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Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Emma Norris, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Robert West, Martin Jarvis, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: A number of treatments can help smokers make a successful quit attempt, but many initially successful quitters relapse over time. Several interventions have been proposed to help prevent relapse. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether specific interventions for relapse prevention reduce the proportion of recent quitters who return to smoking. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, clinicaltrials...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Guru R Valicherla, Amrut Mishra, Srinivas Lenkalapelly, Bhupathi Jillela, Femi M Francis, Lakshman Rajagopalan, Pratima Srivastava
1. A protocol has been developed and validated for the high throughput screening of eight major human cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes inhibition (CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, 2B6, 2C8 and 2E1) using an in vitro probe cocktail containing eight substrates by overcoming the unfavorable effect of assay conditions on CYP2E1 inhibition data. 2. The cocktail consisting of selective probe substrates like Tacrine (CYP1A2), Diclofenac (CYP2C9), S-Mephenytoin (CYP2C19), Dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), Midazolam (CYP3A4), Bupropion (CYP2B6), Paclitaxel (CYP2C8) and Chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) was incubated with human liver microsomes...
February 12, 2019: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Jordana B Cohen, Kishore M Gadde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weight loss is strongly associated with improvement in blood pressure; however, the mechanism of weight loss can impact the magnitude and sustainability of blood pressure reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Five drugs-orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and naltrexone/bupropion-are currently approved for weight loss therapy in the USA. Naltrexone/bupropion results in an increase in in-office and ambulatory blood pressure compared to placebo...
February 12, 2019: Current Hypertension Reports
Colin S Cunningham, Megan J Moerke, Lance R McMahon
Mecamylamine is a non-competitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist that has been prescribed for hypertension and as an off-label smoking cessation aid. Here, we examined pharmacological mechanisms underlying the interoceptive effects (i.e., discriminative stimulus effects) of mecamylamine (5.6 mg/kg s.c.) and compared the effects of nAChR antagonists in this discrimination assay to their capacity to block a nicotine discriminative stimulus (1.78 mg/kg s.c.) in rhesus monkeys. Central (pempidine) and peripherally restricted nAChR antagonists (pentolinium and chlorisondamine) dose-dependently substituted for the mecamylamine discriminative stimulus in the following rank order potency (pentolinium > pempidine > chlorisondamine > mecamylamine)...
February 6, 2019: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Khadijah S Alexander, Taylor R Rodriguez, Amma N Sarfo, Tadd B Patton, Laurence L Miller
Pain is a significant public health problem, and assessment of pain-related impairment of behavior is a key clinical indicator and treatment target. Similar to opioids and NSAIDs, dopamine (DA) transporter inhibitors block pain-related depression of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. The primary goal of the present study was to determine if the effects of monoamine uptake inhibitors on pain-related depression of ICSS in rats extend to an assay of pain-related depression of nesting in mice. We hypothesized that the DA transporter-selective uptake inhibitor bupropion would block depression of nesting behavior produced by intraperitoneal injection of lactic acid, whereas selective serotonin transporter-selective citalopram, norepinephrine transporter-selective nisoxetine, and the mixed action selective serotonin transporter/norepinephrine transporter inhibitor milnacipran would be ineffective...
February 4, 2019: Behavioural Pharmacology
Robrina Walker, Maureen Hillhouse, Brian Perrochet, Steven Sparenborg, Larissa Mooney, Walter Ling
OBJECTIVES: This article describes how smartphones were used to monitor and encourage medication adherence in a pilot study evaluating the potential efficacy of a combination pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine use disorder. We examine the feasibility, utility, and acceptability of using smartphones to capture dosing videos from the perspectives of participants and staff. METHODS: The study was an 8-week, open-label evaluation of extended-release injectable naltrexone combined with once-daily oral extended-release bupropion (BRP, Welbutrin XL, 450 mg/day)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Mariana Bernardes Franco, Thayres S Andrade, Diego Sousa-Moura, Muriel Lopes da Silva, Irvin Bryan Machado Ferraz, Níchollas Serafim Camargo, Inês Domingues, Rhaul Oliveira, Cesar Koppe Grisolia
Psychiatric pharmaceuticals are one of the most prescribed active substances globally. Bupropion (BPP) is an antidepressant that acts via inhibition of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake. It has been found in various water matrices, and thus its effects on aquatic organisms must be studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the acute toxic effects of BPP on zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages. For developmental analysis, organisms were exposed for 168 h to concentrations ranging from 0 to 82000 μg/L...
January 25, 2019: Chemosphere
Jean Yoon, Sidney Zisook, Angel Park, Gary R Johnson, Alexandra Scrymgeour, Somaia Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of 3 common alternate treatments for depression. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted as part of a randomized clinical trial, the Veterans Affairs Augmentation and Switching Treatments for Improving Depression Outcomes (VAST-D) trial, in which patients were randomized from December 2012 to May 2015 and followed for 12 weeks in 35 Veterans Affairs medical centers. Depression diagnosis was based on ICD-9 codes...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Orestis A Panagiotou, Ewoud Schuit, Marcus R Munafò, Derrick A Bennett, Andrew W Bergen, Sean P David
Introduction: Pharmacogenomic studies have used genetic variants to identify smokers likely to respond to pharmacological treatments for smoking cessation. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of primary and secondary analyses of trials of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Eligible were trials with data on a priori selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), replicated nonSNP polymorphisms, and/or the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR)...
January 25, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Suzanne Nielsen, Linda Gowing, Pamela Sabioni, Bernard Le Foll
BACKGROUND: Globally, cannabis use is prevalent and widespread. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in the Cochrane Library in Issue 12, 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or no pharmacotherapy (supportive care) for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use...
