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amino acid starvation

Yangyang Zhou, Xin Qi, Haishen Wen, Kaiqiang Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Jin Li, Yun Li, Hongying Fan
Motilin (MLN), an interdigestive hormone secreted by endocrine cells of the intestinal mucosa, binds to a G protein-coupled receptor to exert its biological function of regulating gastrointestinal motility. In the present study, we identified the prepromotilin and mln receptor (mlnr) from the spotted sea bass, Lateolabrax maculatus. Mln consisted of an ORF of 336 nucleotides encoding 111 amino acids. The precursor protein contained a 17-amino-acid mature peptide. Mlnr had an ORF of 1,089 bp encoding a protein of 362 amino acids...
February 13, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Manchi Rajesh, Biju Sam Kamalam, Alexander Ciji, Md Shabaz Akhtar, Nityanand Pandey, Subodh Gupta, Debajit Sarma, Narrotam Prasad Sahu, Atul Kumar Singh
In vertebrates, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) play an important role in muscle growth through the processes of cell determination and differentiation. Herein, we report the molecular characterisation of two MRFs, myogenin (myog) and myogenic factor 6 (myf6) in Indian snow trout Schizothorax richardsonii. The full length mRNA sequence of Srmyog and Srmyf6 was 1437 and 1296 bp, with an ORF of 762 and 720 bp, encoding a putative protein of 253 and 239 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis and predicted tertiary protein structure revealed that both these nuclear localized MRFs contained the highly conserved basic helix loop helix motif, to potentially aid in dimerization with functional partners and DNA binding...
February 12, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Allison R Kolbe, Anthony J Studer, Omar E Cornejo, Asaph B Cousins
BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyzes the hydration of CO2 in the first biochemical step of C4 photosynthesis, and has been considered a potentially rate-limiting step when CO2 availability within a leaf is low. Previous work in Zea mays (maize) with a double knockout of the two highest-expressed β-CA genes, CA1 and CA2, reduced total leaf CA activity to less than 3% of wild-type. Surprisingly, this did not limit photosynthesis in maize at ambient or higher CO2 concentrations...
February 15, 2019: BMC Genomics
Hyo Gun Lee, Saichit Khummuang, Hyun-Hee Youn, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Teak-Soon Shin, Seong-Keun Cho, Byeong-Woo Kim, Jakyeom Seo, Myunghoo Kim, Tae Sub Park, Byung-Wook Cho
Objective: Among stress responses, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a well-known mechanism related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress is induced by a variety of external and environmental factors such as starvation, ischemia, hypoxia, oxidative stress, and heat stress. Inositol requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-X-box protein 1 (XBP1) is the most conserved pathway involved in the UPR and is the main component that mediates IRE1α signalling to downstream ER-associated degradation- (ERAD) or UPR-related genes...
January 4, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Félix Lallemand, Marie-Laure Martin-Magniette, Françoise Gilard, Bertrand Gakière, Alexandra Launay-Avon, Étienne Delannoy, Marc-André Selosse
Mycoheterotrophic plants have lost photosynthesis and obtain carbon through mycorrhizal fungi colonizing their roots. They likely evolved from mixotrophic ancestors, which rely on both photosynthesis and fungal carbon for their development. Whereas our understanding of the ecological and genomic changes associated with the evolutionary shift to mycoheterotrophy is deepening, little is known about the specific metabolic and physiological features driving this evolution. We investigated this issue in naturally occurring achlorophyllous variants of temperate mixotrophic orchids...
February 8, 2019: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Huan Liu, Monireh Marsafari, Li Deng, Peng Xu
Lipogenesis is a complicated process involving global transcriptional reprogramming of lipogenic pathways. It is commonly believed that nitrogen starvation triggers a metabolic shift that reroutes carbon flux from Krebs cycles to lipogenesis. In this study, we systematically surveyed and dynamically profiled the transcriptional activity of 22 lipogenic promoters aiming to delineate a picture how nitrogen starvation regulates lipogenesis in Y. lipolytica. These lipogenic promoters drive the expression of critical pathways that are responsible for the generation of reducing equivalents (NADPH), carbon backbones (acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, DHAP, etc...
