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Molecular biology in bone research

Marwa Almosailleakh, Juerg Schwaller
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a rare but severe form of human cancer that results from a limited number of functionally cooperating genetic abnormalities leading to uncontrolled proliferation and impaired differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Before the identification of genetic driver lesions, chemically, irradiation or viral infection-induced mouse leukaemia models provided platforms to test novel chemotherapeutics. Later, transgenic mouse models were established to test the in vivo transforming potential of newly cloned fusion genes and genetic aberrations detected in patients' genomes...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yoshiaki Nakamura, Yoshifumi Nakane, Masaoki Tsudzuki
The blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis), the smallest species of quail with short generation interval and excellent reproductive performance, is a potential avian research model. A normal series of skeletal development of avian embryos could be served as a reference standard in the fields of developmental biology and teratological testing as well as in the investigation of mutation with skeletal abnormalities and in the study of the molecular mechanisms of skeletal development through genome manipulation...
January 17, 2019: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
I Tessaro, V T Nguyen, A Di Giancamillo, M Agnoletto, F Verdoni, M Domenicucci, R Scurati, G M Peretti, L Mangiavini
Cartilage lesions still represent an unsolved problem: despite the efforts of the basic and translational research, the regeneration of this tissue is far from being reached (1-3). Articular cartilage lesions can be divided in two main groups: superficial or partial defects and full-thickness defects (4, 5). Partial lesions are not able to self-heal because multipotent cells from the bone marrow cannot reach the area leading to a progressive degeneration of the tissue (6). Conversely, full-thickness injuries possess greater chances to heal because subchondral bone involvement allows for the migration of mesenchymal cells, which fill the damaged area (7, 8)...
November 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Qinyu Ma, Zaisong Ma, Mengmeng Liang, Fei Luo, Jianzhong Xu, Ce Dou, Shiwu Dong
The movements of life at every level from organs, tissues, cells to sub-cells, are all conducted in certain physical environments. In the human body, skeletal tissue among all connective tissues is influenced the most by physical forces. Studying the biological behavior of bone cells under different physical environments is helpful in further understanding bone homeostasis and metabolism. Among all bone cells, osteoclast (OC) and OC steered bone remodeling is one of the key points in bone metabolism. In the past few decades, people's understanding of OC was mostly limited to its involvement of bone resorption under physiological and pathological conditions...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Pyung Goo Cho, Gyu Yeol Ji, Yoon Ha, Hye Yeong Lee, Dong Ah Shin
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Posterolateral fusion (PLF) with autogenous iliac bone graft is one of the most common surgical procedures for lumbar spinal disease. However, its limited success demands new biologically competent graft enhancers or substitutes. Although the use of direct current (DC) electrical stimulation has been shown to increase rate of successful spinal fusions, little is known about the effect of the type of current in DC stimulation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of various DC stimulators on the strength and success rate of posterolateral fusion facilitated by using a nitinol mesh container, in rats...
December 22, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Jianfang Huang, Xuan Luo, Miaoqin Huang, Guangmou Liu, Weiwei You, Caihuan Ke
BACKGROUND: The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is the most important cultivated abalone in China. Improving abalone muscle growth and increasing the rate of growth are important genetic improvement programs in this industry. MicroRNAs are important small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate post-transcription gene expression. However, no miRNAs have been reported to regulate muscle growth in H. discus hannai. RESULTS: we profiled six small RNA libraries for three large abalone individuals (L_HD group) and three small individuals (S_HD group) using RNA sequencing technology...
