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cadaver dissection

Shogo Kikuta, Joe Iwanaga, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: During routine dissection of the anterior craniocervical junction (CCJ), a variant ligament just anterior to the articular capsule of the atlantooccipital joint was observed. To our knowledge, no literature has previously described this ligament. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the anatomy, incidence, and biomechanics of this undescribed structure of the anterior atlantooccipital joint. METHODS: Twenty-six sides from 13 fresh-frozen adult cadavers were used for this study and the morphology of the variant ligament examined...
February 19, 2019: European Spine Journal
Fengxia Liu, Abudureyimujiang Ruze, Siyiti Amuti, Shuiquan Wang, Shenguo Chen, Adilijiang Yiming, Kun Xiong
During an educational dissection of a 72-year-old Chinese male cadaver, the hemiazygos vein (HAV) coursing the left side that drains into the persistent left superior vena cava was observed. The HAV was formed at the junction of the 9th to 11th right posterior intercostal veins, right subcostal vein, 5th to 11th left posterior intercostal veins, and left subcostal vein; it then ascended posteriorly to the thoracic aorta. After collecting the accessory hemiazygos vein, it crossed over the aorta and the pedicle of the left lung via the hemiazygos arch, then converged with a communicative branch (vein of Marshall) that emerged from the left brachiocephalic vein to form the persistent left superior vena cava and entered the pericardium at the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra...
February 18, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Nadir Paksoy
The Westernization efforts initiated in the Ottoman Empire (also historically known as the Turkish Empire) in the 1800s also addressed medical training. Sultan Mahmud II opened a Western-style medical school, the Imperial School of Medicine, in Galatasaray, Istanbul, in 1839. Dr. Karl Ambros Bernard (1808-1895) from Vienna, who was educated at the Josephinum Military Medical Academy, was appointed as the director. The Sultan allowed the use of cadavers and autopsies, provided that they were carried out on deceased Christians...
February 18, 2019: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
P C Vani, S S S N Rajasekhar, V Gladwin
We report an unusual and multiple variation involving the right head and neck veins which were found during routine dissection in a 50-year-old male cadaver, facial vein draining into both external and internal jugular veins, fenestration in external jugular vein transmitting the supraclavicular nerve trunk, the anterior division of the retromandibular vein draining into anterior jugular vein and the absence of the common facial vein. The knowledge about these variations is important during various surgical and diagnostic procedures involving head and neck region...
February 18, 2019: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Joe Iwanaga, Shogo Kikuta, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Air insufflation has been used for various surgical procedures such as during laparoscopy. We hypothesized that the use of pressurized air might enable cadaveric dissection to differentiate smaller veins better than traditional dissection techniques. METHODS: In three fresh-frozen cadavers, the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right or left femoral veins were exposed just distal to the inguinal ligament and a needle placed into one of them. Pressurized air was then placed into the cannulated femoral vein using an air compressor...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Anatomy
Zachariah Pinter, Rucker Staggers, Sung Lee, Shelby Bergstresser, Ashish Shah, Sameer Naranje
PURPOSE: Posterior capsular contracture is a potential consequence of osteoarthritis, post-traumatic arthritis, and surgical procedures of the knee. Many patients who undergo TKA will be found to have some degree of flexion contracture intraoperatively, which necessitates posterior capsular release. There is no information in the literature about the safety of posterior capsular release done during TKA. The present cadaveric study investigates the safety of posterior capsular release during TKA...
February 14, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Adeline L Goss, Vidya Viswanathan, Horace M DeLisser
Medical schools are increasingly integrating professionalism training into their gross anatomy courses, teaching ethical behavior and humanistic attitudes through the dissection experience. However, many schools continue to take a traditional, technical approach to anatomical education while teaching professionalism in separate courses. This interview-based study explored how students viewed the body donor and the professional lessons they learned through dissection at one such medical school. All students oscillated involuntarily between seeing the cadaver as a specimen for learning and seeing the cadaver as a person, with some students intentionally cultivating one of these ways of seeing over the other...
