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Body composition preterm infants

Guadalupe Gómez-Rodríguez, Norma Amador-Licona, Leonel Daza-Benítez, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero, Deyanira Carballo-Magdaleno, Rodrigo Aguilar-Padilla, Eduardo González-Ramirez
BACKGROUND: According to the literature, probiotics are an attractive alternative to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, due to differences in probiotic composition, randomized controlled trials are necessary to compare different probiotic mixtures. The objective of this study was to compare single strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus boucardii) versus multispecies probiotics on NEC incidence and faecal secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in very low preterm newborns. METHODS: We performed a double-blind randomized trial in 90 newborns...
March 2, 2019: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Ardythe L Morrow, Adekunle Dawodu
Fatty acids (FAs) and fat-soluble vitamins are vital components of the human milk lipid fraction. About two-thirds of the human milk FA fraction consist of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic FAs, but the precise composition depends on maternal geography, diet, and genetics. Mothers with high fish consumption have more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and other ω-3 FAs in their milk, while mothers with high dairy consumption have more branched-chain FAs in their milk. Vitamins A and E are the most common fat-soluble vitamins, but milk concentrations vary, depending on maternal diet and body stores...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Alan Lucas
The global drive to promote breastfeeding targeted at all 134 million infants born/year on the planet is one of the most pervasive public health interventions. It is, therefore, critical that the breastfeeding field is rooted in sound evidence. Three important scientific pillars of breastfeeding have been: (1) that human milk (HM) is the product of 200 million years of mammalian evolution; (2) that HM composition should be seen as the gold standard for infant nutritional requirements; and (3) that HM has numerous clinical benefits for the infant...
2019: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
Edward T Andrews, R Mark Beattie, Mark J Johnson
Preterm birth and body composition have demonstrable effects on growth and later health outcomes. Preterm infants reach term equivalent age with a lower proportion of lean mass and higher body fat percentage than their term equivalent counterparts. Weight and length do not give an accurate assessment of body composition. Tracking body composition rather than just weight is a fundamental part of improving nutritional outcomes. This is important given the ongoing controversies regarding the nutritional needs of preterm infants, as well as establishing suitable targets for their growth...
January 12, 2019: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Klara McClunan, Daniel Gerhardus Nel, Muhammad Ali Dhansay, Evette van Niekerk
BACKGROUND: Human breast milk (HBM) is considered inadequate in meeting protein requirements, especially for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, which could affect body composition. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the effect of HBM on body composition of HIV-exposed and unexposed preterm VLBW and extremely low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to ascertain the effect breast milk fortification and days nil per os (NPO) have on body composition...
February 4, 2019: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Li Feng Xie, Nathalie Alos, Anik Cloutier, Chanel Béland, Josée Dubois, Anne Monique Nuyt, Thuy Mai Luu
Introduction: Preterm infants are at increased risk of osteopenia of prematurity due to insufficient bone mineral accretion. Data on long term effects of prematurity on bone health are conflicting. This study aimed to compare bone mineral density (BMD) in young adults born very preterm and full-term controls and to examine factors associated with long-term bone health. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 101 young adults (18-29 years) born <29 weeks of gestation and 95 sex- and age-matched full-term controls...
June 2019: Bone Reports
Anders D Andersen, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Louise Langhorn, Ingrid B Renes, Ruurd M van Elburg, Anita Hartog, Sebastian Tims, Yohan van de Looij, Per T Sangild, Thomas Thymann
Background: Preterm infants are born with an immature gut, brain, and immune system, predisposing them to short- and long-term complications. Objective: We hypothesized that a milk diet supplemented with pre- and probiotics (i.e. synbiotics) and glutamine would improve gut, brain, and immune maturation in preterm neonates, using preterm pigs as a model. Methods: Preterm pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc, n = 40, delivered by c-section at 90% of gestation) were reared individually until day 23 after birth under highly standardized conditions...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Julia Suikkanen, Hanna-Maria Matinolli, Johan G Eriksson, Anna-Liisa Järvenpää, Sture Andersson, Eero Kajantie, Petteri Hovi
OBJECTIVES: Adults born preterm at very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) have a non-optimal cardiometabolic risk factor profile. Since higher protein intake during the first weeks of life predicted a healthier body composition in adulthood in our previous studies, we hypothesized that it would also predict a favorable cardiometabolic profile. STUDY DESIGN: The Helsinki Study of VLBW Adults includes 166 VLBW and preterm infants born between 1978 and 1985. We collected postnatal nutrition data among 125 unimpaired subjects, who attended two study visits at the mean ages of 22...
