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Raymond Dolan

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759077/improving-the-reliability-of-model-based-decision-making-estimates-in-the-two-stage-decision-task-with-reaction-times-and-drift-diffusion-modeling
#1
Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Michael Moutoussis, Rani Moran, Mehdi Keramati, Raymond J Dolan
A well-established notion in cognitive neuroscience proposes that multiple brain systems contribute to choice behaviour. These include: (1) a model-free system that uses values cached from the outcome history of alternative actions, and (2) a model-based system that considers action outcomes and the transition structure of the environment. The widespread use of this distinction, across a range of applications, renders it important to index their distinct influences with high reliability. Here we consider the two-stage task, widely considered as a gold standard measure for the contribution of model-based and model-free systems to human choice...
February 13, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738997/the-role-of-the-hippocampus-in-weighting-expectations-during-inference-under-uncertainty
#2
Francesco Rigoli, Jochen Michely, Karl J Friston, Raymond J Dolan
Making inference under uncertainty requires an optimal weighting of prior expectations and observations. How this weighting is realized in the brain remains elusive. To investigate this, we recorded functional neuroimaging data while participants estimated a number based on noisy observations. Crucially, the prior expectation about the variability of observations (an expected variability) was manipulated. Consistent with normative models, when novel observations were characterized by higher expected or observed variability, participants' estimates relied more on expectations than novel observations and were characterized by higher stochasticity...
January 23, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30596638/change-stability-and-instability-in-the-pavlovian-guidance-of-behaviour-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood
#3
Michael Moutoussis, Edward T Bullmore, Ian M Goodyer, Peter Fonagy, Peter B Jones, Raymond J Dolan, Peter Dayan
Pavlovian influences are important in guiding decision-making across health and psychopathology. There is an increasing interest in using concise computational tasks to parametrise such influences in large populations, and especially to track their evolution during development and changes in mental health. However, the developmental course of Pavlovian influences is uncertain, a problem compounded by the unclear psychometric properties of the relevant measurements. We assessed Pavlovian influences in a longitudinal sample using a well characterised and widely used Go-NoGo task...
December 31, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30563856/dorsal-striatal-dopamine-d1-receptor-availability-predicts-an-instrumental-bias-in-action-learning
#4
Lieke de Boer, Jan Axelsson, Rumana Chowdhury, Katrine Riklund, Raymond J Dolan, Lars Nyberg, Lars Bäckman, Marc Guitart-Masip
Learning to act to obtain reward and inhibit to avoid punishment is easier compared with learning the opposite contingencies. This coupling of action and valence is often thought of as a Pavlovian bias, although recent research has shown it may also emerge through instrumental mechanisms. We measured this learning bias with a rewarded go/no-go task in 60 adults of different ages. Using computational modeling, we characterized the bias as being instrumental. To assess the role of endogenous dopamine (DA) in the expression of this bias, we quantified DA D1 receptor availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand [11 C]SCH23390...
January 2, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30562522/metacognitive-failure-as-a-feature-of-those-holding-radical-beliefs
#5
Max Rollwage, Raymond J Dolan, Stephen M Fleming
Widening polarization about political, religious, and scientific issues threatens open societies, leading to entrenchment of beliefs, reduced mutual understanding, and a pervasive negativity surrounding the very idea of consensus [1, 2]. Such radicalization has been linked to systematic differences in the certainty with which people adhere to particular beliefs [3-6]. However, the drivers of unjustified certainty in radicals are rarely considered from the perspective of models of metacognition, and it remains unknown whether radicals show alterations in confidence bias (a tendency to publicly espouse higher confidence), metacognitive sensitivity (insight into the correctness of one's beliefs), or both [7]...
December 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30439597/older-adults-fail-to-form-stable-task-representations-during-model-based-reversal-inference
#6
Dorothea Hämmerer, Philipp Schwartenbeck, Maria Gallagher, Thomas Henry Benedict FitzGerald, Emrah Düzel, Raymond Joseph Dolan
Older adults struggle in dealing with changeable and uncertain environments across several cognitive domains. This has been attributed to difficulties in forming adequate task representations that help navigate uncertain environments. Here, we investigate how, in older adults, inadequate task representations impact on model-based reversal learning. We combined computational modeling and pupillometry during a novel model-based reversal learning task, which allowed us to isolate the relevance of task representations at feedback evaluation...
