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Sacrum, tumor

Reza Akhavan-Sigari, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer, Amanda Angelika Harcej, Veit Rohde
Chordomas is rare malignant bone tumors thought to arise from remnants of embryonic notochord along the spine, frequently at the skull base and sacrum. Although chordoma is slow growing tumors, while are extremely recurrent, and aggressive, as well as the rate of prognosis remains poorly. Radical surgery and high-dose radiation are the most used treatments. Currently, there is no effective chemotherapeutic standard for chordomas. The Hedgehog (HH) pathway adjusts various processes included in expansion and differentiation of tissues and organs throughout the fetus's life, furthermore cell growth and differentiation in the adult organism, of the cell in an adult organism, in which acute anesthesia is involved in multiple cancers...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Chaitanya Dev Pannu, Pankaj Kandhwal, Vijay Raghavan, Shah Alam Khan, Shishir Rastogi, Arvind Jayaswal
Background: The role of bisphosphonates is well established in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) of extremities, but its role in spine GCTB is still not established. Our main purpose was to evaluate the role of bisphosphonates in spinal GCTB with the help of radiologic assessment. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all spine GCTB patients who underwent an operation from July 2005 to January 2014 was done. Patients of spine GCTB in whom bisphosphonates were given constituted the study group...
December 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Yongkun Yang, Yuan Li, Weifeng Liu, Hairong Xu, Xiaohui Niu
To analyze the clinical results and related factors of further surgical treatment for recurrent sacral chordomas.Chordomas are rare primary malignant tumors with a high recurrence rate. The treatment of recurrent tumors is difficult and controversial. Contamination by previous operations and disturbed local anatomical structures may increase the risk of reoperation. Most previous studies have focused on the primary tumor; there are very few reports on the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of recurrent sacral chordomas...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shuzhong Liu, Xi Zhou, An Song, Zhen Huo, William A Li, Radhika Rastogi, Yipeng Wang, Yong Liu
RATIONALE: Malignant thymoma in the spine is a rare disease without standard curative managements so far. The objective of this article is to report a very rare case of recurrent malignant thymoma with sacrum metastases causing severe lumbosacral pain, which was presented with acute radiculopathy and treated with 2 operations combined with stabilization and cement augmentation. The management of these unique cases is not well-documented. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 75-year-old man presented with lumbosacral pain, radiating pain and numbness of the left extremity...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Qiang Xu, Houyun Gu, Xuqiang Liu, Hucheng Liu, Yibiao Zhou, Guiping Chen, Min Dai, Bin Zhang
RATIONALE: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor that accounts for 1% to 4% of all malignant bone tumors, with an annual incidence of <0.1 per 100,000 people. Although chordoma is aligned with the axis of the spine and most commonly develops in the sacrum, to the best of our knowledge, giant sacrococcygeal chordoma is extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old Chinese man presented with a massive dorsal sacral mass. The patient's primary complaint was that, during the last two months, the mass had been increasing in size and his right lower extremity was uncomfortable while he was sitting, although the discomfort was relieved when he was standing...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Taylor D'Amore, Brendan Boyce, Addisu Mesfin
Background: Chordomas are rare malignant tumors of the spinal column often afflicting the upper cervical spine and sacrum. There are few large single center series on chordomas due to its rarity. The purpose of this study is to report a single center's experience with the operative and non-operative management of chordomas. Methods: We evaluated our institution's pathology database from 1994 to 2016 to identify patients diagnosed with chordomas. Inclusion criteria were chordomas of the mobile spine and sacrum...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Sayantan Deb, Ryan Brewster, Arjun Vivek Pendharkar, Anand Veeravagu, John Ratliff, Atman Desai
OF BACKGROUND DATA: Primary osseous spinal neoplasms (POSNs) include locally aggressive tumors such as osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and chordoma. For such tumors, surgical resection is associated with improved survival for patients. Socioeconomic predictors of receiving surgery, however, have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the independent effect of race on receiving surgery and survival probability in patients with POSN. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1904 patients from the SEER program at the National Cancer Institute database, all diagnosed with POSN of the spinal cord, vertebral column, pelvis, or sacrum from 2003 through 2012 were included in the study...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Jung-Myun Kwak, Luis Romagnolo, Arthur Wijsmuller, Cristians Gonzalez, Vincent Agnus, Fabiano R Lucchesi, Armando Melani, Jacques Marescaux, Bernard Dallemagne
INTRODUCTION: Technical difficulty and unfamiliar surgical anatomy are the main challenges in transanal total mesorectal excision. Precise 3-dimensional real-time image guidance may facilitate the safety, accuracy, and efficiency of transanal total mesorectal excision. TECHNIQUE: A preoperative CT was obtained with 10 skin fiducials and further processed to emphasize the border of the anatomical structure by 3-dimensional modeling and pelvic organ segmentation. A forced sacral tilt by placing a 10-degree wedge under the patient's sacrum was induced to minimize pelvic organ movement caused by lithotomy position...
