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thyroid, diabetes, obesity, emergency,

Vishal J Patel, Amit A Joharapurkar, Samadhan G Kshirsagar, Brijesh K Sutariya, Maulik S Patel, Rajesh H Bahekar, Mukul R Jain
BACKGROUND: Balanced coagonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptors are emerging therapies for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. Such coagonists also regulate lipid metabolism, independent of their body weight lowering effects. Many actions of the coagonists are partly mediated by fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) signaling, with the major exception of bile homeostasis. Since thyroid hormone is an important regulator of bile homeostasis, we studied the involvement of thyroid hormone in coagonist-induced changes in lipid and bile metabolism...
February 11, 2019: Current Molecular Pharmacology
S J Brandt, T D Müller, R D DiMarchi, M H Tschöp, K Stemmer
Obesity and its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, are pressing worldwide health concerns. Available anti-obesity treatments include weight loss pharmacotherapies and bariatric surgery. Whilst surgical interventions typically result in significant and sustained weight loss, available pharmacotherapies are far less effective, typically decreasing body weight by no more than 5-10%. An emerging class of multi-agonist drugs may eventually bridge this gap. This new class of specially tailored drugs hybridizes the amino acid sequences of key metabolic hormones into one single entity with enhanced potency and sustained action...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Anna Tasegian, Francesco Curcio, Laura Dalla Ragione, Francesca Rossetti, Samuela Cataldi, Michela Codini, Francesco Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Tommaso Beccari, Elisabetta Albi
Vitamin D3 has been described to have different extraskeletal roles by acting as parahormone in obesity, diabetes, cancer, cognitive impairment, and dementia and to have important regulatory functions in innate immunity. There are no studies showing extraskeletal changes associated with hypovitaminosis D3 in eating disorders. Methods. We have analyzed the blood of 18 patients affected by anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa collected over a 15-month period. We performed a panel of chemical and clinical analyses: the assay of vitamin D3, the immunoblotting of vitamin D receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and the genotyping of 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter linked polymorphic region...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
S Mavrogeni, G Markousis-Mavrogenis, V Markussis, G Kolovou
The aim of this review is to discuss the role of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of metabolic cardiomyopathies. The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by WHO/ISFC task force, distinguished specific cardiomyopathies, caused by metabolic disorders, into 4 types: 1) endocrine disorders, 2) storage or infiltration disorders (amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders), 3) nutritional disorders (Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity, and alcohol), and 4) diabetic heart...
August 2015: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
O V Kaminskiy, O V Pronin, D E Afanasyev
Objective. The study examined the morbidity pattern of non-cancer endocrine disease in ChNPP accident emergency workers (AEW) versus the entire population of Ukraine. Materials and methods. The study included a retrospective estimation of the examination data from 10,771 ChNPP AEW of the so-called iodine and non-iodine periods (main study group). Data were received from the RCRM Clinical/Epidemiological Registry for the survey period of 22 years (1992-2013) on persons been either healthy or having a range of endocrine disease...
September 2014: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
Yi-Hsin Tseng, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Wei-Jan Chen, Kwang-Huei Lin
Betatrophin, also known as TD26/RIFL/lipasin/ANGPTL8/C19orf80, is a novel protein predominantly expressed in human liver. To date, several betatrophin orthologs have been identified in mammals. Increasing evidence has revealed an association between betatrophin expression and serum lipid profiles, particularly in patients with obesity or diabetes. Stimulators of betatrophin, such as insulin, thyroid hormone, irisin and caloric intake, are usually relevant to energy expenditure or thermogenesis. In murine models, serum triglyceride levels as well as pancreatic cell proliferation are potently enhanced by betatrophin...
December 18, 2014: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Meng-Wong Taing, Felicity J Rose, Jonathan P Whitehead
The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) axis has emerged as a major therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. GLP-1 mediates its key insulinotropic effects via a G-protein coupled receptor expressed on β-cells and other pancreatic cell types. The insulinotropic activity of GLP-1 is terminated via enzymatic cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase-4. Until recently, GLP-1-derived metabolites were generally considered metabolically inactive; however, accumulating evidence indicates some have biological activity that may contribute to the pleiotropic effects of GLP-1 independent of the GLP-1 receptor...
2014: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Jason Andrade, Paul Khairy, Dobromir Dobrev, Stanley Nattel
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia (estimated lifetime risk, 22%-26%). The aim of this article is to review the clinical epidemiological features of AF and to relate them to underlying mechanisms. Long-established risk factors for AF include aging, male sex, hypertension, valve disease, left ventricular dysfunction, obesity, and alcohol consumption. Emerging risk factors include prehypertension, increased pulse pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, high-level physical training, diastolic dysfunction, predisposing gene variants, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease...
April 25, 2014: Circulation Research
Silvia Longhi, Giorgio Radetti
Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed...
