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W P A Boellaard, A J M Gillis, G J L H van Leenders, H Stoop, T van Agthoven, L C J Dorssers, M Dinkelman-Smit, J L Boormans, L H J Looijenga
BACKGROUND: The microRNA-371a-3p (miR-371a-3p) has been reported to be an informative liquid biopsy (serum and plasma) molecular biomarker for both diagnosis and follow-up of patients with a malignant (testicular) germ cell tumor ((T)GCT). It is expressed in all histological cancer elements, with the exception of mature teratoma. However, normal testis, semen, and serum of males with a disrupted testicular integrity without a TGCT may contain miR-371a-3p levels above threshold, of which the cellular origin is unknown...
February 20, 2019: Andrology
Latarsha J Carithers, Rachana Agarwal, Ping Guan, Hana Odeh, Michael C Sachs, Kelly B Engel, Sarah R Greytak, Mary Barcus, Conrado Soria, Chih-Jian Jason Lih, P Mickey Williams, Philip A Branton, Leslie Sobin, Benjamin Fombonne, Therese Bocklage, Chris Andry, Elizabeth R Duffy, Gabriel Sica, Rajiv Dhir, Scott Jewell, Nancy Roche, Helen M Moore
CONTEXT.—: Despite widespread use of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue in clinical and research settings, potential effects of variable tissue processing remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE.—: To elucidate molecular effects associated with clinically relevant preanalytical variability, the National Cancer Institute initiated the Biospecimen Preanalytical Variables (BPV) program. DESIGN.—: The BPV program, a well-controlled series of systematic, blind and randomized studies, investigated whether a delay to fixation (DTF) or time in fixative (TIF) affects the quantity and quality of DNA and RNA isolated from FFPE colon, kidney, and ovarian tumors in comparison to case-matched snap-frozen controls...
February 20, 2019: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Fatih Levent Balci, Cihan Uras, Sheldon Marc Feldman
PURPOSE: There are little data on the presence or interaction of human papillomavirus (HPV) in intraductal papilloma or Breast cancer (BC) presenting with pathologic nipple discharge (PND). The study aimed to determine whether the HPV-genotypes are identifiable in papilloma or carcinoma of the breast by real-time PCR with broad-spectrum genotyping. METHODS: Formalin-fixed-paraffin-blocks obtained from the patients who were suffering from PND and underwent ductoscopic papilloma extraction (n = 27) or segmental/total mastectomy for cancer diagnosis (n = 18)...
February 6, 2019: Cancer Treatment and Research Communications
Edna Gordian, Eric A Welsh, Nicholas Gimbrone, Erin M Siegel, David Shibata, Ben C Creelan, William Douglas Cress, Steven A Eschrich, Eric B Haura, Teresita Muñoz-Antonia
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a key role in regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A gene expression signature ( TGFβ-EMT ) associated with TGFβ-induced EMT activities was developed using human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) cells treated with TGFβ-1 and subjected to Affymetrix microarray analysis. The final 105-probeset TGFβ-EMT signature covers 77 genes, and a NanoString assay utilized a subset of 60 of these genes (TGFβ-EMTN signature). We found that the TGFβ-EMT and TGFβ-EMTN gene signatures predicted overall survival (OS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS)...
January 25, 2019: Oncotarget
Vrinda Govindan Nair, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, K Nishteswar, Vidhya Unnikrishnan, Mukesh B Nariya
Background: Bulbophyllum neilgherrense Wight. is an epiphytic orchid used extensively by the tribes of Karnataka in various diseases such as heart disease, leukoderma, skin allergy and rheumatism. It is used both internally and as an external application. In rheumatism, pseudobulbs chopped and boiled in coconut oil are applied externally. Aim: This study aims to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of B. neilgherrense Wight. pseudobulb powder in experimental animals...