December 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Aaron H Nile, Rami N Hannoush
Wnt signaling regulates physiological processes ranging from cell differentiation to bone formation. Dysregulation of Wnt signaling is linked to several human ailments, including colorectal, pancreatic, and breast cancers. As such, modulation of this pathway has been an attractive strategy for therapeutic development of anticancer agents. Since the discovery of Wnt proteins more than 35 years ago, research efforts continue to focus on understanding the biochemistry of their molecular interactions and their biological functions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maria De Santis, Berardo Di Matteo, Emanuele Chisari, Gilberto Cincinelli, Peter Angele, Christian Lattermann, Giuseppe Filardo, Nicolò Danilo Vitale, Carlo Selmi, Elizaveta Kon
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degradation, subchondral damage, and bone remodelling, affecting most commonly weight-bearing joints, such as the knee and hip. The loss of cartilage leads to joint space narrowing, pain, and loss of function which could ultimately require total joint replacement. The Wnt/ β catenin pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of OA and has been proposed as a therapeutic target. Endogenous and pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway were recently investigated within innovative therapies including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Shih-Shih Chen
Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are created by implantation of tumor cells into immunodeficient mice. These models maintain similar morphology and molecular profiling of the original tumors, and therefore have been extensively used in cancer research in both the basic and preclinical fields. Here, we describe a PDX model of CLL using autologous activated T cells to support CLL B-cell growth in lymphoid tissues such as spleen and bone marrow. This model allows one to perform in vivo preclinical and biological studies for this clinically and molecularly heterogeneous disease...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ping Li, Hua Zhang, Dong Wang, Yingjie Tao, Lun Zhang, Wenchao Zhang, Xudong Wang
A sensitive and highly efficient approach to monitor the expression of proteins on live cells was urgently needed to demonstrate its factor and mechanism and most important for clinical diagnostics and molecular biology. Herein, we developed a simple and highly efficient strategy, nonlinear hybridization chain reaction (nonlinear HCR), for the sensitive determination of proteins on live cells with transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) and RAW264.7 cells as a model. Unlike the normal hybridization chain reaction (HCR) with multiplicative amplification, an exponential amplified fluorescent response could be obtained in theory based on the proposed nonlinear HCR...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Germano Guerra, Fabio Perrotta, Gianluca Testa
Pulmonary vascular disorders (PVDs) include primary or secondary diseases who influence the right heart function. Several researches showed that stem and progenitor cells may represent a novel approach in treating pulmonary hypertension. In particular, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized either from the bone marrow and/or arteries to replace dysfunctional endothelial cells and restore blood perfusion to ischemic tissues. They may deliver paracrine signals to stimulate local angiogenesis or may be physically incorporated within neovessels...
October 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Rieko Oyama, Fusako Kito, Zhiwei Qiao, Marimu Sakumoto, Rei Noguchi, Mami Takahashi, Shunichi Toki, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Akihiko Yoshida, Akira Kawai, Tadashi Kondo
Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor characterized by the presence of a unique EWSR1-FLI1 translocation. Ewing's sarcoma primarily occurs in the bone and soft tissues. Cell lines enable researchers to investigate the molecular backgrounds of disease and the significance of genetic alterations in relevant cellular contexts. Here, we report the establishment and characterization of a novel Ewing's sarcoma cell line following primary Ewing's sarcoma tumor tissue culture. The established cell line was authenticated by DNA microsatellite short tandem repeat analysis, characterized by in vitro assays, and named NCC-ES1-C1...
December 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Natalie A Twine, Linda Harkness, James Adjaye, Abdullah Aldahmash, Marc R Wilkins, Moustapha Kassem
Long-term in vitro expansion of bone marrow stromal (skeletal) stem cells (also known as human mesenchymal stem cells [hMSC]) is associated with replicative senescence and impaired functions. We have previously reported that telomerization of hMSC through hTERT overexpression led to bypassing a replicative senescence phenotype and improved in vitro and in vivo functions. However, the molecular consequence of telomerization is poorly characterized. Thus, we compared the molecular phenotype of a well-studied telomerized hMSC (hMSC-TERT) cell line with primary hMSC...
September 2018: JBMR Plus
Germano Guerra, Fabio Perrotta, Gianluca Testa
Pulmonary vascular disorders (PVDs) include primary or secondary diseases who ultimately influence the right heart function. Several researches showed that stem and progenitor cells may represent a novel approach in treating pulmonary hypertension. In particular, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized either from the bone marrow and/or arteries to replace dysfunctional endothelial cells and restore blood perfusion to ischemic tissues. They may deliver paracrine signals to stimulate local angiogenesis or may be physically incorporated within neovessels...
