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pattern separation

Michael R Gooseman, Majd Rawashdeh, Kavitha Mattam, Jagan N Rao, Paul R Vaughan, John G Edwards
OBJECTIVES: Taxonomy of injuries involving the costal margin is poorly described and surgical management varies. These injuries, though commonly caused by trauma, may also occur spontaneously, in association with coughing or sneezing, and can be severe. Our goal was to describe our experience using sequential segmental analysis of computed tomographic (CT) scans to perform accurate assessment of injuries around the costal margin. We propose a unifying classification for transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia and other injuries involving the costal margin...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
C Reichhardt, C J O Reichhardt
We numerically examine mixtures of circularly moving and passive disks as a function of density and active orbit radius. For low or intermediate densities and/or small orbit radii, the system can organize into a reversible partially phase separated labyrinth state in which there are no collisions between disks, with the degree of phase separation increasing as the orbit radius increases. As a function of orbit radius, we find a divergence in the number of cycles required to reach a collision-free steady state at a critical radius, while above this radius, the system remains in a fluctuating liquid state...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Lu Chen, Guobao Yang, Xiaoyang Chu, Chunhong Gao, Yuli Wang, Wei Gong, Zhiping Li, Yang Yang, Meiyan Yang, Chunsheng Gao
Phase-separated films of water-insoluble ethyl cellulose (EC) and water-soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) can be utilized to tailor drug release from coated pellets. In the present study, the effects of HPC levels and the pH, type, ionic strength and osmolarity of the media on the release profiles of soluble metoprolol succinates from the EC/HPC-coated pellets were investigated, and the differences in drug-release kinetics in multiple media were further elucidated through the HPC leaching and swelling kinetics of the pellets, morphology (SEM) and water uptake of the free films and the interaction between the coating polymers and the media compositions...
February 14, 2019: Pharmaceutics
Charlotte Piard, Hannah Baker, Timur Kamalitdinov, John P Fisher
Bone tissue engineers are facing a daunting challenge when attempting to fabricate bigger constructs intended for use in the treatment of large bone defects, which is the vascularization of the graft. Cell-based approaches and, in particular, the use of in vitro coculture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been one of the most explored options. We present in this paper an alternative method to mimic the spatial pattern of HUVECs and hMSCs found in native osteons based on the use of extrusion-based 3D bioprinting (3DP)...
February 15, 2019: Biofabrication
Juri D Kropotov, Marina V Pronina, Valery A Ponomarev, Yury I Poliakov, Irina V Plotnikova, Andreas Mueller
OBJECTIVE: The main goal was to assess common and specific deficits of cognitive control in (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) ADHD and schizophrenia (SZ) using event-related potentials (ERPs). METHOD: Behavioral and EEG data in cued GO/NOGO task were recorded in 132 healthy controls (HC) and age, gender and education matched 63 ADHD adults, and 68 SZ patients. RESULTS: N2d wave in NOGO-GO contrast of ERPs did not differ between the groups while the P3d wave discriminated SZ group from two other groups...
February 10, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yamama Naciri, Camille Christe, Sébastien Bétrisey, Yi-Gang Song, Min Deng, Giuseppe Garfì, Gregor Kozlowski
Zelkova species, trees of the elm family (Ulmaceae), are part of the Cenozoic relict flora. In western Eurasia, the genus comprises three species that are restricted to disjunct areas (Z. sicula on Sicily, Z. abelicea on Crete and Z. carpinifolia in Transcaucasia). The situation is different in East Asia, where three species (Z. serrata, Z. schneideriana and Z. sinica) have at least partly overlapping distributions. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic status of these East Asian species is still not well understood, mainly since all previous studies used almost exclusively plant material collected in botanical gardens and were based on very small numbers of individuals...
February 12, 2019: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Lisardo Osório-Quintero, Walter Ceretti, Daniel Pagotto Vendrami, João Aristeu da Rosa, Jader de Oliveira, Marcos Takashi Obara, José Maria Soares Barata
The insects of subfamily Triatominae exhibit many morphological features used for taxonomic identification. In some species, however, these features are very similar. The authors have proposed by first time the description of the structure referred as urotergite I process. The objective of the study was analyse the use of urotergite I process in the species of the genus Triatoma as a taxonomic feature that may contribute to the more precise and correct identification of these Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 vectors...