October 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30297411/dopaminergic-basis-for-signaling-belief-updates-but-not-surprise-and-the-link-to-paranoia
#7
Matthew M Nour, Tarik Dahoun, Philipp Schwartenbeck, Rick A Adams, Thomas H B FitzGerald, Christopher Coello, Matthew B Wall, Raymond J Dolan, Oliver D Howes
Distinguishing between meaningful and meaningless sensory information is fundamental to forming accurate representations of the world. Dopamine is thought to play a central role in processing the meaningful information content of observations, which motivates an agent to update their beliefs about the environment. However, direct evidence for dopamine's role in human belief updating is lacking. We addressed this question in healthy volunteers who performed a model-based fMRI task designed to separate the neural processing of meaningful and meaningless sensory information...
October 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30252127/annual-research-review-developmental-computational-psychiatry
#8
Tobias U Hauser, Geert-Jan Will, Magda Dubois, Raymond J Dolan
Most psychiatric disorders emerge during childhood and adolescence. This is also a period that coincides with the brain undergoing substantial growth and reorganisation. However, it remains unclear how a heightened vulnerability to psychiatric disorder relates to this brain maturation. Here, we propose 'developmental computational psychiatry' as a framework for linking brain maturation to cognitive development. We argue that through modelling some of the brain's fundamental cognitive computations, and relating them to brain development, we can bridge the gap between brain and cognitive development...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30090862/computation-in-psychotherapy-or-how-computational-psychiatry-can-aid-learning-based-psychological-therapies
#9
Michael Moutoussis, Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Raymond J Dolan
Learning-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, are used worldwide, and their efficacy is endorsed by health and research funding agencies. However, the mechanisms behind both their strengths and their weaknesses are inadequately understood. Here we describe how advances in computational modeling may help formalize and test hypotheses regarding how patients make inferences, which are core postulates of these therapies. Specifically, we highlight the relevance of computations with regard to the development, maintenance, and therapeutic change in psychiatric disorders...
February 2018: Computational psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30006361/beta-blocker-propranolol-modulates-decision-urgency-during-sequential-information-gathering
#10
Tobias U Hauser, Michael Moutoussis, Nina Purg, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Arbitrating between timely choice and extended information gathering is critical for effective decision making. Aberrant information gathering behavior is thought to be a feature of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder, but we know little about the underlying neurocognitive control mechanisms. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled drug study involving 60 healthy human subjects (30 female), we examined the effects of noradrenaline and dopamine antagonism on information gathering during performance of an information sampling task...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29979685/age-dependent-pavlovian-biases-influence-motor-decision-making
#11
Xiuli Chen, Robb B Rutledge, Harriet R Brown, Raymond J Dolan, Sven Bestmann, Joseph M Galea
Motor decision-making is an essential component of everyday life which requires weighing potential rewards and punishments against the probability of successfully executing an action. To achieve this, humans rely on two key mechanisms; a flexible, instrumental, value-dependent process and a hardwired, Pavlovian, value-independent process. In economic decision-making, age-related decline in risk taking is explained by reduced Pavlovian biases that promote action toward reward. Although healthy ageing has also been associated with decreased risk-taking in motor decision-making, it is currently unknown whether this is a result of changes in Pavlovian biases, instrumental processes or a combination of both...
July 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29952550/retention-index-prediction-using-quantitative-structure-retention-relationships-for-improving-structure-identification-in-nontargeted-metabolomics
#12
Yabin Wen, Ruth I J Amos, Mohammad Talebi, Roman Szucs, John W Dolan, Christopher A Pohl, Paul R Haddad
Structure identification in nontargeted metabolomics based on liquid-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) remains a significant challenge. Quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) modeling is a technique capable of accelerating the structure identification of metabolites by predicting their retention, allowing false positives to be eliminated during the interpretation of metabolomics data. In this work, 191 compounds were grouped according to molecular weight and a QSRR study was carried out on the 34 resulting groups to eliminate false positives...
August 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29706512/decodability-of-reward-learning-signals-predicts-mood-fluctuations
#13
Eran Eldar, Charlotte Roth, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan
Our mood often fluctuates without warning. Recent accounts propose that these fluctuations might be preceded by changes in how we process reward. According to this view, the degree to which reward improves our mood reflects not only characteristics of the reward itself (e.g., its magnitude) but also how receptive to reward we happen to be. Differences in receptivity to reward have been suggested to play an important role in the emergence of mood episodes in psychiatric disorders [1-16]. However, despite substantial theory, the relationship between reward processing and daily fluctuations of mood has yet to be tested directly...
