induced nephrotoxicity...
April 2019: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30855592/-local-administration-of-vancomycin-powder-in-posterior-lumbar-fusion-surgery
#2
V A Byvaltsev, I A Stepanov, V E Borisov, A A Kalinin
AIM: To evaluate an efficacy of local administration of vancomycin powder in posterior lumbar fusion surgery for prevention of local infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 214 patients. All patients were divided into 2 groups: I group (control) and II (experimental). Patients of the first group underwent conventional antibiotic prophylaxis of wound infections, in group II traditional antibiotic prophylaxis was supplemented by local administration of vancomycin powder 1 g prior to wound closure...
2019: Khirurgiia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30814457/predominance-of-st22-mrsa-iv-clone-and-emergence-of-clones-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates-collected-from-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-over-a-two-year-period
#3
Wen Kiong Niek, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Nuryana Idris, Kwai Lin Thong, Sasheela Ponnampalavanar
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common nosocomial pathogens, causing mild to severe infections. This study aimed to determine the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of clinical MRSA isolates collected from a teaching hospital from 2014 - 2015. These isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosomal mec (SCCmec) typing, virulence genes detection and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and phenotyped based on their vancomycin susceptibility profiles...
February 28, 2019: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720127/colonic-m1-macrophage-is-associated-with-the-prolongation-of-gastrointestinal-motility-and-obesity-in-mice-treated-with-vancomycin
#4
Yoshihito Inoue, Hirokazu Fukui, Xin Xu, Ying Ran, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in not only the gastrointestinal (GI) immune system but also GI motility and metabolism. Antibiotic treatments are likely to affect the gut flora and GI immune system, subsequently disturbing GI motility and body metabolism. In the present study, we investigated antibiotic‑induced alterations of body metabolism and GI motility in association with the macrophage profile in the colon. Specific pathogen‑free (SPF) mice (ICR; 6 weeks old; female) were orally administered vancomycin (0...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600366/sex-dependent-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-type-1-diabetes-development-in-non-obese-diabetic-nod-mice
#5
Joella Xu, Guannan Huang, Tamas Nagy, Quincy Teng, Tai L Guo
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by immune-mediated pancreatic β-cell destruction. The endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) has widespread human exposure and can modulate immune function and the gut microbiome (GMB), which may contribute to the increasing T1D incidence worldwide. It was hypothesized that BPA had sex-dependent effects on T1D by modulating immune homeostasis and GMB. Adult female and male non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally administered BPA at environmentally relevant doses (30 or 300 µg/kg)...
January 2, 2019: Archives of Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30416622/evaluation-of-a-vancomycin-dosing-nomogram-in-obese-patients-weighing-at-least-100-kilograms
#6
Riley D Bowers, April A Cooper, Catherine L Wente, Dustin T Wilson, Steven W Johnson, Richard H Drew
Background: There remains variability in both practice and evidence related to optimal initial empiric dosing strategies for vancomycin. Objective: Our primary objective was to describe the percentage of obese patients receiving vancomycin doses consistent with nomogram recommendations achieving targeted initial steady-state serum vancomycin concentrations. Secondary objectives were to describe the primary endpoint in subgroups based on patient weight and estimated creatinine clearance, to describe the rate of supratherapeutic vancomycin accumulation following an initial therapeutic trough concentration, and to describe the rate of vancomycin-related adverse events...
July 2018: Pharmacy Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30089301/short-term-microbiota-manipulation-and-forearm-substrate-metabolism-in-obese-men-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Dorien Reijnders, Gijs H Goossens, Gerben D A Hermes, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Ellen E Blaak
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of gut microbiota manipulation on fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle metabolism in humans. METHODS: 40 obese, insulin-resistant males were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic), or placebo (7 days, 1,500 mg/day). Before and after treatment, forearm blood flow and metabolite fluxes across forearm muscle were measured under fasting and postprandial (high-fat mixed-meal) conditions...