January 2019: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Hongying Huang, Sergei R Guma, Jonathan Melamed, Ming Zhou, Peng Lee, Fang-Ming Deng
BACKGROUND: Prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and NKX3.1 are sensitive and prostate-specific markers frequently used for the diagnosis of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). International Society of Urological Pathology recommends use of PSA as the initial immunohistochemical (IHC) marker to identify PCa. If the tumor is equivocal/weak/negative for PSA, then P501S and NKX3.1 stains are suggested. However, no specific studies have attempted to compare the staining sensitivity of these markers post specimen decalcification of bone specimens...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Federico Ampil, Guillermo Sangster, Gloria Caldito, Troy Richards, Yen Ngo, Donghyun Kim, Quyen Chu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Radiotherapy for carcinoma invasion of the sacrum (CIS) is an alternative treatment to surgery in patients with advanced, inoperable tumors or those not medically eligible for resection of the neoplasm. Herein we present an observational study of patients with imaging-confirmed CIS who were treated non-operatively with radiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of CIS patients treated with palliative radiotherapy (PR) during a 9-year period (2004-2013) was performed...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEThe purpose of this study was to investigate the spectrum of current treatment protocols for managing newly diagnosed chordoma of the mobile spine and sacrum.METHODSA survey on the treatment of spinal chordoma was distributed electronically to members of the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor, including neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons, and radiation oncologists from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Survey participants were pre-identified clinicians from centers with expertise in the treatment of spinal tumors...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
David I Sandberg, Bangning Yu, Rajan Patel, John Hagan, Emilie Miesner, Jennifer Sabin, Sarah Smith, Stephen Fletcher, Manish N Shah, Rachael W Sirianni, Michael D Taylor
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation inhibitors are logical therapeutic candidates for ependymomas originating in the posterior fossa of the brain. Our objective was to test the safety of infusing 5-Azacytidine (5-AZA), a DNA methylation inhibitor, directly into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces of the fourth ventricle or tumor resection cavity in children with recurrent ependymoma originating in the posterior fossa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In patients with recurrent ependymoma whose disease originated in the posterior fossa, a maximal safe subtotal tumor resection was performed...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Abhijeet B Kadam, Ashok K Rathod, Anoop C Dhamangaonkar
Giant cell tumor (GCT) or osteoclastoma is a benign, locally aggressive tumor with a tendency to recur. Involvement of the axial skeleton is very rare and majority of them are seen in the sacrum. The authors report a rare case of a 19-year-old female who presented with a C2 dens GCT with a pathological fracture and atlantoaxial dislocation. The patient was operated in two stages: first stage, with posterior instrumentation and stabilization followed by the second stage, tumor resection by anterior transoral approach...