2018: PloS One
M I Goran, J F Plows, E E Ventura
Consumption of sugar and alternative low- or no-energy sweeteners has increased in recent decades. However, it is still uncertain how consumption of sugar and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy affects pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring health. This review aims to collate the available evidence surrounding the consequences of sugar and alternative sweetener consumption during pregnancy, a so-called secondhand sugar effect. We found evidence that sugar consumption during pregnancy may contribute to increased gestational weight gain and the development of pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and preterm birth...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Lisa Molines, Simon Nusinovici, Marie Moreau, Mathilde Remy, Pascale May-Panloup, Cyril Flamant, Jean-Christophe Roze, Patrick Van Bogaert, Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet, Géraldine Gascoin
STUDY QUESTION: Is assisted conception associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality and with neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age? SUMMARY ANSWER: Assisted conception is not associated with an increase in neonatal morbidity and mortality and is even significantly associated with a better 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Assisted conception appears to increase the rate of preterm births, though few studies have analysed outcomes for these preterm infants...
February 1, 2019: Human Reproduction
Maria L Gianni, Paola Roggero, Fabio Mosca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the current available evidence on the metabolic fate of human milk proteins and their potential clinical implications for growth and body composition development vs. those of formula proteins in preterm infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The decreased content of human milk protein in preterm mothers throughout lactation might contribute to the reduced growth reported in exclusively human milk-fed infants compared with that of formula-fed infants...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Pasqua Piemontese, Nadia Liotto, Domenica Mallardi, Paola Roggero, Valeria Puricelli, Maria Lorella Giannì, Daniela Morniroli, Chiara Tabasso, Michela Perrone, Camilla Menis, Anna Orsi, Orsola Amato, Fabio Mosca
Introduction: Human milk is the optimal nutrition for preterm infants. When the mother's own milk is unavailable, donor human milk is recommended as an alternative for preterm infants. The association among early nutrition, body composition and the future risk of disease has recently attracted much interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of human milk on the body composition of preterm infants. Materials and Methods: Very low birth weight infants (VLBW: birth weight <1,500 g) with a gestational age (GA) between 26 and 34 weeks were included...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mariana Muelbert, Jane E Harding, Frank H Bloomfield
Late preterm (LP) and early term (ET) infants can be considered the "great dissemblers": they resemble healthy full-term infants in appearance, but their immaturity places them at increased risk of poor short- and long-term outcomes. Nutritional requirements are greater than for full-term babies, but there are few good data on the nutritional requirements for LP and ET babies, leading to substantial variation in practice. Recent data indicate that rapid growth may be beneficial for neurocognitive function but not for body composition and later metabolic health...
October 12, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Margie H Davenport, Victoria L Meah, Stephanie-May Ruchat, Gregory A Davies, Rachel J Skow, Nick Barrowman, Kristi B Adamo, Veronica J Poitras, Casey E Gray, Alejandra Jaramillo Garcia, Frances Sobierajski, Laurel Riske, Marina James, Amariah J Kathol, Megan Nuspl, Andree-Anne Marchand, Taniya S Nagpal, Linda G Slater, Ashley Weeks, Ruben Barakat, Michelle F Mottola
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the relationship between maternal prenatal exercise and birth complications, and neonatal and childhood morphometric, metabolic and developmental outcomes. DESIGN: Systematic review with random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. DATA SOURCES: Online databases were searched up to 6 January 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies of all designs were eligible (except case studies and reviews) if published in English, Spanish or French, and contained information on the relevant population (pregnant women without contraindication to exercise), intervention (subjective/objective measures of frequency, intensity, duration, volume or type of exercise, alone ('exercise-only') or in combination with other intervention components (eg, dietary; 'exercise+cointervention')), comparator (no exercise or different frequency, intensity, duration, volume, type or trimester of exercise) and outcomes (preterm birth, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, low birth weight (<2500 g), high birth weight (>4000 g), small for gestational age, large for gestational age, intrauterine growth restriction, neonatal hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis (cord blood pH, base excess), hyperbilirubinaemia, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admittance, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, neonatal body composition (per cent body fat, body weight, body mass index (BMI), ponderal index), childhood obesity (per cent body fat, body weight, BMI) and developmental milestones (including cognitive, psychosocial, motor skills))...