February 10, 2019: Anatomical Sciences Education
Dong Yoon Park, Joo Hyun Park
BACKGROUND: Anal sphincter needle electromyography (EMG) is a useful tool to evaluate various neurologic lesions. However, landmark-based needle placement has risks of missing the intended target including risk of bowel penetration. Ultrasound guidance has been widely used to enhance needle placement for various interventional procedures, but it has not been previously reported for use in anal sphincter EMG. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the accuracy of ultrasound-guided needle insertion into the external anal sphincter (EAS)...
November 29, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Juan Garisto, Riccardo Bertolo, Eddie Chan, Jihad Kaouk
AIM: To report the technique for single-port trans-perineal cystoprostatectomy with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion and lymph nodes dissection using a purpose-built robotic platform (da Vinci SP1098, Intuitive Surgical, Sunny¬vale, CA, USA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a male cadaver the SP1098 robotic system was used to perform cystoprostatectomy with intracorporeal ileal conduit urinary diversion and lymph nodes dissection by single-port trans-perineal approach...
November 17, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
N Mittal, H Sangha, J Flannery, L R Robinson, A Agur
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment mono-neuropathy of the median nerve. In comparison to open surgical and endoscopic carpal tunnel release, a new ultrasound guided hook knife carpal tunnel release (CTR) procedure was reported to have superior results in terms of reduced morbidity and early return to work. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reproducibility of the hook knife CTR procedure when performed by musculoskeletal ultrasound trained physicians without a prior experience in this technique...
February 7, 2019: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Łukasz Olewnik, Michał Podgórski, Michał Polguj, Mirosław Topol
Background: The tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) presents little morphological variation. The tibialis anterior muscle originates at the lateral condyle of the tibia, the proximal one-third to two-thirds of the lateral surface of the tibia shaft, and the anterior surface of the interosseous membrane and inserts to the medial cuneiform bone and first metatarsal. The aim of our work is to classify types of TAT insertion by two complimentary methods - anatomical dissection and ultrasound examination...
2019: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Dan A Zlotolow, Sara L Low, Ines C Lin, Chris Williamson, Brian Tinsley, Scott H Kozin
PURPOSE: The results of spinal accessory to suprascapular nerve transfers have been less reliable than other nerve transfers in the upper limb, possibly owing to compression of the nerve by the suprascapular ligament. The posterior approach has been advocated to allow for release of the ligament. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a ligament release is possible from the anterior approach. METHODS: Nine fresh-frozen cadavers were dissected to determine whether the ligament could be approached and released from the anterior approach...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Hand Surgery
Cynthia A Kahlenberg, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Hamidreza Jahandar, Kathleen N Meyers, Amar S Ranawat, Anil S Ranawat
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were (1) to evaluate the percentage of gluteus medius and minimus tendon footprint restoration that can be achieved with fixation using single-row repair versus double-row repair and (2) to evaluate the yield load of a repair of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon using single-row versus double-row repair techniques. METHODS: Twelve human fresh-frozen cadaveric hip specimens (6 matched pairs, 4 female, mean age 47.5 ± 14.5 years) were tested...
February 4, 2019: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Naci Balak, Oguz Baran, Emine Seyma Denli Yalvac, Aysegul Esen Aydin, Necmettin Tanriover
The cervical oblique corpectomy (OC) approach has the advantages of no grafting or instrumentation necessities and theoretically maintains natural neck motions. However, the risk of cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) injury and Horner's syndrome is one of the main difficulties of this demanding surgical approach. The upper necks of 3 adult human cadavers (6 sides) were dissected under a Zeiss surgical microscope. OC was performed in a stepwise manner to simulate the surgical procedure. We specifically studied the technique of the protection of the CST during the cervical OC approach...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Chuan-Xiang Ma, Wei-Ren Pan, Zhi-An Liu, Fan-Qiang Zeng, Zhi-Qiang Qiu, Mei-Ying Liu
BACKGROUND: The deep and perforating lymphatic anatomy of the upper limb still remains the least described in medical literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six upper limbs with the axillary tissue were harvested from three unembalmed human cadavers amputated at the shoulder joint. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the deep palmar arch, radial and ulnar neurovascular bundles. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and they were injected with a barium sulphate compound...
