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Dili Mao, Simon Michelmore, Jeff Paull, Christopher Preston, Tim Sutton, Klaus Oldach, Shi Y Yang, Larn McMurray
BACKGROUND: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important crop in Australian farming systems, however, weed control is a major constraint due to a lack of in-crop broadleaf herbicide options. To address this, we developed acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitor herbicide tolerance in faba bean using mutagenesis techniques. Dose response experiments, agronomic field evaluation and DNA sequencing of the AHAS gene were used to quantify and validate tolerance traits. RESULTS: Four M2 faba bean single plant biotypes (IMI-1, IMI-2, IMI-3 and IMI-4) at a frequency of 3...
February 18, 2019: Pest Management Science
Igor Karp, Atul Sivaswamy, Christopher Booth
PURPOSE: Incretin-based medications are a novel class of agents for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The safety profile of these medications is not firmly established, and concerns have been raised about their potential carcinogenicity. The objective of our study was to produce new evidence on the effect of incretin-based medications on cancer risk in patients with DM2. METHODS: We conducted a "retrospective cohort" study with data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the Hospital Episodes Statistics in the UK...
February 18, 2019: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Mohamed M Hassanein, Rakesh Sahay, Khadija Hafidh, Khier Djaballah, Haoyu Li, Sami Azar, Naim Shehadeh, Wasim Hanif
AIMS: Adding lixisenatide to basal insulin (BI) instead of sulfonylurea (SU), versus continuing SU + BI was assessed in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who intended to fast during Ramadan 2017. METHODS: LixiRam (NCT02941367) was a phase 4, randomized, open-label, 12-22-week study in people with T2DM insufficiently controlled with SU + BI ± 1 oral anti-diabetic. Endpoints included the percentage of participants with ≥1 documented symptomatic hypoglycemia event (plasma glucose ≤70 mg/dL; primary endpoint) and any hypoglycemia during Ramadan fasting...
February 14, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Galit Weinstein, Kendra L Davis-Plourde, Sarah Conner, Jayandra J Himali, Alexa S Beiser, Anne Lee, Andreea M Rawlings, Sanaz Sedaghat, Jie Ding, Erin Moshier, Cornelia M van Duijn, Michal S Beeri, Elizabeth Selvin, M Arfan Ikram, Lenore J Launer, Mary N Haan, Sudha Seshadri
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether classes of diabetes medications are associated with cognitive health and dementia risk, above and beyond their glycemic control properties. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Findings were pooled from 5 population-based cohorts: the Framingham Heart Study, the Rotterdam Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, the Aging Gene-Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES) and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA)...
2019: PloS One
Sung Eun Choi, Seth A Berkowitz, John S Yudkin, Huseyin Naci, Sanjay Basu
BACKGROUND: Personalizing medical treatment often requires practitioners to compare multiple treatment options, assess a patient's unique risk and benefit from each option, and elicit a patient's preferences around treatment. We integrated these 3 considerations into a decision-modeling framework for the selection of second-line glycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Based on multicriteria decision analysis, we developed a unified treatment decision support tool accounting for 3 factors: patient preferences, disease outcomes, and medication efficacy and safety profiles...
February 15, 2019: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
Yunwen Xu, Scott J Pilla, G Caleb Alexander, Irene B Murimi
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend that metformin be continued after insulin is initiated among patients with type 2 diabetes, yet little is known regarding how often metformin or other non-insulin diabetes medications are continued in this setting. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to characterize rates and use patterns of six classes of non-insulin diabetes medications: biguanides (metformin), sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP1 receptor agonists), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4 inhibitors), and sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors), among patients with type 2 diabetes initiating insulin...
2019: PloS One
Viswanathan Mohan, Mark E Cooper, David R Matthews, Kamlesh Khunti
There is currently a worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2D) that is predicted to increase substantially in the next few years. With 80% of the global T2D population living in low to middle-income countries, there are issues with cost and of access to appropriate medicines. The objective of this symposium was to provide an overview of the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering drugs, focussing in particular on sulfonylureas (SUs) in patients with T2D using data taken from both randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and real-world studies, the application of strategies to ensure optimal patient adherence and clinical outcomes, and the optimal use of SUs in terms of dose adjustment and agent choice to ensure the best clinical outcome...
