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Drug use prevention

Chenchen Feng, David Le, Allison B McCoy
OBJECTIVE:  We identified the methods used and determined the roles of electronic health records (EHRs) in detecting and assessing adverse drug events (ADEs) in the ambulatory setting. METHODS:  We performed a systematic literature review by searching PubMed and Google Scholar for studies on ADEs detected in the ambulatory setting involving any EHR use published before June 2017. We extracted study characteristics from included studies related to ADE detection methods for analysis...
January 2019: Applied Clinical Informatics
Jeehan Chang, Jaekyeong Lee, Andrei Georgescu, Dan Huh, Taewook Kang
Century-old Langmuir monolayer deposition still represents the most convenient approach to the production of monolayers of colloidal nanoparticles on solid substrates for practical biological and chemical sensing applications. However, this approach simply yields arbitrarily-shaped large monolayers on a flat surface, and is strongly limited by substrate topography and interfacial energy. Here we describe a generalized and facile method of rapidly producing uniform monolayers of various colloidal nanoparticles on arbitrary solid substrates by using an ordinary capillary tube...
February 20, 2019: Nano Letters
Elise Chabbey, Pierre-Yves Martin
Endurance athletes, either professional or amateur, are consuming non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) during their training and races. The goal is to decrease pain or to prevent a potential pain. These athletes, especially, the amateurs, do not do not know the side effects and have no medical supervision. In association with other risks factors such as overhydratation, NSAIDs increase the risk of exercise associated hyponatremia (EAH). Its frequency increases as the number of long distance events is increasing but it is still unknown...
February 20, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Renata R Abdalla, André C Miguel, Elisa Brietzke, Raul Caetano, Ronaldo Laranjeira, Clarice S Madruga
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA) and their association with substance use in a nationally representative sample of Brazilians. METHODS: The Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drug Survey (II BNADS) is a household cross-sectional survey that investigated the consumption of psychotropic drugs and associated risk factors. This national probability sample survey used a multistage cluster design to select 4,607 participants aged 14 or older and had a total response rate of 77%...
February 18, 2019: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Mariana Barbosa Detoni, Débora Messagi Lima, Thaïs Peron da Silva, Lais Fernanda Machado, Fernanda Tomiotto-Pellissier, Idessania Nazareth Costa, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Francisco José de Abreu Oliveira, Luiz Antonio Custódio, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Francine Nesello Melanda
INTRODUCTION: Describing the general aspects of American tegumentary leishmaniasis enables the identification of the epidemiological scenario of the disease and the development of preventive actions. METHODS: We analyzed the records of patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis in north Paraná between 2010 and 2015. RESULTS: We identified 108 cases (mostly in 2014) with the following characteristics: male individuals, rural workers, and ages averaging 56...
February 14, 2019: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Faraz Shaikh, Yuguang Zhao, Luis Alvarez, Maria Iliopoulou, Christopher Thomas Lohans, Christopher J Schofield, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Shirley W I Siu, Elizabeth Fry, Jingshan Ren, David I Stuart
Potent Ebolavirus (EBOV) inhibitors will help to curtail outbreaks such as that which occurred in 2014-16 in West Africa. EBOV has on its surface a single glycoprotein (GP) critical for viral entry and membrane fusion. Recent high resolution complexes of EBOV GP with a variety of approved drugs revealed that binding to a common cavity prevented fusion of the virus and endosomal membranes, inhibiting virus infection. We performed docking experiments, screening a database of natural compounds to identify those likely to bind at this site...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Triti Khorasheh, Renuka Naraine, Tara Marie Watson, Amy Wright, Natalie Kallio, Carol Strike
ISSUES: Preventable overdose deaths, especially due to opioids, have increasingly been reported worldwide. Expansion of life-saving harm reduction services is underway with increasing public support in some jurisdictions. However, such services often fall short of reaching people who use drugs (PWUD), in part, due to law enforcement practices that are aligned with punitive drug laws and incongruent with harm reduction principles. One suggested strategy to facilitate police understanding and uptake of practices that are more congruent with harm reduction is to provide police with relevant training...