February 1, 2019: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Jaime Viscasillas, Richard Everson, Emma Kate Mapletoft, Charlotte Dawson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel ultrasound-guided posterior extraconal block in the dog. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental cadaveric study. ANIMALS: A total of 13 Beagle Cross cadaver heads. METHODS: After describing the ultrasound bony landmarks and posterior extraconal local regional technique in one head, 12 heads were used to evaluate the spreading of contrast and evaluate potential complications. A 5-8 MHz microconvex ultrasound probe was positioned caudal to the orbital ligament, with the beam orientated transversely, and then tilted caudally until the orbital fissure was visualized...
October 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Chaiwat Chuaychoosakoon, Porames Suwanno, Prapakorn Klabklay, Chitpon Sinchai, Yada Duangnumsawang, Sittipong Suwannapisit, Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich
PURPOSE: To examine and compare the distances from the anteromedial aspects of the coracoid base and the coracoid tip to the neurovascular structures in various patient positions. METHODS: The experiment was conducted in 15 fresh-frozen cadavers. We dissected 15 right and 15 left shoulders to measure the distances from the anteromedial aspects of the coracoid base and the coracoid tip to the lateral border of the neurovascular structures in the horizontal, vertical, and closest planes...
February 2019: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Yibei Wang, Shiqi Li, Daorong Xu, Lei Qian, Chunyu Jiang, Maoqing Fu, Peidong Sun, Jun Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Injuries of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) are fairly common in patients with ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Before considering repair or reconstruction of the ALL, the lack of knowledge with regard to the biomechanical behavior of this ligament must be considered. The purpose of this study was to analyze the strain of the ALL induced by tibial internal rotation at different flexion angles and find out the strain distribution features. METHODS: The ALLs of ten fresh-frozen cadaver knees were dissected...
January 29, 2019: Knee
Prof Renato Seracchioli, Mohamed Mabrouk, Manuela Mastronardi, Diego Raimondo, Alessandro Arena, Simona Del Forno, Giulia Adalgisa Mariani, Prof Anna Maria Billi, Prof Lucia Manzoli, Prof W Michael O'Guin, Prof Nucelio Lemos
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To clarify the relationship of hypogastric nerves (HNs) with several pelvic anatomical landmarks and to assess any anatomical differences between the two sides of the pelvis, both in cadaveric and in vivo dissections. DESIGN: Prospective observational study (Canadian Task Force II-1). SETTING: Anatomical theatre for cadaveric dissections; University Hospital for in vivo laparoscopy. PATIENTS: Five nulliparous female cadavers underwent laparotomic dissection; ten nulliparous patients underwent laparoscopic surgery for rectosigmoid endometriosis without postero-lateral parametrial infiltration...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Henry DeBell, Zachariah Pinter, Martim Pinto, Shelby Bergstresser, Sung Lee, Cesar de Cesar Netto, Ashish Shah, Sameer Naranje, Amit Kumar Agarwal
Introduction: Lateral release to improve patellar tracking is commonly performed during total knee arthroplasty. Blood is supplied to the lateral patella by two main arteries: the superior and inferior lateral genicular arteries. The transverse infrapatellar artery also branches off the lateral inferior genicular artery to supply the inferior half of the patella. Severance of any of these arteries during lateral release can lead to avascular necrosis of the patella. This cadaveric study investigates the lateral vasculature to the patella and whether it can be visualized and preserved during lateral release of the patella...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
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