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gut and brain

Mary I Butler, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
The gut microbiome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of psychological disorders. Preclinical studies have provided us with key insights into the mechanisms by which the microbiome influences bidirectional gut-brain communication. There are many signaling pathways involved, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan and serotonin metabolism, bile acid transformation, microbial production of neuroactive compounds, and regulation of the endocannabinoid system...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Amanda Sanders, Hannah Rackers, Mary Kimmel
Perinatal depression is a significant public health problem, due to its negative impact on maternal well-being and long-term adverse effects for children. Mother-infant interaction and maternal responsiveness and sensitivity are a hypothesized mechanism by which perinatal depression effects child development, and increasing research in the microbiota-gut-brain axis may provide a new avenue of investigation. There is limited efficacy for treatment of perinatal depression for improving the mother-infant relationship and child outcomes...
February 20, 2019: International Review of Psychiatry
Debby Vreeken, Maximilian Wiesmann, Laura N Deden, Ilse A C Arnoldussen, Esther Aarts, Roy P C Kessels, Robert Kleemann, Eric J Hazebroek, Edo O Aarts, Amanda J Kiliaan
INTRODUCTION: Weight loss after bariatric surgery (BS) is often associated with improved cognition and structural brain recovery. However, improved cognition after BS is not always exhibited by patients, in fact, in some cases there is even a decline in cognition. Long-term consequences of BS weight loss, in terms of obesity and related diseases, can be hard to determine due to studies having short follow-up periods and small sample sizes.The aim of the BARICO study ( BA riatric surgery R ijnstate and Radboudumc neuro I maging and C ognition in O besity) is to determine the long-term effect of weight loss after BS on brain function and structure, using sensitive neuropsychological tests and (functional) MRI ((f)MRI)...
January 9, 2019: BMJ Open
Kawther Aabed, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Nadine Moubayed, Manar Al-Mutiri, Majda Al-Marshoud, Alaa Al-Qahtani, Afaf Ansary
Colonization by toxin-producing bacteria in the gut plays a major role in bowel problems in autistic patients. Prebiotics can inhibit the growth of these pathogenic microbes by nourishing beneficial bacteria, while probiotics--live microorganisms--can balance the gut bacteria; thus, both together can maintain healthy bacteria in the gut. The present study was conducted to find the effect of probiotics and prebiotics in balancing the gut flora in a rodent model of autism linked with a clindamycin-induced altered gut...
January 31, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Biology
M Hasan Mohajeri
In the last decade, the microbiome in general and the gut microbiome in particular have been associated not only to brain development and function, but also to the pathophysiology of brain aging and to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), depression, or multiple sclerosis (MS) [...].
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
Jeremy F Wong, Craig A Simmons
Cell monolayers, including endothelial cells lining the vasculature and blood-brain barrier, and epithelial cells lining the lung airways and gut, form a semipermeable barrier across which transport of biomolecules is tightly regulated. The assessment of barrier function is therefore critical in in vitro models of barrier-forming tissues, including microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models. Cell monolayer barrier function is commonly assessed using a fluorescent tracer-based permeability assay in both conventional Transwell and organ-on-a-chip models, but this method requires laborious manual sampling, bulky instrumentation and offline sample processing...
February 19, 2019: Lab on a Chip
Maribel Torres-Velázquez, Emily A Sawin, Jacqueline M Anderson, John-Paul J Yu
Alterations in gut microbiome populations via dietary manipulation have been shown to induce diet-dependent changes in white matter microstructure. The purpose of this study is to examine the durability of these diet-induced microstructural alterations. We implemented a crossover experimental design where post-weaned male rats were assigned to one of four experimental diets. Following the administration of experimental diets and again following crossover and resumption of a normal diet, brains were imaged ex-vivo with diffusion tensor imaging...