April 2018: Ayu
Jaroslav Pelisek, Renate Hegenloh, Sabine Bauer, Susanne Metschl, Jessica Pauli, Nadiya Glukha, Albert Busch, Benedikt Reutersberg, Michael Kallmayer, Matthias Trenner, Heiko Wendorff, Pavlos Tsantilas, Sofie Schmid, Christoph Knappich, Christoph Schaeffer, Thomas Stadlbauer, Gabor Biro, Uta Wertern, Franz Meisner, Kerstin Stoklasa, Anna-Leonie Menges, Oksana Radu, Sabine Dallmann-Sieber, Angelos Karlas, Eva Knipfer, Christian Reeps, Alexander Zimmermann, Lars Maegdefessel, Hans-Henning Eckstein
Collecting biological tissue samples in a biobank grants a unique opportunity to validate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for translational and clinical research. In the present work, we provide our long-standing experience in establishing and maintaining a biobank of vascular tissue samples, including the evaluation of tissue quality, especially in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE). Our Munich Vascular Biobank includes, thus far, vascular biomaterial from patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis ( n = 1567), peripheral arterial disease ( n = 703), and abdominal aortic aneurysm ( n = 481) from our Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (January 2004⁻December 2018)...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Imelda Seminerio, Géraldine Descamps, Sophie Dupont, Lisa de Marrez, Jean-Alexandre Laigle, Jérôme R Lechien, Nadège Kindt, Fabrice Journe, Sven Saussez
Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by a large heterogeneity in terms of the location and risk factors. For a few years now, immunotherapy seems to be a promising approach in the treatment of these cancers, but a better understanding of the immune context could allow to offer a personalized treatment and thus probably increase the survival of HNSCC patients. In this context, we evaluated the infiltration of FoxP3+ Tregs on 205 human formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HNSCC and we assessed its prognostic value compared to other potential prognostic factors, including HPV infection...
February 15, 2019: Cancers
Michael Morrice, Gerry Polton, Sam Beck
There is currently a lack of evidence-based guidance when determining surgical margins for small intestinal tumours in dogs. The purpose of this study is to help the surgeon make informed clinical decisions about margins when confronted with a small intestinal mass. Twenty-seven canine small intestinal tumours were histologically diagnosed and then had further histological assessment at every centimeter from the edge of the palpable tumour to the surgical margin in oral, aboral and mesenteric directions. In all 10 carcinomas a 3 cm tissue margin in oral, aboral and mesenteric directions would have resulted in complete tumour resection...
February 19, 2019: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Elke Boone, Kim C Heezen, Patricia J T A Groenen, Anton W Langerak
Assessment of the presence of clonal lymphoproliferations via polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis of rearranged immunoglobulin (IG) or T-cell receptor (TR) genes is a valuable method in the diagnosis of suspect lymphoproliferative disorders. Additionally, this methodology can be used for evaluating dissemination of lymphoma cells and for studying the clonal relationship between multiple (different locations) or consecutive (over time) lymphomas. Here we describe an integrated approach to assess clonality via analysis of Ig heavy chain (IGH), Ig kappa (IGK), TCR beta (TRB), and TCR gamma (TRG) gene rearrangements, based on the standardized multiplex PCRs as originally developed by the European BIOMED-2 consortium...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kiran Preet Malhotra, Swastika Suvirya, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Brajesh Kumar, Arsh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Histoid leprosy is a subtype of leprosy with distinct clinical presentation and histologic features. It accounts for less than 4 per cent of leprosy cases. The exact location of histoid leprosy along the immune spectrum and its relation to other subtypes is unclear. AIM: To evaluate the local immune phenomenon which define histoid leprosy. DESIGN: Parallel skin biopsies from histoid lesions and from unremarkable skin in patients with histoid leprosy were evaluated and the histologic findings compared...
February 18, 2019: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Arenn Faye Carlos, Tino Emanuele Poloni, Valentina Medici, Maia Chikhladze, Antonio Guaita, Mauro Ceroni
Our current knowledge of the structure, function, and diseases of the brain comes from direct examination of its substance. In the last centuries, only a few elite had managed to retrieve, gather, and preserve the elusive brain for their own research. The resulting brain collections, stored in formalin-filled jars or dried up in cabinets, served anatomical, neuropathological, anthropometric, ideological, and diagnostic purposes. In the 1960s, the first modern brain banks actively collecting and strategically preserving both diseased and healthy brains to be consequently distributed to the scientific community were instituted...
2019: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Z You, L L Xu, X F Li, J Y Zhang, J DU, L S Sun
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the BRAF gene mutations in ameloblastic fibroma (AF), and to further analyze the relationship between the BRAF mutation and clinical characteristics so as to provide new reference to the study of AF's molecular pathology. METHODS: Sixteen cases diagnosed as AF at the Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology between January 1990 and December 2017 were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions...
February 18, 2019: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Arpandeep Randhawa, Tulika Gupta, Parmod Singh, Anjali Aggarwal, Daisy Sahni
INTRODUCTION: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a less invasive treatment than surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis. Understanding the anatomy of aortic valve complex may help in optimal positioning of prosthetic valve and circumvent complications that can arise during its implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The anatomy of aortic root was studied in 30 formalin-fixed cadavers. Aortic root and left ventricular cavity was opened to measure the diameter at the base of aortic root and sinotubular junction (STJ); distance of coronary ostia from base of aortic root and STJ; height and width of aortic valve leaflets; length and thickness of membranous septum (MS)...
