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Cholesterol controversy

Azis Kemal Fauzie, G V Venkataramana
The relationship between air pollution exposure and haematology remains controversial. Evidences in the effect of trace organic air pollutants and in the impact of such exposure on lipid and protein levels are scarce. This work investigated the health effects of medium-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on both haematological and biochemical indices in animal models. Two groups of albino mice (Mus musculus) were exposed to ambient air polluted by vehicle exhaust for three and six months, and one group was kept as control...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Jonathan Q Purnell, Henryk F Urbanski, Paul Kievit, Charles T Roberts, Cynthia L Bethea
Whether hormone replacement therapy has beneficial metabolic effects in postmenopausal women remains controversial due to between-study differences in menopausal duration, estrogen formulations, and diet. Additionally, animal studies have not reflected the typical human obesogenic, Western-Style Diet (WSD). In this study, we determined the effects of immediate E (ImE) or delayed E treatment on weight and metabolism parameters in old ovo-hysterectomized rhesus macaques consuming a WSD over a 30-month period...
February 7, 2019: Endocrinology
E Pappa, M Elisaf, C Kostara, E Bairaktari, V Tsimihodimos
BACKGROUND: As Mendelian randomization (MR) studies showed no efficacy of variants altering HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) and novel therapeutic interventions aiming to raise HDL-C resulted to futility, the usefulness of HDL-C is unclear. OBJECTIVE: As the role of HDL-C is currently doubtful, it is suggested that the atheroprotective functions of HDLs can be attributed to the number of HDL particles,and their characteristicsincludingtheir lipid and protein components...
February 1, 2019: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Haibin Li, Dian He, Deqiang Zheng, Endawoke Amsalu, Anxin Wang, Lixin Tao, Jin Guo, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Xiuhua Guo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk remains controversial. AIMS: We aim to examine the relationship between MHO and risk of CVD among the Chinese population. METHODS: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study of 7849 participants aged ≥45 years without CVD at baseline. Metabolic health status was assessed based on blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, and C-reactive protein...
January 25, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Takashi Miida, Satoshi Hirayama
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipoprotein-X (Lp-X) is an abnormal lipoprotein containing abundant free cholesterol and phospholipids, as well as some apolipoprotein E (apoE). Serum Lp-X increases in patients with cholestasis and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency, as well as in those receiving intravenous lipid emulsion. Lp-X is often associated with skin xanthomas in cholestatic patients. However, earlier studies showed that Lp-X is not taken up by murine macrophages, but exerts antiatherogenic actions...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
June James
Death is an inevitable part of living. There are undoubtedly clinical and psychological challenges when any individual is passing from life to death. For a person with a long-term condition such as diabetes, these challenges can be compounded and impact on the care and experience of both the individual and their families and carers. It is estimated that about 500,000 people die each year in the United Kingdom; of these approximately 75,000 will have diabetes. The vast majority of people with diabetes who die do not do so as a result of a metabolic diabetes emergency such as diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state...
January 17, 2019: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Hea Yon Lee, Hae Kyung Yang, Ho Jin Song, Hee Jae Chang, Ji Young Kang, Sang Haak Lee, Solji Han, Young Kyoon Kim
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have evaluated the link between metabolic syndrome and obesity with impaired lung function, however findings have been controversial. We aimed to compare lung function among subjects with different metabolic health and obesity status. METHODS: Total 10,071 participants were evaluated at the Health Promotion Center in Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. Being metabolically healthy was defined as having fewer than three of the following risk factors: high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and abdominal obesity...
2019: PloS One
Omid Eslami, Farzad Shidfar
OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines have highlighted the role of diet in conjunction with drug therapy in the management of dyslipidemia. Over the last two decades, the effect of soy milk, a derivative of soybean, on blood lipids has been the focus of nutritional researches. The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive review of clinical trials investigating the effect of soy milk on blood lipids. METHODS: An electronic database searching including PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and CENTRAL was performed to extract all the records that were published up to May 2018 using MeSH terms and relevant keywords...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Roni M Joentausta, Antti Rannikko, Teemu J Murtola
BACKGROUND: Improved prostate cancer (PCa) survival by statin use has been reported among PCa patients managed with radiation or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), while results are controversial for men managed surgically. We evaluate the association between cholesterol-lowering medication with initiation of ADT and disease-specific death among PCa cases who underwent radical prostatectomy in Finland between 1995 and 2013. METHODS: The study cohort included 14 424 men with PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy in Finland between 1995 and 2013...
January 16, 2019: Prostate
Biming Zhan, Xiao Huang, Jiancheng Wang, Xianhui Qin, Jingping Zhang, Jingjing Cao, Yun Song, Lishun Liu, Ping Li, Renqiang Yang, Yanqing Wu, Qinghua Wu, Yan Zhang, Jianping Li, Yong Huo, Binyan Wang, Xiping Xu, Huihui Bao, Xiaoshu Cheng
Arterial stiffness plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between lipid levels and arterial stiffness is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between lipid parameters and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) in Chinese patients with hypertension. A total of 14 071 participants with hypertension in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) were enrolled in the present study. Patients were assigned to 4 equal groups according to their baPWV...
January 16, 2019: Angiology
Jiaxiao Shi, Yulin Li, Cong Xing, Peng Peng, Hongyu Shi, Han Ding, Pengyuan Zheng, Guangzhi Ning, Shiqing Feng
Objectives: The application of urapidil for treating hypertensive patients with acute heart failure in the emergency department remains controversial. Our objective was to organize the relevant articles and assess the clinical indexes between urapidil and nitroglycerin. Materials and methods: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched for randomized studies that compared urapidil treatment with nitroglycerin treatment for hypertensive patients with acute heart failure...