February 2019: Drug and Alcohol Review
Allison R Bechard, Lori A Knackstedt
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder is a significant public health problem and currently no medications are FDA-approved to reduce cocaine relapse. Drug-associated cues are reported to elicit craving and cocaine-seeking in humans. Repeated, non-reinforced presentations of drug-associated cues (cue extinction) have been proposed to reduce the ability of such cues to prompt drug-seeking. In rodent models of cocaine relapse, cue extinction reduces cocaine relapse when such extinction occurs in the same context as cocaine self-administration, which is not akin to the manner in which treatment would occur in humans...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kathleen R Elliott, Emily Jones
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown the frequency of drug misuse is important in the development of a substance use disorder, but little is known about this relationship in the context of opioid misuse and opioid use disorder and withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Our study included 2694 civilian respondents from the United States 12 years and older who had misused prescription opioids in the past year from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression was used to model the association between frequency of prescription opioid misuse and opioid use disorder and withdrawal symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and income level...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Gabrielle Williams, Elisabeth M Hodson, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) results in urine passing retrograde up the ureter. Urinary tract infections (UTI) associated with VUR have been considered a cause of permanent renal parenchymal damage in children with VUR. Management has been directed at preventing UTI by antibiotic prophylaxis and/or surgical correction of VUR. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and updated in 2007 and 2011. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to evaluate the available evidence for both benefits and harms of the currently available treatment options for primary VUR: operative, non-operative or no intervention...
February 20, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mojtaba Khazaei, Nahid Hosseini Nejad Mir, Fateme Yadranji Aghdam, Mohammad Taheri, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
Dexamethasone, metoclopramide, ketorolac, and chlorpromazine have been used for the treatment of migraine headache. However, the effectiveness of these drugs in pain relief and prevention of recurrence and their side effects have not been compared yet. This was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomized to four groups; each received one of the following drugs intravenously: dexamethasone 8 mg, ketorolac 30 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg, and chlorpromazine 25 mg. The severity of headache in the two groups was assessed at starting point, 1 h and 24 h after the administration of drug using the visual analogue scale (VAS) on a scale of 0 to 10...
February 19, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Ewa Kędzierska, Ferdinando Fiorino, Elisa Magli, Ewa Poleszak, Piotr Wlaź, Jolanta Orzelska-Górka, Bartosz Knap, Jolanta H Kotlińska
Therapy of depression is difficult and still insufficient despite the presence of many antidepressants on the market. Therefore, there is a constant need to search for new, safer, and more effective drugs that could be used in the treatment of depression. Among many methods, chemical modification is an important strategy for new drug development. This study evaluates antidepressant-like effects and possible mechanism of action of two new arylpiperazine derivatives with isonicotinic and picolinic nuclei, compounds 4pN-(3-(4-(piperonyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl) isonicotinamide and 3oN-(2-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl) picolinamide...
February 19, 2019: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Nicole Pribut, Adriaan E Basson, Willem A L van Otterlo, Dennis C Liotta, Stephen C Pelly
Since the discovery of HIV as the etiological agent of AIDS, the virus has infected millions of people each year. Fortunately, with the use of HAART, viremia can be suppressed to below detectable levels in the infected individuals, which significantly improves their quality of life and prevents the onset of AIDS. However, HAART is not curative and issues relating to adherence and drug resistance may lead to the re-emergence of viremia, the development of AIDS, and ultimately death. To address a pressing need for the development of new and efficacious antiretroviral agents with activity against viruses bearing prevalent resistant mutations, we have designed two generations of benzimidazolone derivatives as HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors...