February 15, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Peng Zheng, Benhua Zeng, Meiling Liu, Jianjun Chen, Junxi Pan, Yu Han, Yiyun Liu, Ke Cheng, Chanjuan Zhou, Haiyang Wang, Xinyu Zhou, Siwen Gui, Seth W Perry, Ma-Li Wong, Julio Licinio, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a devastating mental disorder with poorly defined underlying molecular mechanisms. The gut microbiome can modulate brain function and behaviors through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Here, we found that unmedicated and medicated patients with SCZ had a decreased microbiome α-diversity index and marked disturbances of gut microbial composition versus healthy controls (HCs). Several unique bacterial taxa (e.g., Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae) were associated with SCZ severity. A specific microbial panel (Aerococcaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Brucellaceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Rikenellaceae) enabled discriminating patients with SCZ from HCs with 0...
February 2019: Science Advances
Kashif Mukhtar, Hasham Nawaz, Shahab Abid
Despite their high prevalence, lack of understanding of the exact pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders has restricted us to symptomatic diagnostic tools and therapies. Complex mechanisms underlying the disturbances in the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain have a vital role in the pathogenesis and are key to our understanding of the disease phenomenon. Although we have come a long way in our understanding of these complex disorders with the help of studies on animals especially rodents, there need to be more studies in humans, especially to identify the therapeutic targets...
February 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Tilemachos Koutouratsas, Theodora Kalli, Georgios Karamanolis, Maria Gazouli
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are heterogeneous disorders with a variety of clinical manifestations, primarily defined by signs and symptoms rather than a definite underlying cause. Their pathophysiology remains obscure and, although it is expected to differ according to the specific FGID, disruptions in the brain-gut axis are now thought to be a common denominator in their pathogenesis. The hormone ghrelin is an important component of this axis, exerting a wide repertoire of physiological actions, including regulation of gastrointestinal motility and protection of mucosal tissue...
February 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Wen-Yan Wang, Feng-Xia Liang, Ai-Qun Song, Qi Huang, Rui Chen
Large number of microflora is parasitized in the human intestinal tract, which maintains the stability of the microecological environment in the host's intestinal tract and the healthy state of the body. Once the steady state is out of balance, the intestinal microflora is dysfunctional and a variety of diseases will be induced. Acupuncture and moxibustion have a positive role in improving different types of clinical problems by regulating qi , harmonizing yin and yang , and strengthening the body's resistance...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Megha Singhal, Benjamin A Turturice, Christopher R Manzella, Ravi Ranjan, Ahmed A Metwally, Juliana Theorell, Yue Huang, Waddah A Alrefai, Pradeep K Dudeja, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins, Ravinder K Gill
Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating extracellular availability of serotonin (5-HT) in the gut and brain. Mice with deletion of SERT develop metabolic syndrome as they age. Changes in the gut microbiota are being increasingly implicated in Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes. To investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and SERT, this study assessed the fecal and cecal microbiome profile of 11 to 12 week-old SERT+/+ and SERT-/- mice. Microbial DNA was isolated, processed for metagenomics shotgun sequencing, and taxonomic and functional profiles were assessed...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Devon Watts, Bianca Pfaffenseller, Bianca Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Luiza Paul Géa, Taiane de Azevedo Cardoso, Flavio Kapczinski
Present antidepressant treatments are only helpful in a quarter of patients with bipolar depression, and new strategies are warranted. Increasing evidence suggests that accelerated polyamine metabolism is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Polyamines regulate stress responses, inflammation, and neuronal signaling in the central and enteric nervous system. Agmatine is a promising target of altered polyamine metabolism considering its unique ability to regulate intracellular polyamine content and neuroprotective effects...
February 15, 2019: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Antonio Gómez-Fernández, Natalia Chueca, María José de la Torre-Aguilar, Ángel Gil, Juan Luis Perez-Navero, Katherine Flores-Rojas, Pilar Martín-Borreguero, Patricio Solis-Urra, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Federico Garcia, Mercedes Gil-Campos
New microbiome sequencing technologies provide novel information about the potential interactions among intestinal microorganisms and the host in some neuropathologies as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The microbiota⁻gut⁻brain axis is an emerging aspect in the generation of autistic behaviors; evidence from animal models suggests that intestinal microbial shifts may produce changes fitting the clinical picture of autism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fecal metagenomic profiles in children with ASD and compare them with healthy participants...