2019: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Yen-Ju Lung, Wei-Chieh Weng, Chia-Lun Wu, Wen-Yi Huang
BACKGROUND: Aggressive lipid-lowering treatment reduces the risk of cardiovascular events, but remains controversial in stroke patients. We investigate the influence of total cholesterol level on 5-year outcomes of ischemic stroke patients with high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and poststroke functional dependence. METHODS: One-hundred and ninety-six acute ischemic stroke patients with high-grade ICA stenosis and modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3 upon discharge were enrolled and prospectively observed for 5 years...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Elaheh Rashidbeygi, Maryam Safabakhsh, Saeideh Delshad Aghdam, Shimels Hussien Mohammed, Shahab Alizadeh
BACKGROUND & AIM: Previous studies have explored the relation of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components and the risk of albuminuria/proteinuria but their results are inconsistent. Then, we aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to resolve these controversies. METHOD: PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched from their inception to 1 march 2018. Risk estimates and their 95% confidence intervals were extracted and pooled using the random-effects approach...
January 2019: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Zhibo Zhao, Li Zhong, Kun He, Chan Qiu, Zhi Li, Lei Zhao, Jianping Gong
Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a top instigator of cancer mortality. Previous clinical studies have revealed that low serum cholesterol predicts a poor outcome in HCC patients, but the potential role of cholesterol in the progression of HCC remains controversial. In the present study,we tested the influence of cholesterol on the progression of DEN-induced HCC by feeding mice with a high cholesterol diet (HCD) and by depriving cholesterol with atorvastatin, a widely used inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway...
January 10, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Sepideh Mahboobi, Fatemeh Rahimi, Sadegh Jafarnejad
Purpose: Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as a chronic disease, is on rise in parallel with other non-communicable diseases. Several studies have shown that probiotics and prebiotics might exert beneficial effects in chronic diseases including diabetes. Because of controversial results from different trials, the present study aims to assess the effects of prebiotic/synbiotic consumption on metabolic parameters in patients with type2 diabetes. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed on randomized controlled trial published in PubMed/Medline, SciVerse Scopus, Google scholar, SID and Magiran up to March 2018...
November 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Xi-Chen Zhu, Wen-Zhuo Dai, Tao Ma
Background: Many studies have reported on the role of statin therapy in dementia, but its efficacy remains controversial. We aimed to search for reliable and meaningful articles to assess the efficacy of statin therapy for dementia risk, cognitive items, and pathologic markers. Methods: Related literature for this study was published in the period from January 1, 1987 to January 1, 2018. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) estimates were pooled in either fixed or random effects models...
November 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
David G Thomas, Amanda C Doran, Panagiotis Fotakis, Marit Westerterp, Per Antonson, Hui Jiang, Xian-Cheng Jiang, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Ira Tabas, Alan R Tall
The activation of liver X receptor (LXR) promotes cholesterol efflux and repression of inflammatory genes with anti-atherogenic consequences. The mechanisms underlying the repressive activity of LXR are controversial and have been attributed to cholesterol efflux or to transrepression of activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity. Here, we find that cholesterol efflux contributes to LXR repression, while the direct repressive functions of LXR also play a key role but are independent of AP-1. We use assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) to show that LXR reduces chromatin accessibility in cis at inflammatory gene enhancers containing LXR binding sites...
December 26, 2018: Cell Reports
Meng Wang, Li-Juan Ma, Yan Yang, Zeyu Xiao, Jian-Bo Wan
Excess alcohol exposure leads to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), a predominant cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, increasing attention has been paid to understand the association between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and ALD. In this review, we summarize the metabolism of n-3 PUFAs, animal model of ALD, and the findings from recent studies determining the role of n-3 PUFAs in ALD as a possible treatment. The animal models of acute ethanol exposure, chronic ethanol exposure and chronic-plus-single binge ethanol feeding have been widely used to explore the impact of n-3 PUFAs...
December 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Vesna Degoricija, Ines Potočnjak, Michaela Gastrager, Gudrun Pregartner, Andrea Berghold, Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic, Beate Tiran, Gunther Marsche, Saša Frank
The link between HDL subclasses and the prognosis of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. We thus evaluated the prognostic value of the HDL subclasses 3 and 2 cholesterol (HDL3-C, HDL2-C) as well as of total HDL-C for 3-month mortality in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. The serum levels of HDL3-C and total HDL-C were determined by detergent-based homogeneous assay. HDL2-C was computed by the difference between total HDL-C and HDL3-C. Out of the 132 analyzed patients, 35 (26.5%) died within three months after onset of AHF...
December 19, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
R J Hart, D A Doherty, T A Mori, L A Adams, R-C Huang, N Minaee, D J Handelsman, R McLachlan, R J Norman, J E Dickinson, J K Olynyk, L J Beilin
STUDY QUESTION: Are early signs of metabolic disorder in late adolescence associated with features of impaired testicular function many years before the majority seek parenthood? SUMMARY ANSWER: Adolescents with features of metabolic disorder at 17 years, or insulin resistance (IR) at 20 years of age, show impaired testicular function and altered hormone levels compared to those without metabolic disorder. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Controversial evidence suggests a recent decline in sperm production potentially linked to environmental influences, but its cause remains unclear...
December 21, 2018: Human Reproduction
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