February 12, 2019: Acta Tropica
Christian P Moritz, Yannick Tholance, Carole Rosier, Evelyne Federspiel, Juliette Svahn, Jean-Philippe Camdessanché, Jean-Christophe Antoine
PURPOSE: Identifying autoantigens of serological autoantibodies requires expensive methods, such as protein microarrays or immunoprecipitation plus mass spectrometry. Thus, sera are commonly pre-screened for interesting immunopatterns via immunocytochemistry/immunohistochemistry. However, distinguishing immunopatterns can be difficult and intracellular antigens are less accessible. Therefore, we present an alternative: a simple and cheap immunoblot screening able to detect proteins refractory to solubilization...
February 15, 2019: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Erin Kiskaddon, Kiley Chernicky, Susan Bell
In Florida, resource use patterns by Armases cinereum (Armases), a highly abundant crab in coastal habitats, may serve as important indicators of habitat condition. Here we investigated feeding patterns of Armases in coastal palm scrub forest to intertidal mangrove forest transition zones (transitions) as well as the relationship between habitat disturbance and Armases' trophic position across three pairs of geographically separated populations in Tampa FL, USA. Each pair of sites represented an unmodified "natural" location as well as a "disturbed" location lacking upland terrestrial palm scrub forested habitat...
2019: PloS One
Anne Sofie Siebuhr, Markéta Hušaková, Sarka Forejtová, Katerina Zegzulková, Michal Tomčik, Monika Urbanová, Kristina Grobelná, Jindra Gatterová, Anne-Christine Bay-Jensen, Karel Pavelka
OBJECTIVES: Non-radiographic (nr-axSpA) and radiographic (AS) forms of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) share clinical features, but have different radiographic patterns. Radiographic progression is not associated with the current disease activity biomarkers. We investigated a matrix metalloproteinase mediated metabolite of C-reactive protein (CRPM) and two biomarkers of citrullinated vimentin (VICM and anti-MCV) as novel biomarkers of disease activity. METHODS: AxSpA patients (n=121 nr-axSpA and n=72 AS) were characterised by activity (AS disease activity score with CRP [ASDAS-CRP], Bath AS disease activity index [BASDAI] and functional index [BASFI]), radiographic scores and quality of life questionnaires...
February 11, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Adam W Green, David C Pavlacky, T Luke George
Distribution models are increasingly being used to understand how landscape and climatic changes are affecting the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of plants and animals. However, many modeling efforts ignore the dynamic processes that drive distributional patterns at different scales, which may result in misleading inference about the factors influencing species distributions. Current occupancy models allow estimation of occupancy at different scales and, separately, estimation of immigration and emigration...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Dominik Daniel Gabbert, Christopher Hart, Michael Jerosch-Herold, Philip Wegner, Mona Salehi Ravesh, Inga Voges, Ines Kristo, Abdullah A L Bulushi, Jens Scheewe, Arash Kheradvar, Hans-Heiner Kramer, Carsten Rickers
The Fontan procedure provides relief from cyanosis in patients with univentricular hearts. A major clinical unmet need is to understand whether the venous flow patterns of the Fontan circulation lead to the development of congestive hepatopathy and other life-threatening complications. Currently, there is no consensus on whether heart beat or respiration is the main driving force of venous return and which one affects the periodic flow changes for the most (i. e., pulsatility). The present study, for the first time, quantified respiratory and cardiac components of the venous flow in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 14 Fontan patients and 11 normal controls using a novel approach ("physio-matrix")...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sean Commins, Dirk Fey
Navigation and spatial memory relies on the ability to use and recall environmental landmarks relative to important locations. Such learning is thought to result from the strengthening of associations between the goal location and environmental cues. Factors that contribute to the strength of this association include cue stability, saliency and cue location. Here we combine an autoregressive random walk model, that describes goal-directed swimming behaviour, with an associative learning model to provide an integrated model of landmark learning, using the water maze task...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Konstantin S Yashin, Elena B Kiseleva, Alexander A Moiseev, Sergey S Kuznetsov, Lidia B Timofeeva, Nadezhda P Pavlova, Grigory V Gelikonov, Igor А Medyanik, Leonid Ya Kravets, Elena V Zagaynova, Natalia D Gladkova