February 5, 2019: Nutrients
Calum D Moulton, Polychronis Pavlidis, Christine Norton, Sam Norton, Carmine Pariante, Bu Hayee, Nick Powell
Depressive symptoms are reported by more than 20% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whilst sleep difficulties and fatigue are even more common. Comorbid depressive symptoms predict a poor IBD course, including increased risk of relapse and surgery, which is inconsistently improved by psychological treatments. Rather than being distinct systems, there is compelling evidence for bidirectional communication between gut and brain, driven by neural, metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory mediators...
February 14, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Tao Yang, Victor Aquino, Gilberto O Lobaton, Hongbao Li, Luis Colon-Perez, Ruby Goel, Yanfei Qi, Jasenka Zubcevic, Marcelo Febo, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Background We have demonstrated that the antihypertensive effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril ( CAP ), is associated with beneficial effects on gut pathology. Coupled with the evidence that CAP exerts prolonged reduction in blood pressure ( BP ) after discontinuation of treatment, we investigate whether persistent beneficial actions of CAP are linked to alterations of gut microbiota and improvement of hypertension-induced gut pathology. Methods and Results Spontaneously hypertensive rats ( SHR ) and Wistar Kyoto rats were treated with CAP (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks followed by withdrawal for 16 weeks...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Anne-Charlotte Jarry, Nadir Merah, Fanta Cisse, Florence Cayetanot, Marie-Noëlle Fiamma, Alexandra Willemetz, Dalale Gueddouri, Besma Barka, Philippe Valet, Sandra Guilmeau, André Bado, Johanne Le Beyec, Laurence Bodineau, Maude Le Gall
The gut-brain peptide neuromedin U (NMU) decreases food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance. Here, we characterized NMU as an enteropeptide and determined how it impacts glucose excursion. NMU was expressed predominantly in the proximal small intestine, and its secretion was triggered by ingestion of a mixed meal. Although a single peripheral injection of NMU in C57BL/6NRj mice prevented the rise of glycemia upon an oral but not an intraperitoneal load of glucose, it unexpectedly prevented insulin secretion, only slightly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, and barely reduced intestinal glucose absorption...
February 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Peter Blattmann, Vivienne Stutz, Giulia Lizzo, Joy Richard, Philipp Gut, Ruedi Aebersold
Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) requires a spectral library to extract quantitative measurements from the mass spectrometry data acquired in data-independent acquisition mode (DIA). Large combined spectral libraries containing SWATH assays have been generated for humans and several other organisms, but so far no publicly available library exists for measuring the proteome of zebrafish, a rapidly emerging model system in biomedical research. Here, we present a large zebrafish SWATH spectral library to measure the abundance of 104,185 proteotypic peptides from 10,405 proteins...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Data
Joby Pulikkan, Agnisrota Mazumder, Tony Grace
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorder with elusive etiology and obscure pathophysiology. Cognitive inabilities, impaired communication, repetitive behavior pattern, and restricted social interaction and communication lead to a debilitating situation in autism. The pattern of co-occurrence of medical comorbidities is most intriguing in autism, compared to any other neurodevelopmental disorders. They have an elevated comorbidity burden among which most frequently are seizures, psychiatric illness, and gastrointestinal disorders...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Peijun Tian, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Depression disorder is rapidly advancing worldwide, and therapeutic strategy through gut-brain axis has been proven to be effective in the treatment. Here we studied the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) treatment on depression. C57BL/6J mice were administered with LAB during a 5-week chronic unpredictable mild stress. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis E41 and Bifidobacterium breve M2CF22M7, which improved the expression of Tph1 and secretion of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) in RIN14B cells, significantly reduced depressive behaviors of mice in the forced swim test, sucrose preference test and step-down test, as well as increased the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in brain...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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