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Huizhen Yuan, Wei Ji, Shuwen Chu, Qiang Liu, Siyu Qian, Jianye Guang, Jiabin Wang, Xiuyou Han, Jean-François Masson, Wei Peng
As a highly toxic heavy metal ion, divalent mercuric ion (Hg2+) is one of the most widely diffused and hazardous environmental pollutants. In this paper, a simple, portable, and inexpensive fiber-optic sensor based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect was developed for Hg2+ detection, which takes advantage of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPY) functionalized Au nanoparticles (Au NPs/4-MPY) as a signal amplification tag. Based on the coordination between Hg2+ and nitrogen in the pyridine moiety, we developed the sensor by self-assembling 4-MPY on Au film surfaces to capture Hg2+, and then introducing Au NPs/4-MPY to generate a plasmonic coupling structure with the configuration of nanoparticle-on-mirror...
February 20, 2019: ACS Sensors
Salah Fatouh Abou-Elwafa, Abu El-Eyuoon Abu Zied Amin, Tariq Shehzad
Decreasing freshwater supply has led to the consideration of treated wastewater as an alternative source for agricultural irrigation. However, the higher content of heavy metals restricts their use in agricultural purposes. In the current study, a set of 181 SSR markers were used to perform association mapping in a structured sorghum population consisting of 107 accessions evaluated under tap-water and heavy-metals-containing water irrigation conditions. Significant differences between optimal and stressed growing conditions were shown in all evaluated phenotypic traits...
February 19, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Tarisai Velempini, Kriveshini Pillay, Xavier Y Mbianda, Omotayo A Arotiba
Sulfur containing ion imprinted polymers (S-IIPs) were applied for the uptake of Hg(II) from aqueous solution. Cysteamine which was used as the ligand for Hg(II) complexation, was grafted along the epichlorohydrin crosslinked carboxylated carboxymethyl cellulose polymer chain through an amide reaction. The adsorption ability of S-IIPs towards Hg(II) was investigated by kinetic and isotherm models, which, corresponding, showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order, fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum adsorption capacity of 80 mg/g...
May 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Chunmiao Wang, Jianwei Yu, Qingyuan Guo, Yu Zhao, Nan Cao, Zhiyong Yu, Min Yang
A wide range of compounds with various structural features can cause taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water. It would be desirable to determine all of these compounds using a simple analytical method. In this paper, a sensitive method combining liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was established to simultaneously analyze 51 odor-causing compounds in drinking water, including organic sulfides, aldehydes, benzenes, phenols, ethers, esters, ketones, nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin...
May 2019: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ying Yang, Weimei Mai, Jingyi Gao, Zhe Hu, Jianqiao Xu, Shichun Zou
A novel, low-cost and effective in-needle solid phase micro-extraction device was developed for the enrichment of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. The in-needle solid phase micro-extraction device could be easily assembled by inserting hydrofluoric acid-etched wires, which were used as adsorbent, into a 22-gauge needle tube within spring supporters. Compared with the commercial solid phase micro-extraction fiber, the developed device has higher efficiency for the extraction of 4-6 rings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples using the optimized extraction conditions...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Separation Science
Chacko Kalliath, Archana Mukunda, Meera Pynadath, Vidya Venugopal, Jithin Prethweeraj
Background: Dentistry plays a crucial role in shaping the esthetics of a person and thus boosts the self-esteem of an individual. Whitening of the teeth is the most popular procedure where surface and deep stain removal whitens the teeth. Teeth whitening is achieved by professional application of chemicals and can also be self-administered by numerous products available. The most popular product is teeth whitening paste which is simple in application and easily available. Recently, teeth whitening tooth paste is commercially available where natural ingredients or their derivatives are used instead of chemicals for teeth whitening...