February 14, 2019: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yu Zhu, Yongfang Huang, Mingmin Liu, Qi Yan, Wanhong Zhao, Ping Yang, Qin Gao, Juanjuan Wei, Wenxia Zhao, Lishan Ma
The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the growth of cervical carcinoma cell lines infected with different high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes, as well as the associated regulation of microRNA (miR) expression. Cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay. The effects of 7 different concentrations of EGCG (100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10 and 0 µg/ml) on HeLa cell proliferation were assessed. HeLa cell growth was significantly inhibited by EGCG in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Nargis Khan, Laura Mendonca, Achal Dhariwal, Ghislaine Fontes, Dick Menzies, Jianguo Xia, Maziar Divangahi, Irah L King
Current treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are effective in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, yet have significant side effects and do not prevent reinfection. Therefore, it is critical to understand why our host defense system is unable to generate permanent immunity to Mtb despite prolonged anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Here, we demonstrate that treatment of mice with the most widely used anti-TB drugs, rifampicin (RIF) or isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PYZ), significantly altered the composition of the gut microbiota...
February 19, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
David A M C van de Vijver, Ann-Kathrin Richter, Charles A B Boucher, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Christian Kollan, Brooke E Nichols, Christoph D Spinner, Jürgen Wasem, Knud Schewe, Anja Neumann
BackgroundPre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective HIV prevention strategy for men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). The high cost of PrEP has until recently been a primary barrier to its use. In 2017, generic PrEP became available, reducing the costs by 90%.AimOur objective was to assess cost-effectiveness and costs of introducing PrEP in Germany.MethodsWe calibrated a deterministic mathematical model to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic among MSM in Germany. PrEP was targeted to 30% of high-risk MSM...
February 2019: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Yingzi Fan, Yandong Mu, Lian Lu, Yaomei Tian, Fengjiao Yuan, Bailing Zhou, Chaoheng Yu, Zhenling Wang, Xiaolu Li, Song Lei, Ying Xu, Dongming Wu, Li Yang
The problem of nosocomial infection is seriously escalating. Bacterial vaccines are indispensable for preventing infections caused by multi-drug resistant organisms. Some researchers have put forward the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) as a new technology platform for virus deactivation. This deactivated virus can induce the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes, which can enhance antiviral responses. Although, H2 O2 treatment has been rarely reported on the exploration of bacterial deactivation, H2 O2 deactivation of whole-cell bacteria could be a potential novel approach for bacterial vaccine development...
February 16, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Barbara D Fontana, Francini Franscescon, Denis B Rosemberg, William H J Norton, Allan V Kalueff, Matthew O Parker
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder associated with inattentiveness, pathological hyperactivity and impulsivity. Despite the mounting human and animal evidence, the neurological pathways underlying ADHD remain poorly understood. Novel translational model organisms, such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio), are becoming important tools to investigate genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we discuss ADHD etiology, existing rodent models and their limitations, and emphasize the advantages of using zebrafish to model ADHD...
February 16, 2019: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ma Yanchun, Wang Yi, Wang Lu, Qian Yu, Yang Jian, Kong Pengzhou, Yan Ting, Li Hongyi, Wang Fang, Cheng Xiaolong, Cui Yongping
Triptolide, the component of traditional Chinese herb, has been used as an inflammatory medicine and reported to be anti-tumor for various cancers recently. However, the effect of triptolide on Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer (ESCC) has not yet been elucidated. In the study, we found that triptolide significantly inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, migration and survivability of ESCC cells. Moreover, we observed that triptolide induced ESCC cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase and apoptosis through cyclin D1-CDK4/6 regulation and caspases activation...
February 16, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Meng Wu, Lingwei Ma, Liru Xue, Wenlei Ye, Zhiyong Lu, Xiang Li, Yan Jin, Xian Qin, Dan Chen, Weicheng Tang, Yingying Chen, Zixin Hong, Jinjin Zhang, Aiyue Luo, Shixuan Wang
Chemotherapy-induced ovarian aging not only increases the risk for early menopause-related complications but also results in infertility in young female cancer survivors. Oogonial stem cells have the ability to generate new oocytes and thus provide new opportunities for treating ovarian aging and female infertility. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural phenol derived from plants, that has been shown to have positive effects on longevity and redox flow in lipid metabolism and a preventive function against certain tumors...
February 14, 2019: Aging
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