February 13, 2019: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Jung Hyun Lee, Hokyou Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim
AIM: To compare the risks of hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) associated with sulfonylurea (SU), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i), and thiazolidinedione (TZD) as add-on medications to metformin (MET) therapy using the data of Korean adults with type-2 diabetes from the Korean National Health Insurance database. METHODS: We identified 98,383 people who received SU (n = 42,683), DPP-4i (n = 50,310), or TZD (n = 5,390) added to initial treatment of MET monotherapy in patients with type-2 diabetes...
2019: PloS One
Alan J Garber, Martin J Abrahamson, Joshua I Barzilay, Lawrence Blonde, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Michael A Bush, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Vivian A Fonseca, Jeffrey R Garber, W Timothy Garvey, George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Irl B Hirsch, Paul S Jellinger, Janet B McGill, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Paul D Rosenblit, Guillermo E Umpierrez
A1C = hemoglobin A1C; AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure; ACE = American College of Endocrinology; ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor; apo B = apolipoprotein B; ARB = angiotensin II receptor blocker; ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BAS = bile acid sequestrant; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CCB = calcium channel blocker; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; CHD = coronary heart disease; CKD = chronic kidney disease; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; DPP4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; EPA = eicosapentaenoic acid; ER = extended release; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GLP1 = glucagon-like peptide 1; HDL-C = high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; HeFH = heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-P = low-density-lipoprotein particle; Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes; NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; PCSK9 = proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 serine protease; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SU = sulfonylurea; SGLT2 = sodium-glucose cotransporter 2; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose; T2D = type 2 diabetes; TZD = thiazolidinedione...
January 2019: Endocrine Practice
Shazia Hussain, Tahseen A Chowdhury
Diabetes mellitus affects over 20% of people aged > 65 years. With the population of older people living with diabetes growing, the condition may be only one of a number of significant comorbidities that increases the complexity of their care, reduces functional status and inhibits their ability to self-care. Coexisting comorbidities may compete for the attention of the patient and their healthcare team, and therapies to manage comorbidities may adversely affect a person's diabetes. The presence of renal or liver disease reduces the types of antihyperglycemic therapies available for use...
February 11, 2019: Drugs
Masaya Sakamoto, Daisuke Matsutani, Soichiro Minato, Yuki Tsujimoto, Yosuke Kayama, Norihiko Takeda, Seiichi Ichikawa, Ryuzo Horiuchi, Kazunori Utsunomiya, Masako Nishikawa
OBJECTIVE: Precise monthly achievement rates for reaching guideline targets for HbA1c, blood pressure (BP), and lipid levels remain unknown. We evaluated achievement rates on a monthly basis in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and explored related factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study initially analyzed data on 104,601 persons with T2DM throughout Japan. Patients whose HbA1c, BP, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol were measured ≥12 times during a 24-month period were included...
February 10, 2019: Diabetes Care
Ghulam Abbas, Ahmed Al Harrasi, Hidayat Hussain, Ahmed Hamaed, Claudiu T Supuran
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which is rapidly spreading worldwide. It is characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose level above normal values (hyperglycemia) due to defect in either insulin secretion or in insulin action or both of them. Currently approved oral synthetic antidiabetic drugs such as biguanides, thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and meglitinides have shown undesirable side effects. Therefore, newer approaches and targets for the management of diabetes mellitus are highly desirable...
February 4, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Pieter Martens, Joyce Janssens, Jobbe Ramaekers, Matthias Dupont, Wilfried Mullens
BACKGROUND: The choice of glucose lowering agent in heart failure (HF)-patients can have a strong effect on HF-related adverse events, with some classes increasing and other classes reducing the risk. Little data is available about the choice of glucose lowering agents in HF-patients with type-2-diabetes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional single centre point analysis of all patients with both a diagnoses of HF and type-2-diabetes followed in a tertiary HF-clinic...