April 2018: Ayu
Shan Li, Anthony B Cunningham, Ruyan Fan, Yuhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Indigo-dyed textiles have been central to the cultural identity of Landian Yao (literally "blue clothes Yao") people in Southwest China for centuries, driving a significant local market for naturally dyed indigo cloth. In the past two decades, local indigo production for traditional textiles has declined for several reasons: Firstly, the younger generation of Landian Yao has shifted to using western style jeans and T-shirts. Secondly, due to its labor-intensive nature...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Kevin Honeychurch
Carbon rod electrodes (CREs) were obtained from recycled zinc⁻carbon batteries and were used without further modification for the measurement of trace concentrations of lead (Pb). The electrochemical behavior of Pb at these electrodes in a variety of supporting electrolytes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The anodic peaks obtained on the reverse scans were indicative of Pb being deposited as a thin layer on the electrode surface. The greatest signal⁻to⁻noise ratios were obtained in organic acids compared to mineral acids, and acetic acid was selected as the supporting electrolyte for further studies...
February 13, 2019: Sensors
Megumi Mizuno, Tomoyuki Hiroyasu, Satoru Hiwa
The ability to coordinate one's behavior with the others' behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between time coordination and brain function. Furthermore, using brain functional network analysis based on graph theory, we examined important brain regions and network structures that serve as the hub when performing the synchronized tapping task...
February 15, 2019: Brain Sciences
Palaniappan Sivasankar, Subramaniam Poongodi, Palaniappan Seedevi, Murugesan Sivakumar, Tamilselvi Murugan, Sivakumar Loganathan
A mission for fast advancement has constrained us to unpredictably tap various natural assets. The reckless utilisation of fossil fuels led unmanageable wastes which have greatly affected our health and environment. Endeavours to address these difficulties have conveyed to the frontal area certain creative natural solutions particularly the utilisation of microbial digestion systems. In the previous two decades, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) innovation has caught the consideration of the researchers. The MFCs is a kind of bio-electrochemical framework with novel highlights, for example, power production, wastewater treatment, and biosensor applications...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
A Facciolà, G F Pellicanò, G Visalli, I A Paolucci, E Venanzi Rullo, M Ceccarelli, F D'Aleo, A Di Pietro, R Squeri, G Nunnari, V La Fauci
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are one of the most relevant public health problems worldwide. The role of the hospital environment as a reservoir of pathogens causing HAIs is still debated. These pathogens are common in several hospital environments, where they are able to persist from hours to months and their circulation is favored by healthcare workers (HCWs). Hospital surfaces at close contact with patients such as bed bars and header, bedside table, taps, and handles in wards ("high-touched surfaces"), are considered easily contaminable and at risk to transfer pathogens to patients...
February 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
M Deschepper, K Eeckloo, D Vogelaers, W Waegeman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hospitals already acquire a large amount of data, mainly for administrative, billing and registration purposes. Tapping on these already available data for additional purposes, aiming at improving care, without significant incremental effort and cost. This potential of secondary patient data is explored through modeling administrative and billing data, as well as the hierarchical structure of pathology codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the prediction of unplanned readmissions, as a clinically relevant outcome parameter that can be impacted on in a quality improvement program...
February 13, 2019: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Mani Gajendiran, Heejung Jo, Kyobum Kim, Sengottuvelan Balasubramanian
Background: Surface functionalization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has emerged as a promising field of research with enormous biomedical applications. The folate (FA)-attached polymer-gold nanoconjugates play vital role in targeting the cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were synthesized by using di- or tri-carboxylate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, including citrate-PEG (CPEG), malate-PEG (MAP), and tartrate-PEG (TAP), as a reducing and stabilizing agent. After synthesis of polymer-AuNPs, the freely available hydroxyl and carboxylate groups of CPEG, MAP, and TAP were used to attach a cancer cell-targeting agent, FA, via a 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide coupling reaction to obtain FA-CPEG-AuNP, FA-MAP-AuNP, and FA-TAP-AuNP nanocon-jugates, respectively...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Karen Luyt, Sally Jary, Charlotte Lea, Grace J Young, David Odd, Helen Miller, Grazyna Kmita, Cathy Williams, Peter S Blair, Aída Moure Fernández, William Hollingworth, Michelle Morgan, Adam Smith-Collins, N Jade Thai, Steven Walker-Cox, Kristian Aquilina, Ian Pople, Andrew Whitelaw
BACKGROUND: The drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT) trial, conducted in 2003-6, showed a reduced rate of death or severe disability at 2 years in the DRIFT compared with the standard treatment group, among preterm infants with intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation. OBJECTIVES: To compare cognitive function, visual and sensorimotor ability, emotional well-being, use of specialist health/rehabilitative and educational services, neuroimaging, and economic costs and benefits at school age...