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29700475/genome-wide-association-analyses-identify-44-risk-variants-and-refine-the-genetic-architecture-of-major-depression
#14
Naomi R Wray, Stephan Ripke, Manuel Mattheisen, Maciej Trzaskowski, Enda M Byrne, Abdel Abdellaoui, Mark J Adams, Esben Agerbo, Tracy M Air, Till M F Andlauer, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Marie Bækvad-Hansen, Aartjan F T Beekman, Tim B Bigdeli, Elisabeth B Binder, Douglas R H Blackwood, Julien Bryois, Henriette N Buttenschøn, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Na Cai, Enrique Castelao, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen, Toni-Kim Clarke, Jonathan I R Coleman, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Nick Craddock, Gregory E Crawford, Cheynna A Crowley, Hassan S Dashti, Gail Davies, Ian J Deary, Franziska Degenhardt, Eske M Derks, Nese Direk, Conor V Dolan, Erin C Dunn, Thalia C Eley, Nicholas Eriksson, Valentina Escott-Price, Farnush Hassan Farhadi Kiadeh, Hilary K Finucane, Andreas J Forstner, Josef Frank, Héléna A Gaspar, Michael Gill, Paola Giusti-Rodríguez, Fernando S Goes, Scott D Gordon, Jakob Grove, Lynsey S Hall, Eilis Hannon, Christine Søholm Hansen, Thomas F Hansen, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Per Hoffmann, Georg Homuth, Carsten Horn, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, David M Hougaard, Ming Hu, Craig L Hyde, Marcus Ising, Rick Jansen, Fulai Jin, Eric Jorgenson, James A Knowles, Isaac S Kohane, Julia Kraft, Warren W Kretzschmar, Jesper Krogh, Zoltán Kutalik, Jacqueline M Lane, Yihan Li, Yun Li, Penelope A Lind, Xiaoxiao Liu, Leina Lu, Donald J MacIntyre, Dean F MacKinnon, Robert M Maier, Wolfgang Maier, Jonathan Marchini, Hamdi Mbarek, Patrick McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Sarah E Medland, Divya Mehta, Christel M Middeldorp, Evelin Mihailov, Yuri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Jonathan Mill, Francis M Mondimore, Grant W Montgomery, Sara Mostafavi, Niamh Mullins, Matthias Nauck, Bernard Ng, Michel G Nivard, Dale R Nyholt, Paul F O'Reilly, Hogni Oskarsson, Michael J Owen, Jodie N Painter, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Roseann E Peterson, Erik Pettersson, Wouter J Peyrot, Giorgio Pistis, Danielle Posthuma, Shaun M Purcell, Jorge A Quiroz, Per Qvist, John P Rice, Brien P Riley, Margarita Rivera, Saira Saeed Mirza, Richa Saxena, Robert Schoevers, Eva C Schulte, Ling Shen, Jianxin Shi, Stanley I Shyn, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Grant B C Sinnamon, Johannes H Smit, Daniel J Smith, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Craig A Stockmeier, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Katherine E Tansey, Henning Teismann, Alexander Teumer, Wesley Thompson, Pippa A Thomson, Thorgeir E Thorgeirsson, Chao Tian, Matthew Traylor, Jens Treutlein, Vassily Trubetskoy, André G Uitterlinden, Daniel Umbricht, Sandra Van der Auwera, Albert M van Hemert, Alexander Viktorin, Peter M Visscher, Yunpeng Wang, Bradley T Webb, Shantel Marie Weinsheimer, Jürgen Wellmann, Gonneke Willemsen, Stephanie H Witt, Yang Wu, Hualin S Xi, Jian Yang, Futao Zhang, Volker Arolt, Bernhard T Baune, Klaus Berger, Dorret I Boomsma, Sven Cichon, Udo Dannlowski, E C J de Geus, J Raymond DePaulo, Enrico Domenici, Katharina Domschke, Tõnu Esko, Hans J Grabe, Steven P Hamilton, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C Heath, David A Hinds, Kenneth S Kendler, Stefan Kloiber, Glyn Lewis, Qingqin S Li, Susanne Lucae, Pamela F A Madden, Patrik K Magnusson, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew M McIntosh, Andres Metspalu, Ole Mors, Preben Bo Mortensen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Merete Nordentoft, Markus M Nöthen, Michael C O'Donovan, Sara A Paciga, Nancy L Pedersen, Brenda W J H Penninx, Roy H Perlis, David J Porteous, James B Potash, Martin Preisig, Marcella Rietschel, Catherine Schaefer, Thomas G Schulze, Jordan W Smoller, Kari Stefansson, Henning Tiemeier, Rudolf Uher, Henry Völzke, Myrna M Weissman, Thomas Werge, Ashley R Winslow, Cathryn M Lewis, Douglas F Levinson, Gerome Breen, Anders D Børglum, Patrick F Sullivan
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal...