November 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
N A Al-Theyab, T J Donovan, Y A Eiby, P B Colditz, B E Lingwood
BACKGROUND: Infants born very preterm experience poor postnatal growth relative to intrauterine growth, but at term equivalent age, they have increased percentage body fat compared with infants born at term. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess body composition in very preterm infants born before 32 weeks postmenstrual age and to compare this with infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Percentage fat, fat mass and fat-free mass were measured in 87 very preterm infants born <32 weeks of gestation and studied at 32-36 weeks and in 88 control infants born at 32-36 weeks of gestation and measured on days 2-5 postnatally...
September 26, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Katie M Pfister, Lei Zhang, Neely C Miller, Ellen C Ingolfsland, Ellen W Demerath, Sara E Ramel
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VPT) infants are at-risk for altered growth, slower speed of processing (SOP), and hypertension. This study assesses the relationship between postnatal body composition (BC), neurodevelopment (indexed by SOP), and blood pressure (BP) in VPT infants. METHODS: Thirty-four VPT infants underwent weekly measurements and BC testing until discharge and post-discharge at 4 mos CGA and 4 yrs. At post-discharge visits, SOP was assessed using visual evoked potentials and the NIH Toolbox; BP was also measured...
November 2018: Pediatric Research
Tamara I Herrera, Laura Edwards, William F Malcolm, P Brian Smith, Kimberley A Fisher, Carolyn Pizoli, Kathryn E Gustafson, Ricki F Goldstein, C Michael Cotten, Ronald N Goldberg, Margarita Bidegain
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia reduces the risk of death, or moderate to severe neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Reports of its safety and efficacy in preterm infants are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Report short and long-term outcomes of preterm infants with HIE who received therapeutic hypothermia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of all preterm infants <36 weeks' gestation with HIE who received whole body hypothermia in a single center from January 2007 to April 2015...
October 2018: Early Human Development
Ana Cecília Travassos Santiago, Louise Perna Martins da Cunha, Nayara Silva Argollo Vieira, Lícia Maria Oliveira Moreira, Patrícia Ribeiro de Oliveira, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro Lyra, Crésio de Aragão Dantas Alves
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review evidence related to nutritional and cardiometabolic outcomes in children born at term and small for gestational age and the association with breastfeeding. SOURCE OF DATA: Two independent reviewers searched the MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and Embase databases without time or language restrictions. The PRISMA tool was used, and studies that evaluated infants born at term and small for gestational age, breastfed, and with an evaluation of cardiometabolic outcomes were included...
August 21, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are born with low glycogen stores and require higher glucose intake to match fetal accretion rates. In spite of the myriad benefits of breast milk for preterm infants, it may not adequately meet the needs of these rapidly growing infants. Supplementing human milk with carbohydrates may help. However, there is a paucity of data on assessment of benefits or harms of carbohydrate supplementation of human milk to promote growth in preterm infants. This is a 2018 update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999...
August 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
James G Huang, Shi Hua Chan, Le Ye Lee
INTRODUCTION: We studied the effects of ethnicity on early infant growth patterns in exclusively breast-fed (EBF) infants from a Singaporean multiethnic population. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in National University Hospital, Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy, EBF infants born at-term completing 37 weeks and above, and whose birthweight was appropriate for gestational age (>10th centile, <90th centile) were recruited. Infants were required to be EBF at least until the minimum age of weaning...
June 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
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