2013: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Sherita Hill Golden, Arleen Brown, Jane A Cauley, Marshall H Chin, Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Catherine Kim, Julie Ann Sosa, Anne E Sumner, Blair Anton
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society...
September 2012: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Gale B Carey, Lisa C Merrill
Most laboratory rodents used for toxicology studies are fed ad libitum, with unlimited access to food. As a result, ad libitum-fed rodents tend to overeat. Research demonstrates that ad libitum-fed rodents are physiologically and metabolically different from rodents fed controlled amounts of food at scheduled times (meal-fed). Ad libitum-fed rodents can develop hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, diet-induced obesity, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, and pituitary, pancreatic, adrenal, and thyroid tumors, conditions likely to affect the results of toxicology research studies...
August 20, 2012: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Malcolm A Moore, Francine Baumann, Sunia Foliaki, Marc T Goodman, Robert Haddock, Roger Maraka, Josefa Koroivueta, David Roder, Thomas Vinit, Helen J D Whippy, Tomotaka Sobue
The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control...
2010: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Louise A Brinton, J Daniel Carreon, Gretchen L Gierach, Katherine A McGlynn, Gloria Gridley
The etiology of male breast cancer is largely unknown, reflecting its relative rarity. Although a number of previous studies have suggested relationships with a variety of medical conditions, the results have largely derived from case-control studies and may reflect recall biases. Within the large U.S. Veterans Affairs computerized medical care system database, we had the opportunity to access 26 million hospital discharge records over the period 1969-1996 and to relate various documented medical conditions to the risk of subsequent male breast cancer...
January 2010: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Roger S McIntyre, Joanna K Soczynska, John L Beyer, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Candy W Y Law, Andrew Miranda, Jakub Z Konarski, Sidney H Kennedy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to synthesize results from extant investigations which report on the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder and medical comorbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: We conducted a MEDLINE search of all English-language articles published between January 2004 and November 2006. Most studies report on medical comorbidity in bipolar samples; relatively fewer studies report the reciprocal association. Individuals with bipolar disorder are differentially affected by several 'stress-sensitive' medical disorders notably circulatory disorders, obesity and diabetes mellitus...
July 2007: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Rexford S Ahima, Yong Qi, Neel S Singhal
Adipose tissue plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis not only in storing triglyceride, but also responding to nutrient, neural, and hormonal signals, and producing factors which control feeding, thermogenesis, immune and neuroendocrine function, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Adipose tissue secretes leptin, steroid hormones, adiponectin, inflammatory cytokines, resistin, complement factors, and vasoactive peptides. The endocrine function of adipose tissue is typified by leptin. An increase in leptin signals satiety to neuronal targets in the hypothalamus...
2006: Progress in Brain Research
Aaron G Smith, George E O Muscat
Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for approximately 40% of the total body mass and a major player in energy balance. It accounts for >30% of energy expenditure, is the primary tissue of insulin stimulated glucose uptake, disposal, and storage. Furthermore, it influences metabolism via modulation of circulating and stored lipid (and cholesterol) flux. Lipid catabolism supplies up to 70% of the energy requirements for resting muscle. However, initial aerobic exercise utilizes stored muscle glycogen but as exercise continues, glucose and stored muscle triglycerides become important energy substrates...
October 2005: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Susan L McElroy
Comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, in bipolar disorder. The most common mental disorders that co-occur with bipolar disorder in community studies include anxiety, substance use, and conduct disorders. Disorders of eating, sexual behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, and impulse control, as well as autism spectrum disorders and Tourette's disorder, co-occur with bipolar disorder in clinical samples. The most common general medical comorbidities are migraine, thyroid illness, obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
2004: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Bradley J Marcus, Kim A Collins
Childhood panhypopituitarism may be acquired or congenital. Children with panhypopituitarism can present clinically with diabetes, growth failure, decreased bone density, and morbid obesity. In the forensic setting without the proper history, it can be misdiagnosed as child abuse or neglect. We report a case of a 3-year-old black girl who was admitted to the emergency room with apnea and subsequently died. While at the emergency department, it was discovered that the child had a fractured left hip and was severely growth retarded for age...
September 2004: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
W K Lam-Tse, A Lernmark, H A Drexhage
Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None of the current treatment approaches provides a cure; rather they represent replacement therapy...
December 2002: Springer Seminars in Immunopathology
F Parazzini, S Moroni, C La Vecchia, E Negri, D dal Pino, G Bolis
To investigate the role of selected medical conditions on the risk of ovarian cancer, we analysed data from a case-control study. Cases were 971 women below the age of 75 years with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer, admitted to a network of hospitals including the major teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Controls were 2758 women admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-gynaecological, non-hormone related, non-neoplastic conditions. Obesity/severe overweight were inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (multivariate relative risk, RR, 0...
September 1997: European Journal of Cancer
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