February 7, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Peixian Bai, Kang Wei, Liyuan Wang, Fen Zhang, Li Ruan, Hailin Li, Liyun Wu, Hao Cheng
Theanine, a unique amino acid in Camellia sinensis , accounts for more than 50% of total free amino acids in tea and has a significant contribution to the quality of green tea. Previous research indicated that theanine is synthesized from glutamic acid (Glu) and ethylamine mainly in roots, and that theanine accumulation depends on the availability of ethylamine which is derived from alanine (Ala) decarboxylation catalyzed by alanine decarboxylase (AlaDC). However, the specific gene encoding AlaDC protein remains to be discovered in tea plants or in other species...
February 1, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ewa Żymańczyk-Duda, Natalia Dunal, Małgorzata Brzezińska-Rodak, Angelika Osiewała, Tomasz K Olszewski, Magdalena Klimek-Ochab, Monika Serafin-Lewańczuk
Presented work describes the first approach for the biocatalytic resolution of racemic mixtures of heterophosphonate derivative. Penicillium funiculosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were successfully applied for the biological conversion of racemic mixture of 1-amino-1-(3'-pyridyl)methylphosphonic acid 3. Both microorganisms carried out the kinetically driven process leading to conversion of one from the substrate enantiomers, leaving the second one unreacted. Application of R. mucilaginosa allowed obtaining pure enantiomer of the substrate (yield 100%, e...
January 29, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Xinchen Teng, J Marie Hardwick
A critical function of human, yeast, and bacterial cells is the ability to sense and respond to available nutrients such as glucose and amino acids. Cells must also detect declining nutrient levels to adequately prepare for starvation conditions by inhibiting cell growth and activating autophagy. The evolutionarily conserved protein complex TORC1 regulates these cellular responses to nutrients, and in particular to amino acid availability. Recently, we found that yeast Whi2 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and a human counterpart, KCTD11, that shares a conserved BTB structural domain, are required to suppress TORC1 activity under low amino acid conditions...
January 30, 2019: Current Genetics
Victoria Riccio, Nicholas Demers, Rong Hua, Miluska Vissa, Derrick T Cheng, Amy Wong Strilchuk, Yuqing Wang, G Angus McQuibban, Peter Kijun Kim
The regulation of organelle abundance is critical for cell function and survival; however, the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. In this study, we characterize a role of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP30 in peroxisome maintenance. Peroxisomes are highly dynamic, changing in abundance in response to metabolic stress. In our recent study identifying the role of USP30 in mitophagy, we observed USP30 to be localized to punctate structures resembling peroxisomes. We report here that USP30, best known as a mitophagy regulator, is also necessary for regulating pexophagy, the selective autophagic degradation of peroxisomes...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Cell Biology
Irina Eliseeva, Maria Vasilieva, Lev P Ovchinnikov
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a well-known master regulator of growth-dependent gene expression in higher eukaryotes. Translation regulation is an important function of the mTORC1 pathway that controls the synthesis of many ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Housekeeping genes such as β-actin ( ACTB ) are widely used as negative control genes in studies of growth-dependent translation. Here we demonstrate that translation of both endogenous and reporter ACTB mRNA is inhibited in the presence of mTOR kinase inhibitor (Torin1) and under amino acid starvation...
January 29, 2019: Genes
Sun Liangliang, Ping Zhang, Ruling Wang, Jinpeng Wan, Qiong Ju, Steven J Rothstein, Jin Xu
Studies have indicated that the carbon starvation response leads to the reprogramming of the transcriptome and metabolome, and many genes, including several important regulators, such as the group S1 basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP1, bZIP11, and bZIP53, the SNAC-A transcription factor ATAF1, etc., are involved in these physiological processes. Here, we show that the SNAC-A transcription factor ANAC032 also plays important roles in this process. The overexpression of ANAC032 inhibits photosynthesis and induces ROS accumulation in chloroplasts, thereby reducing sugar accumulation and resulting in carbon starvation...
January 25, 2019: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lauren V Albrecht, Maggie H Bui, Edward M De Robertis
The nutrient-sensing metabolite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) controls one-carbon metabolism by donating methyl groups to biochemical building blocks, DNA, RNA, and protein. Our recent work uncovered a requirement for cytoplasmic arginine methylation during Wnt signaling through the activity of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which transfers one-carbon groups from SAM to many protein substrates. Here, we report that treatments that decrease levels of the universal methyl donor SAM were potent inhibitors of Wnt signaling and of Wnt-induced digestion of extracellular proteins in endolysosomes...