2018: Obesity Facts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30018499/physiological-characteristics-and-anti-obesity-effect-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-k10
#8
Seulki Kim, Eunchong Huang, Soyoung Park, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Sang-Dong Lim
This study aimed to investigate the physiological characteristics and anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus plantarum K10. The α-amylase inhibitory activity, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and lipase inhibitory activity of L. plantarum K10 was 94.66±4.34%, 99.78±0.12%, and 87.40±1.41%, respectively. Moreover, the strain inhibited the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (32.61±8.32%) at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. In order to determine its potential for use as a probiotic, we investigated the physiological characteristics of L...
July 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29910467/gut-microbiota-modulate-neurobehavior-through-changes-in-brain-insulin-sensitivity-and-metabolism
#9
Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
December 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29767223/evaluation-of-renal-function-estimation-formulas-specific-to-dynamic-renal-function-for-drug-dosing-in-critically-ill-patients
#10
Lianjie Xiong, Z Kevin Lu, April Miller Quidley, Bebbyn S Alford, P Brandon Bookstaver
OBJECTIVES: The study compared estimated creatinine clearance (eCrCl) between the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation and the Jelliffe, Chiou, and Brater equations designed for estimation in dynamic renal function and resulting antimicrobial dosing concordance of five antimicrobials (cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, vancomycin, and fluconazole) commonly used in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Electronic medical records were used to identify the target patient population...
May 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29693476/effects-of-gut-microbiota-manipulation-on-ex-vivo-lipolysis-in-human-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipocytes
#11
Johan W E Jocken, Dorien Reijnders, Emanuel E Canfora, Mark V Boekschoten, Joghum Plat, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by affecting host lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. To investigate the effects of microbiota manipulation on ex vivo basal and β-adrenergically-stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes, 36 obese men were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic) or placebo treatment (7 d, 1500 mg/d). Before and after treatment, ex vivo adipose tissue lipolysis was assessed under basal conditions and during stimulation with the non-selective β-agonist isoprenaline using freshly isolated mature adipocytes...
2018: Adipocyte
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29655497/the-aahks-clinical-research-award-intraosseous-regional-prophylaxis-provides-higher-tissue-concentrations-in-high-bmi-patients-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-trial
#12
Seung Joon Chin, Grant A Moore, Mei Zhang, Henry D Clarke, Mark J Spangehl, Simon W Young
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an established risk factor for periprosthetic joint infections after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In obese patients, a larger dose of prophylactic vancomycin based on actual body weight is required to reach therapeutic concentrations. It is unclear how tissue concentrations are affected when intraosseous regional administration (IORA) is used in this population. This study compared tissue concentrations of low-dose vancomycin via IORA vs actual body weight-adjusted systemic intravenous (IV) dose in primary TKA...
July 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29606259/-vancomycin-nephrotoxicity-frequency-and-mechanistic-aspects
#13
Yosu Luque, Laurent Mesnard
Vancomycin, discovered in 1953 and widely used today, has a nephrotoxic potential that has long been debated. The frequency of renal involvement is variable and can range from 5% to 30% depending concomitant risk factors: overdose, chronic kidney disease, obesity, hypovolemia, and use of other nephrotoxic drugs as aminoglycosides. Its association with piperacillin-tazobactam also appears to increase the risk of nephrotoxicity. This hypothesis should be confirmed experimentally. Vancomycin-induced oxidative stress in tubular cells and intraluminal cast formation are the two physiopathological mechanisms explaining its nephrotoxicity...