February 8, 2019: Acta Cardiologica
Jeffrey Freeman
Treatment of older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is complex because they represent a heterogeneous group with a broad range of comorbidities, functional abilities, socioeconomic status, and life expectancy. Older adults with T2D are at high risk of recurring hypoglycemia, a condition associated with marked morbidity and mortality, because their counter-regulatory mechanism to hypoglycemia is attenuated, and recurring hypoglycemic episodes can lead to hypoglycemia unawareness. In addition, polypharmacy, a result of multiple chronic comorbidities (including heart disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease), can increase the risk of severe hypoglycemia, especially when patients are taking sulfonylureas or insulin...
February 6, 2019: Postgraduate Medicine
David S H Bell, Edison Goncalves
In the type 2 diabetic patient the frequency of heart failure (HF) is increased and the mortality from HF is higher than with non-diabetic HF. The increased frequency of HF is due to the cardiotoxic tetrad of ischemic heart disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetic cardiomyopathy and an extracellular volume expansion resistant to atrial natriuretic peptides. Activation of the RAAS and sympathetic nervous systems results in cardiac remodeling, which worsens cardiac function. Reversal of remodeling can be achieved, and cardiac function improved in the HFrEF patient with ACE inhibitors and beta blockers...
February 5, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Guillermo E Umpierrez, Neil Skolnik, Terry Dex, Louise Traylor, Jason Chao, Charles Shaefer
AIMS: One option recommended by treatment guidelines for the management of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and post-prandial excursions is adding prandial insulin when basal insulin dose is >0.5 IU/kg/day. This recommendation is based on expert opinion, with limited clinical evidence for this threshold dose. In this post-hoc analysis, we construct a clinical-response curve for basal insulin, assessing the impact of increasing doses on glycemic measures, body weight, and hypoglycemia...
February 5, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Alana Biggers, Lisa K Sharp, Hataikarn Nimitphong, Sunee Saetung, Nantaporn Siwasaranond, Areesa Manodpitipong, Stephanie J Crowley, Megan M Hood, Ben S Gerber, Sirimon Reutrakul
Objective: We analyzed two cohorts of people with type 2 diabetes to evaluate the relationships between depression, sleep quality, and history of hypoglycemia. Research design and methods: Two adult cohorts from Chicago (n = 193) and Bangkok, Thailand (n = 282) with type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires to assess sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and hypoglycemia frequency. Proportional odds logistic regression models for each cohort adjusted for duration of therapy, insulin and sulfonylurea management, and other factors...
March 2019: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
Xiwei Zheng, Ryan Matsuda, David S Hage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
Daniela Farah, Graziella Malzoni Leme, Freddy Goldberg Eliaschewitz, Marcelo Cunio Machado Fonseca
BACKGROUND: The first treatment approach for type 2 diabetes mellitus is lifestyle change and metformin, but it is usually not sufficient. For some time, the anti-hyperglycemic classes of sulfonylureas and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors were considered second-line of treatment, since they show similar efficacy effect. However, the recent ADA-EASD consensus gives the preference to DPP-4 inhibitors compared to sulfonylureas, except if cost is a major problem. We performed a meta-analysis for safety and tolerability profile to comprehend which treatment has less adverse events...
January 30, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Qingguo Lu, Xuan Li, Jia Liu, Xiaodong Sun, Thomas Rousselle, Di Ren, Nanwei Tong, Ji Li
Diabetics have higher morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease (CVD). A variety of anti-diabetic agents are available for clinical choice. Cardiovascular (CV) safety assessment of these agents is crucial in addition to hypoglycemic effect before clinical prescription. Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important cell energy sensor, which plays an important role in regulating myocardial energy metabolism, reducing ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, improving heart failure (HF) and ventricular remodeling, ameliorating vascular endothelial dysfunction, anti-chronic inflammation, anti-apoptosis and regulating autophagy...
February 1, 2019: Bioscience Reports
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