January 24, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maciej Dylewski, Michał Sobala, Bożena Bruhn-Olszewska, Katarzyna Potrykus
About 50 years ago, "magic spots" - mediators of the bacterial stringent response, were discovered and were later identified as guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate (ppGpp and pppGpp, jointly referred to as (p)ppGpp). At first, it seemed that stringent response is associated only with bacterial response to amino acid starvation, however, it soon turned out that (p)ppGpp is synthesized in response to other stresses as well. The mentioned alarmones are found to exist in all known bacterial species, as well as in plants...
June 30, 2018: Postepy Biochemii
Kuang Shen, Max L Valenstein, Xin Gu, David M Sabatini
mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major regulator of cell growth and proliferation that coordinates nutrient inputs with anabolic and catabolic processes. Amino acid signals are transmitted to mTORC1 through the Rag GTPases, which directly recruit mTORC1 onto the lysosomal surface, its site of activation. The Rag GTPase heterodimer has a unique architecture that consists of two GTPase subunits, RagA or RagB bound to RagC or RagD. Their nucleotide-loading states are strictly controlled by several lysosomal or cytosolic protein complexes that directly detect and transmit the amino acid signals...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Christian Blume, Julia Ost, Marco Mühlenbruch, Christoph Peterhänsel, Miriam Laxa
The non-proteinogenic amino acid ornithine links several stress response pathways. From a previous study we know that ornithine accumulates in response to low CO2. To investigate ornithine accumulation in plants, we shifted plants to either low CO2 or low light. Both conditions increased carbon limitation, but only low CO2 also increased the rate of photorespiration. Changes in metabolite profiles of light- and CO2-limited plants were quite similar. Several amino acids that are known markers of senescence accumulated strongly under both conditions...
2019: PloS One
Fabrizio Araniti, Aitana Costas-Gil, Luz Cabeiras-Freijanes, Antonio Lupini, Francesco Sunseri, Manuel J Reigosa, Maria Rosa Abenavoli, Adela M Sánchez-Moreiras
Phytotoxic potential of rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid ester largely found in aromatic species, was evaluated on Arabidopsis through metabolomic and microscopic approaches. In-vitro bioassays pointed out that RA affected root growth and morphology, causing ROS burst, ROS scavengers activity inhibition and consequently, an alteration on cells organization and ultrastructure. In particular, RA-treatment (175 μM) caused strong vacuolization, alteration of mitochondria structure and function and a consistent ROS-induced reduction of their transmembrane potential (ΔΨm)...
2018: PloS One
Mark Christian Felipe R Redillas, Seung Woon Bang, Dong-Keun Lee, Youn Shic Kim, Harin Jung, Pil Joong Chung, Joo-Won Suh, Ju-Kon Kim
In legumes, nitrogen (N) can be stored as ureide allantoin and transported by ureide permease (UPS) from nodules to leaves where it is catabolized to release ammonium and assimilation to amino acids. In non-leguminous plants especially rice, information on its roles in N metabolism is scarce. Here, we show that OsUPS1 is localized in plasma membranes and are highly expressed in vascular tissues of rice. We further evaluated an activation tagging rice overexpressing OsUPS1 (OsUPS1OX ) under several N regimes...
December 19, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Guang Yang, Sean J Humphrey, Danielle S Murashige, Deanne Francis, Qiao-Ping Wang, Kristen C Cooke, Greg Neely, David E James
The mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) controls cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism in response to diverse stimuli. Two major parallel pathways are implicated in mTORC1 regulation including a growth factor-responsive pathway mediated via TSC2/Rheb and an amino acid-responsive pathway mediated via the Rag GTPases. Here, we identify and characterize three highly conserved growth factor-responsive phosphorylation sites on RagC, a component of the Rag heterodimer, implicating cross talk between amino acid and growth factor-mediated regulation of mTORC1...
December 14, 2018: EMBO Journal
Isabell Adam, Dyah L Dewi, Joram Mooiweer, Ahmed Sadik, Soumya R Mohapatra, Bianca Berdel, Melanie Keil, Jana K Sonner, Kathrin Thedieck, Adam J Rose, Michael Platten, Ines Heiland, Saskia Trump, Christiane A Opitz
Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism is an important target in immuno-oncology as it represents a powerful immunosuppressive mechanism hijacked by tumors for protection against immune destruction. However, it remains unclear how tumor cells can proliferate while degrading the essential amino acid Trp. Trp is incorporated into proteins after it is attached to its tRNA by tryptophanyl-tRNA synthestases. As the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthestases compete for Trp with the Trp-catabolizing enzymes, the balance between these enzymes will determine whether Trp is used for protein synthesis or is degraded...
2018: Oncoimmunology
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