February 2019: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Natalia Karska, Małgorzata Graul, Emilia Sikorska, Igor Zhukov, Magdalena J Ślusarz, Franciszek Kasprzykowski, Andrea D Lipińska, Sylwia Rodziewicz-Motowidło
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) directly participates in the immune response as a key component of the cytosolic peptide to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I protein loading machinery. This makes TAP an important target for viruses avoiding recognition by CD8+ T lymphocytes. Its activity can be suppressed by the UL49.5 protein produced by bovine herpesvirus 1, although the mechanism of this inhibition has not been understood so far. Therefore, the main goal of our study was to investigate the 3D structure of bovine herpesvirus 1 - encoded UL49...
February 14, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Piyaluk Nurerk, Christina Shu Min Liew, Opas Bunkoed, Proespichaya Kanatharana, Hian Kee Lee
An environmentally friendly method of etching a stainless steel plunger wire, to replace the conventional hydrofluoric acid approach, was developed for plunger-in-needle liquid phase-microextraction (PIN-LPME). The one-step etching procedure was performed by immersing the plunger wire in a ferric chloride-hydrochloric acid (FeCl3 -HCl) solution. The etched wire was then used for LPME as the organic solvent holder. After solvent coating, the wire was directly exposed to a water sample for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were then subjected to thermal desorption in the injector of a gas chromatograph for gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Long Li, Jibran Iqbal, Hui Li, Yuan Zhang, Lin Sun, Ying Zhu, Wanchao Chen, Yongqing Xi, Ting Wu, Yiping Du
A device was designed integrating solid phase extraction (SPE) and in situ optical detection techniques. A chip assembled in the device to carry out SPE was enclosed in a fully reflective aluminum box to avoid loss of radiation flux in the optical measurement. The spectrum was measured on the SPE material directly after SPE. The device offers simple analytical operation without any elution step comparing with the traditional analytical methods with complicated procedures. The device and the developed analytical technique was used for the determination of rhodamine B and benzo[a]pyrene with UV-visible diffuse reflectance and solid phase fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Misery Mulele Nabuyanda, Johan van Bruggen, Peter Kelderman, Kenneth Irvine
There is critical concern over heavy metals because they are biotoxins. The best management option is elimination or at least minimization of effluence into the environment, but in several regions, mining wastewater or acid mine drainage (AMD) effluence into natural wetlands has continued. The ability of wetlands to attenuate heavy metals in mining wastewater and AMD has led to natural wetlands being used as recipients of these effluents in many parts of the world. Ten greenhouse-based laboratory-scale constructed wetlands (GLCW) were set up at IHE-Delft Institute for Water Education to understand the mechanisms and fate of heavy metals in three Zambian wetlands in attenuation of Co, Cu, and Pb...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules present peptides on the surface of most nucleated cells and allow the immune system to detect and eliminate infected or malignantly transformed cells. The peptides are derived from endogenous proteins by proteasomal degradation or aberrant translation, and are translocated from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), a central component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). The peptides are subsequently processed by ER-resident aminopeptidases (ERAP1/2) and loaded onto MHC I...
February 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Immunology
Hannah G Lawman, Xavier Lofton, Sara Grossman, Mica Root, Meka Perez, Gregory Tasian, Anisha Patel
INTRODUCTION: Improving children's tap water intake and reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is beneficial for health and health equity, particularly in low-income communities and communities of color. Existing community level interventions to improve the intake of tap water have predominantly occurred in schools and have focused on promoting water consumption in cafeterias during lunch or snack periods. METHODS: The "Hydrate Philly" intervention was developed to target multiple environmental and social factors to improve tap water consumption in community recreation centers in low-income communities: replacing old and unappealing water fountains with appealing water-bottle-filling "hydration stations", conducting water safety testing and publicizing results, disseminating reusable water bottles, promoting tap water, and discouraging SSB consumption...
February 13, 2019: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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