January 28, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sara Paccosi, Barbara Cresci, Laura Pala, Carlo Maria Rorella, Astrid Parenti
BACKGROUND: Obesity represents the second preventable mortality cause worldwide, and is very often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The first line treatment is lifestyle modification to weight-loss, but for who fails the goal or has difficulty in maintaining achieved results, pharmacological treatment is needed. Few drugs are available up today, because of their side effects. OBJECTIVE: We aim to review actual pharmacological management of obese patients, highlighting differences between Food and Drug Administration - and European Medicine Agency-approved molecules, and pointing out on self-medications readily obtainable and widely distributed...
January 24, 2019: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Suzanne Tanya Nethan, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Kumar Chandan, Ravi Mehrotra
Background & objectives: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption is a global health issue with about 350 million users and numerous adverse health consequences like oral cancer and myocardial disorders. Hence, cessation of SLT use is as essential as smoking cessation. An update on the available literature on SLT cessation intervention studies is provided here. Methods: Through an extensive literature search on SLT cessation intervention studies, using keywords such as smokeless tobacco, cessation, interventions, quitlines, brief advice, nicotine replacement therapy, nicotine gum, nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion, varenicline, mHealth, etc...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Caroline M Apovian, Susan L McElroy, Eduardo Dunayevich, Lisette M Acevedo, Frank L Greenway
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prolonged-release (PR) naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) is approved for chronic weight management as an adjunct to reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity. Central nervous system-active medications have the potential to affect mood; therefore, post hoc analysis of clinical trial data was conducted to evaluate psychiatric adverse events (PAEs) and effects on mood of NB therapy versus placebo. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Data were pooled from 5 prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (duration range, 24-56 weeks) of NB in subjects with overweight or obesity...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Andrew H Czysz, Charles South, Bharathi S Gadad, Erland Arning, Abigail Soyombo, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Madhukar H Trivedi
Metabolomics is a developing and promising tool for exploring molecular pathways underlying symptoms of depression and predicting depression recovery. The AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 kit was used to investigate whether plasma metabolites (sphingomyelins, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, and acylcarnitines) from a subset of participants in the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes (CO-MED) trial could act as predictors or biologic correlates of depression recovery. Participants in this trial were assigned to one of three pharmacological treatment arms: escitalopram monotherapy, bupropion-escitalopram combination, or venlafaxine-mirtazapine combination...
January 16, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
B Aragona, R De Luca, A Piccolo, M Le Cause, M Destro, C Casella, S Filoni, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Post-stroke apathy is considered to be one of the clinical consequences of lesions affecting the structures of the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and limbic system. However, there is no current consensus on the treatment of post-stroke apathy, which mainly depends on the underlying etiology and comorbidities. A 62-year-old man, affected by hemorrhagic stroke in the left thalamus, presented with mood depression, anhedonia, hyporexia and marked apathy. The patient underwent clinical evaluation before and after receiving two different pharmacological therapies: escitalopram and bupropion...
October 2018: Functional Neurology
Cunyou Gao, Suli Kong, Benyu Guo, Xuejun Liang, Huifeng Duan, Donghe Li
BACKGROUND Depression is a common disorder linked with high levels of chronicity, psycho-social and physical problems, and suicide. Here, we assessed the antidepressant effects of the hydromethanolic extract of Taraxacum officinale and investigated the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Antidepressant effects were examined by use of the tail suspension test (TST). Concentrations of corticosterone, dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline were examined by biochemical assays. The mRNA expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR...
January 13, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Young-Woo Cho, Eun-Jin Kim, Marie Merci Nyiramana, Eui-Jung Shin, Hana Jin, Ji Hyeon Ryu, Kee Ryeon Kang, Gyeong-Won Lee, Hye Jung Kim, Jaehee Han, Dawon Kang
Depression is more common in women with breast cancer than the general population. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are widely used for the treatment of patients with depression and a range of anxiety-related disorders. The association between the use of antidepressant medication and breast cancer is controversial. In this study, we investigated whether and how SSRIs induce the death of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Of the antidepressants tested in this study (amitriptyline, bupropion, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and tianeptine), paroxetine most reduced the viability of MCF-7 cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner...
January 9, 2019: Cancers
Christoforos Iraklis Giakoumatos, David Osser
BACKGROUND: The Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program presents evidence-based recommendations considering efficacy, tolerability, safety, and cost. Two previous algorithms for unipolar nonpsychotic depression were published in 1993 and 1998. New studies over the last 20 years suggest that another update is needed. METHODS: The references reviewed for the previous algorithms were reevaluated, and a new literature search was conducted to identify studies that would either support or alter the previous recommendations...
January 2019: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Sarah E Jackson, Jennifer A McGowan, Harveen Kaur Ubhi, Hannah Proudfoot, Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown, Robert West
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is useful, for theoretical and practical reasons, to be able to specify functions for continuous abstinence over time in smoking cessation attempts. This study aimed to find the best fitting models of mean proportion abstinent with different smoking cessation pharmacotherapies up to 52 weeks from the quit date. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify RCTs of pharmacological treatments to aid smoking cessation...
January 7, 2019: Addiction
Bing Cao, Judy Zhu, Hannah Zuckerman, Joshua D Rosenblat, Elisa Brietzke, Zihang Pan, Mehala Subramanieapillai, Caroline Park, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
Anhedonia is defined as a diminished ability to experience interest or pleasure, and is a critical psychopathological dimension of major depressive disorder (MDD). The purpose of the current systematic review is to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological treatments on measures of anhedonia in adults with MDD. Electronic databases Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched from inception to June 1, 2018 for longitudinal studies utilizing pharmacotherapy for the treatment of anhedonia in patients with MDD...
January 3, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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