May 2018: Nature Genetics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29689053/agent-specific-learning-signals-for-self-other-distinction-during-mentalising
#15
Sam Ereira, Raymond J Dolan, Zeb Kurth-Nelson
Humans have a remarkable ability to simulate the minds of others. How the brain distinguishes between mental states attributed to self and mental states attributed to someone else is unknown. Here, we investigated how fundamental neural learning signals are selectively attributed to different agents. Specifically, we asked whether learning signals are encoded in agent-specific neural patterns or whether a self-other distinction depends on encoding agent identity separately from this learning signal. To examine this, we tasked subjects to learn continuously 2 models of the same environment, such that one was selectively attributed to self and the other was selectively attributed to another agent...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29643456/publisher-correction-metacognitive-impairments-extend-perceptual-decision-making-weaknesses-in-compulsivity
#16
Tobias U Hauser, Micah Allen, Geraint Rees, Raymond J Dolan
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29549530/risk-preference-and-choice-stochasticity-during-decisions-for-other-people
#17
Francesco Rigoli, Katrin H Preller, Raymond J Dolan
In several contexts, such as finance and politics, people make choices that are relevant for others but irrelevant for oneself. Focusing on decision-making under risk, we compared monetary choices made for one's own interest with choices made on behalf of an anonymous individual. Consistent with the previous literature, other-interest choices were characterized by an increased gambling propensity. We also investigated choice stochasticity, which captures how much decisions vary in similar conditions. An aspect related to choice stochasticity is how much decisions are tuned to the option values, and we found that this was higher during self-interest than during other-interest choices...
April 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29481966/value-encoding-in-the-globus-pallidus-fmri-reveals-an-interaction-effect-between-reward-and-dopamine-drive
#18
Vincenzo G Fiore, Tobias Nolte, Francesco Rigoli, Peter Smittenaar, Xiaosi Gu, Raymond J Dolan
The external part of the globus pallidus (GPe) is a core nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG) whose activity is disrupted under conditions of low dopamine release, as in Parkinson's disease. Current models assume decreased dopamine release in the dorsal striatum results in deactivation of dorsal GPe, which in turn affects motor expression via a regulatory effect on other nuclei of the BG. However, recent studies in healthy and pathological animal models have reported neural dynamics that do not match with this view of the GPe as a relay in the BG circuit...
June 2018: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29456782/other-people-s-money-the-role-of-reciprocity-and-social-uncertainty-in-decisions-for-others
#19
Ivo Vlaev, Brian Wallace, Nicholas Wright, Antoinette Nicolle, Paul Dolan, Raymond Dolan
Many important decisions are taken not by the person who will ultimately gain or lose from the outcome, but on their behalf, by somebody else. We examined economic decision-making about risk and time in situations in which deciders chose for others who also chose for them. We propose that this unique setting, which has not been studied before, elicits perception of reciprocity that prompts a unique bias in preferences. We found that decision-makers are less patient (more discounting), and more risk averse for losses than gains, with other peoples' money, especially when their choices for others are more uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29440429/locus-coeruleus-integrity-in-old-age-is-selectively-related-to-memories-linked-with-salient-negative-events
#20
Dorothea Hämmerer, Martina F Callaghan, Alexandra Hopkins, Julian Kosciessa, Matthew Betts, Arturo Cardenas-Blanco, Martin Kanowski, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Peter Dayan, Raymond J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the principal origin of noradrenaline in the brain. LC integrity varies considerably across healthy older individuals, and is suggested to contribute to altered cognitive functions in aging. Here we test this hypothesis using an incidental memory task that is known to be susceptible to noradrenergic modulation. We used MRI neuromelanin (NM) imaging to assess LC structural integrity and pupillometry as a putative index of LC activation in both younger and older adults. We show that older adults with reduced structural LC integrity show poorer subsequent memory...
February 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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