January 21, 2019: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Koji Yoshida, Takahiro Nonaka, Shingo Nakamura, Miki Araki, Tatsuo Yamamoto
26RFa is an endogenous ligand for the QRFP receptor. We previously found that intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa produces an analgesic effect in a rat formalin test. In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that the analgesic effects of 26RFa in the formalin test are mediated in well-recognized regions of the descending inhibitory pain pathways, such as the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), locus coeruleus (LC), and periaqueductal grey (PAG) in rats. Injection cannulae were stereotaxically placed in the RVM, LC, or PAG through a burr hole...
February 14, 2019: Peptides
Amanda Vannitamby, Shona Hendry, Tanvi Makadia, Janine Danks, John Slavin, Louis Irving, Daniel Steinfort, Steven Bozinovski
Multiple biomarkers are under evaluation to guide the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including programed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor cell staining. We have developed a new approach that accurately quantifies PD-L1 status and identifies multiple mutations by using a single bronchoscopy specimen. A novel molecular marker was identified to detect the presence of malignant cells in radial endobronchial ultrasound bronchial brushings from NSCLC (n = 15) and benign (n = 13) nodules by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Mi Jung Kwon, Jae Seung Soh, Sang-Woo Lim, Ho Suk Kang, Hyun Lim
Human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) is a candidate therapeutic and prognostic marker for rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The specific frequency and prognostic role of HER2 protein expression and HER2 gene amplification in those rectal cancers has not been fully investigated. Pretreatment biopsied and surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 74 patients were retrospectively evaluated for HER2 protein expression and HER2 gene copy number using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and silver in situ hybridization (SISH), respectively...
January 28, 2019: Pathology, Research and Practice
Henry F Ashpitel, Emma B Dabbs, Francisco J Salguero, Jaya L Nemchand, Roberto M La Ragione, Mark S Whiteley
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the biologic effects of the 1470-nm endovenous laser (EVL), with a jacketed fiber and a radial fiber, during EVL ablation of an ex vivo dominant extrafascial tributary of the great saphenous vein in our in vitro model by histology and immunohistochemistry. METHODS: Ten segments of the dominant extrafascial tributary of the great saphenous vein were harvested by a consultant vascular surgeon from patients during routine varicose vein surgery...
March 2019: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Stuart D Dowall, Victoria A Graham, Tom Fletcher, Roger Hewson
In the UK, research on hazard group 4 (HG4) pathogens requires specialised Containment Level 4 (CL4) facilities. These differ from Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) conditions in that work is conducted in class III microbiological safety cabinets for primary containment instead of using positive pressure suits. This presents unique challenges associated with the physical restrictions of working in a limited space, and prohibits the use of many techniques and specialist equipment. In consequence, detailed studies on the biology of HG4 pathogens and in particular their immunological relationships with the host are understudied in the UK; for example, the majority of immunological assays with which the immune system is interrogated require specialist equipment that is unsuitable for CL4...
February 13, 2019: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Elawad A Hussein, M Hair-Bejo, Abdul R Omar, Siti S Arshad, Homayoun Hani, Krishnan N Balakrishnan, Yusuf Yakubu, Mohammed Ibrahim Saeed, Ideris Aini
Limited deep studies are available in the field of early stages of pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection and tissue tropism of NDV. In this study, 24 specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens of white leghorn breed were infected with Newcastle disease (ND) by intranasal administration of 10⁵ 50% EID50/0.1 mL of velogenic NDV (vNDV). A second group of 15 chickens were kept as a control group. Chickens were monitored every day to record clinical signs. Infected chickens were euthanized by cervical dislocation at successive times, namely at hours (hrs) 2, 4, 6, 12, days 1, 2, 4, and 6 post-inoculation (pi)...
February 13, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
John B Sanderson
In both research and diagnostics, immunohistochemistry is an essential method for assessing pathology in neurodegenerative diseases. Typically, at autopsy, one hemisphere of the brain is formalin fixed for sectioning and histochemical analysis, while the other hemisphere is flash frozen for biochemical studies. While this process ensures the generation of high-quality slides, it is important to assess the pathology of tissue near pieces used for biochemical analyses, since pathology burden can be unevenly distributed throughout the brain (Fig...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
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