July 2018: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
Ping Yin, Ning Mao, Chao Zhao, Jiangfen Wu, Lei Chen, Nan Hong
BACKGROUND: Preoperative differentiation between primary sacral chordoma (SC), sacral giant cell tumor (SGCT), and sacral metastatic tumor (SMT) is important for treatment decisions. PURPOSE: To develop and validate a triple-classification radiomics model for the preoperative differentiation of SC, SGCT, and SMT based on T2-weighted fat saturation (T2w FS) and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (CE T1w) MRI. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: A total of 120 pathologically confirmed sacral patients (54 SCs, 30 SGCTs, and 36 SMTs) were retrospectively analyzed and divided into a training set (n = 83) and a validation set (n = 37)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Andreas Panagopoulos, Ioannis Vrachnis, Stavros Balasis, Antonis Kouzelis, Giorgos Karpetas, Minos Tyllianakis, Panagiotis Megas
BACKGROUND Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney, with clear cell (ccRCC) subtype identified in 85% of the cases; one-third of these patients experience synchronous metastatic disease, while 20-30% of the remaining patients develop metachronous metastatic RCC. The axial skeleton (pelvis and sacrum) is the second most common location (following the lungs), with a reported incidence of 35%. Diaphysis of the long bones is rarely involved, with the tibia being an even rarer site of metastasis...
November 14, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Kensaku Abe, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Kentaro Igarashi, Hiroyuki Inatani, Yu Aoki, Takashi Higuchi, Yuta Taniguchi, Hirotaka Yonezawa, Yoshihiro Araki, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Difficult resection of tumors from regions with complex local anatomy, such as the pelvis and sacrum, is likely to result in inadequate surgical margins (intralesional or marginal); this is because three-dimensional osteotomy is difficult particularly around the acetabulum. Additionally, removal of the joint makes reconstruction very difficult; thus, retention of good function also becomes difficult. In musculoskeletal oncology, computer navigation systems are still not widely used to prevent tumor-positive margins...
October 24, 2018: BMC Cancer
S El Aoud, H Tounsi, B Ben Ammou, E Chelbi, I Chaabène, I Ben Ahmed, R Amri, W Garbouj, K Bouzaidi
Secondary hypertension is relatively rare. Its etiologies are essentially renal or endocrine. The adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare malignant tumor, is one of the most exceptional causes of hypertension. We report the case of a young woman presenting with hypertension and ascites of great abundance. She had hypokalemia, hepatic cytolysis and cholestasis. Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic CT scans showed adrenal mass, liver and lung nodules, osteolytic lesions of the sacrum. The biopsy of liver nodules confirmed the diagnosis of a metastatic malignant adrenocortical carcinoma...
October 2, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Muhammad Naeem, Horacio Maluf, Jonathan C Baker, Jack W Jennings
Neoplasms of the sacrum are rare. Given the non-specific imaging findings in sacral lesions, the imaging-based differential diagnosis is always difficult. This case is about an adult with primary sacral neuroblastoma and we have discussed imaging and histopathological findings of this rare tumor.
September 30, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Kazuhiro Kitajima, Shingo Yamamoto, Norihiko Kamikonya, Yukako Nakanishi, Yusuke Yamada, Takahiko Hashimoto, Toru Suzuki, Shuken Go, Akihiro Kanematsu, Michio Nojima, Koichiro Yamakado
We report here about a 59-year-old man with bone metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and biochemical progression, who underwent radium-223 (Ra-223) therapy, following previous treatment failure. Treatment response of osseous metastases was assessed with three 11 C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans at baseline, after three cycles for early monitoring, as well as after six cycles of radium-223 therapy. Pretreatment 11 C-choline PET/CT showed multiple areas of increased focal activity in multiple cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae as well as in both ribs, right ileum, and left ischium...
July 9, 2018: Curēus
Fabrice Bing, Jonathan Vappou, Michel de Mathelin, Afshin Gangi
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the suitability of MRgHIFU for osteoid osteomas (OOs) and bone metastases in patients who underwent minimally-invasive percutaneous thermal ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-seven lesions (115 metastases and 52 OOs) treated percutaneously between October 2014 and June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Tumors were located in the spine or sacrum (54), pelvis (43), limbs (50), ribs (17) and sternum (3). Tumor volume, matrix, anatomical environment and need for protection of surrounding structures or consolidation were assessed...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
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