September 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Suresh K Nayar, Eric J Dein, Johnathan A Bernard, Bashir A Zikria, Andrea M Spiker
Background: Much of current clinical orthopedics traces its origin to basic science investigation of cellular and biochemical pathways, tissue engineering, and biomechanics of bone and joint physiology in animal and cadaveric models. Questions/Purposes: We sought to describe research trends in highly cited basic science studies in orthopedics. Methods: By searching Web of Science, we identified the 100 most cited basic science orthopedics articles and focused on author position and degree (PhD, MD, or MD/PhD), topic, type of study, country, institution, and citation trends...
October 2018: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
Peter G Kroth, Atle M Bones, Fayza Daboussi, Maria I Ferrante, Marianne Jaubert, Misha Kolot, Marianne Nymark, Carolina Río Bártulos, Andrés Ritter, Monia T Russo, Manuel Serif, Per Winge, Angela Falciatore
Diatoms are major components of phytoplankton and play a key role in the ecology of aquatic ecosystems. These algae are of great scientific importance for a wide variety of research areas, ranging from marine ecology and oceanography to biotechnology. During the last 20 years, the availability of genomic information on selected diatom species and a substantial progress in genetic manipulation, strongly contributed to establishing diatoms as molecular model organisms for marine biology research. Recently, tailored TALEN endonucleases and the CRISPR/Cas9 system were utilized in diatoms, allowing targeted genetic modifications and the generation of knockout strains...
October 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Tayyaba Gul Malik, Syed Shoaib Ahmed, Roquyya Gul, Eiman Ayesha
OBJECTIVE: To compare the serum proangiogenic biomarkers in diabetic patients suffering from with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). STUDY DESIGN: An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Arif Memorial Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology/Centre for Research in Molecular Medicine, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan, from March to December 2017. METHODOLOGY: Forty patients with DR were included in group A and 15 patients without retinopathy (controls) were included in group B...
September 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Martina Sladkova, Jiayi Joy Cheng, Michael Palmer, Silvia Chen, Charles Lin, Wei Xia, Yue Eric Yu, Bin Zhou, Håkan Engqvist, Giuseppe Maria de Peppo
Bone engineering makes it possible to grow unlimited amounts of viable tissue products for basic and applied research, and for clinical applications. A common trend in tissue engineering is the use of decellularized tissue matrices as scaffolding materials, which display structural, mechanical, and biological attributes typical of the native tissue. Due to the limited availability and high cost of human samples, decellularized tissue matrices are typically derived from animal sources. It is unclear, however, whether interspecies differences in tissue parameters will influence the quality of tissue grafts that are engineered using human stem cells...
August 21, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Berenice Fernández-Rojas, Gloria Gutiérrez-Venegas
Flavonoids are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds claimed to help alleviate a variety of conditions, including diabetes, infectious endocarditis, and cancer. They have attracted substantial research interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse bioactivities. Periodontitis is a high-incidence inflammatory disease affecting the dentition-supporting periodontium. Although the etiology of periodontitis is diverse, microbial species in dental plaque are considered its main pathogenic agents. Here, we provide a review of flavonoid study findings relevant for periodontitis treatment and prevention...
September 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Henrique Furlan Pauna, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
: Human temporal bone studies have documented the pathophysiologic basis of many pathologic conditions and diseases affecting the ear, contributing to the development of specific clinical knowledge and pathology-oriented treatments. Researchers dedicated to the study of anatomy and histology of the temporal bone emanated from Europe to the United States during the first part of the 20th Century. The first otopathology laboratory was founded in the United States in 1924, at Johns Hopkins University; over time, the otopathology laboratories-considered by some authors as "gold mines" for studying ear diseases-became numerous and very prolific...
October 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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