April 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29472508/false-prolongation-of-international-normalized-ratio-associated-with-daptomycin
#14
Susan E Smith, Kelli A Rumbaugh
PURPOSE: Persistent elevation of prothrombin time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) values in a patient receiving daptomycin is reported. SUMMARY: A morbidly obese 51-year-old man was hospitalized for evaluation for surgical intervention for gallstone pancreatitis and biliary obstruction. Previously prescribed warfarin therapy was withheld due to suspected coagulopathy and an elevated INR (5.1), and warfarin reversal was initiated. After undergoing partial cholecystectomy on hospital day 6, the patient developed sepsis and was treated with i...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#15
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29063877/optimisation-of-antimicrobial-dosing-based-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-principles
#16
REVIEW
Grace Si Ru Hoo, Yi Xin Liew, Andrea Lay-Hoon Kwa
While suboptimal dosing of antimicrobials has been attributed to poorer clinical outcomes, clinical cure and mortality advantages have been demonstrated when target pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) indices for various classes of antimicrobials were achieved to maximise antibiotic activity. Dosing optimisation requires a good knowledge of PK/PD principles. This review serves to provide a foundation in PK/PD principles for the commonly prescribed antibiotics (β-lactams, vancomycin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides), as well as dosing considerations in special populations (critically ill and obese patients)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28815425/methodological-study-of-vancomycin-dosing-in-elderly-patients-using-actual-serum-creatinine-versus-rounded-serum-creatinine
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tramaine Young, Matt Daniel, Stephanie Baumhover, Duke Eidson, Jane Green
PURPOSE: The practice of intentional rounding up of serum creatinine (SCr) in elderly patients with low measured values can lead to an underestimation of creatinine clearance and subsequent inaccurate dosing of medications. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of vancomycin dose calculations for patients aged ≥65 years using an SCr rounded up to 1 mg/dL versus actual SCr. METHODS: This study compared the difference between measured steady-state vancomycin trough concentrations with predicted trough concentrations that have been calculated using rounded SCr and actual SCr...
September 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28807918/relationships-of-vancomycin-pharmacokinetics-to-body-size-and-composition-using-a-novel-pharmacomorphomic-approach-based-on-medical-imaging
#18
Manjunath P Pai, Brian A Derstine, Matt Lichty, Brian E Ross, June A Sullivan, Grace L Su, Stewart C Wang
Antibiotics such as vancomycin are empirically dosed on the basis of body weight, which may not be optimal across the expanding adult body size distribution. Our aim was to compare the relationships between morphomic parameters generated from computed tomography images to conventional body size metrics as predictors of vancomycin pharmacokinetics (PK). This single-center retrospective study included 300 patients with 1,622 vancomycin concentration (52% trough) measurements. Bayesian estimation was used to compute individual vancomycin volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc) and clearance (CL)...
November 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28709394/intravenous-vancomycin-associated-with-the-development-of-nephrotoxicity-in-patients-with-class-iii-obesity
#19
Yookyung Christy Choi, Stephen Saw, Daniel Soliman, Angela L Bingham, Laura Pontiggia, Krystal Hunter, Linda Chuang, Laura A Siemianowski, Benjamin Ereshefsky, James M Hollands
BACKGROUND: A consensus statement recommends initial intravenous (IV) vancomycin dosing of 15-20 mg/kg every 8- 24 hours, with an optional 25- to 30-mg/kg loading dose. Although some studies have shown an association between weight and the development of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity, results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between incidence of nephrotoxicity associated with weight-based IV vancomycin dosing strategies in nonobese and obese patients...
November 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28699136/intrawound-application-of-vancomycin-changes-the-responsible-germ-in-elective-spine-surgery-without-significant-effect-on-the-rate-of-infection-a-randomized-prospective-study
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
B Mirzashahi, M Chehrassan, S M J Mortazavi
PURPOSE: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a costly complication associated with spine surgery. The impact of intrawound vancomycin has not been strongly postulated to decrease the risk of surgical site infection. We designed study to determine whether intrawound vancomycin application reduces the risk of SSI in patients after spine surgery. METHODS: A prospective randomized control trial study to evaluate the patients with elective spine surgery in a period of 15 month was designed...
April 2018: Musculoskeletal Surgery
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