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising method for detecting cancer margins during tumor resection. This study focused on differentiating tumorous from nontumorous tissues in human brain tissues using cross-polarization OCT (CP OCT). The study was performed on fresh ex vivo human brain tissues from 30 patients with high- and low-grade gliomas. Different tissue types that neurosurgeons should clearly distinguish during surgery, such as the cortex, white matter, necrosis and tumorous tissue, were separately analyzed...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Anastasios Argyropoulos, Stuart Townley, Paul M Upton, Stephen Dickinson, Adam S Pollard
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) continues to increase in the UK, with associated mortality rates remaining significant. Approximately one fifth of hospital admissions are associated with AKI and approximately a third of patients with AKI in hospital develop AKI during their time in hospital. A fifth of these cases are considered avoidable. Early risk detection remains key to decreasing AKI in hospitals, where sub-optimal care was noted for half of patients who developed AKI...
February 14, 2019: BMC Nephrology
Ashutosh Kumar, Vibhav Gautam, Pramod Kumar, Shalini Mukherjee, Swati Verma, Ananda K Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Micro RNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, have been implicated in various aspects of plant development. miR394 is required for shoot apical meristem organization, stem cell maintenance and abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis, where it functions by negatively regulating the transcript level of target LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS (LCR), which is an F-box protein-coding gene. The evolutionary conservation of stem cell regulatory miR394-LCR module among plants remains elusive...
February 14, 2019: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Massimo Iuliani, Marco Fontani, Dasara Shullani, Alessandro Piva
Millions of users share images and videos generated by mobile devices with different profiles on social media platforms. When publishing illegal content, they prefer to use anonymous profiles. Multimedia Forensics allows us to determine whether videos or images have been captured with the same device, and thus, possibly, by the same person. Currently, the most promising technology to achieve this task exploits unique traces left by the camera sensor into the visual content. However, image and video source identification are still treated separately from one another...
February 5, 2019: Sensors
Marcus Augusto-Oliveira, Gabriela P F Arrifano, João O Malva, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez
Adult neurogenesis occurs in many species, from fish to mammals, with an apparent reduction in the number of both neurogenic zones and new neurons inserted into established circuits with increasing brain complexity. Although the absolute number of new neurons is high in some species, the ratio of these cells to those already existing in the circuit is low. Continuous replacement/addition plays a role in spatial navigation (migration) and other cognitive processes in birds and rodents, but none of the literature relates adult neurogenesis to spatial navigation and memory in primates and humans...
February 5, 2019: Cells
Sayid Omar Mohamed, Weina Ju, Ying Qin, Baochang Qi
BACKGROUND: The term "floating" is used in orthopedic literature to describe certain patterns of skeletal injuries that share one common character which is disruption and discontinuity of bones above and below a joint. The first time used in orthopedic literature being in late 1970 to describe a type of elbow injury. Later the word was used increasingly and applied to a variety of injuries affecting the knee, shoulder, hip, forearm, hand, and ankle. Currently, there are about 12 different skeletal injuries described as floating...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Georges Matar, Jean-Marc Lina, Georges Kaddoum
Pressure ulcer prevention is a vital procedure for patients undergoing long-term hospitalization. A human body lying posture (HBLP) monitoring system is essential to reschedule posture change for patients. Video-surveillance, the conventional method of HBLP monitoring, suffers from various limitations, such as subject's privacy, and field-of view obstruction. We propose an autonomous method for classifying the four state-of-art HBLPs in healthy adult subjects: supine, prone, left and right lateral, with no sensors or cables attached on the body and no constraints imposed on the subject...
February 13, 2019: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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