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Bone research

Claudia Fecher-Trost, Femke Lux, Kai-Markus Busch, Ahsan Raza, Manuel Winter, Franziska Hielscher, Thabet Belkacemi, Bram van der Eerden, Ulrich Boehm, Marc Freichel, Petra Weissgerber
Embryonic growth and bone development depend on placental Ca2+ transport across the feto-maternal barrier to supply minerals to the fetus. The individual factors and cellular mechanisms that regulate placental Ca2+ transfer, however, are only beginning to emerge. We find that the Ca2+ -selective transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (TRPV6) channel is expressed in trophoblasts of the fetal labyrinth, in the yolk sac, and in the maternal part of the placenta. Lack of functional TRPV6 channels in the mother leads to a reduced Ca2+ content in both placenta and embryo...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Lisandra Serra Damasceno, Tania Vite-Garín, José Antonio Ramírez, Gabriela Rodríguez-Arellanes, Marcos Abreu de Almeida, Mauro de Medeiros Muniz, Jacó Ricarte Lima de Mesquita, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva Leitão, Maria Lucia Taylor, Rosely Maria Zancopé-Oliveira
Mixed infection by Histoplasma capsulatum isolates with different mating types, in AIDS-patients are described in this study. Morphological, mating type-specific PCR assay and multilocus sequencing type analysis of H. capsulatum isolates recovered from two Brazilian AIDS-patients were performed. Five H. capsulatum isolates were recovered at different times from the two patients. Three isolates were obtained from bone marrow (day 1 - CE0411) and buffy coat cultures (day 1 - CE0311; day 2 - CE0511) of patient 1, and two isolates were isolated from buffy coat cultures (day 3 - CE2813; day 12 - CE2513) of patient 2...
February 14, 2019: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Yi Tao, Surun Huang, Jizhong Yan, Weidong Li, Baochang Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Achyranthes bidentata Blume (AB) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine for treating osteoporosis and bone fracture. In the current, researches on pharmacological mechanism of AB mostly focused on molecular pathways, knowledge about its metabolic signatures is largely unclear. This study aims to develop an integrative metabolomics and metallomic approach for deciphering the biochemical basis of anti-osteoporosis effects of raw and salt-processed AB...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Blanca Ibarra, Joaquin García-García, Galo Azuara, Blanca Vázquez-Lasa, Miguel A Ortega, Ángel Asúnsolo, Julio San Román, Julia Buján, Natalio García-Honduvilla, Basilio De la Torre
Joint prostheses are an essential element to improve quality of life. However, prostheses may fail due to several factors, including the most frequent cause, Staphylococcus aureus infection. The identification of new fixing bone cements with less reactivity on bone tissue and an adequate response to infection remains a primary challenge. The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of bone tissue in rabbits after introduction of a hydroxyapatite-coated titanium rod with a commercial fixative cement (Palacos®) compared to a modified experimental cement (EC) containing polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres in the presence or absence of contaminating germs...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Lei Si, John A Eisman, Tania Winzenberg, Kerrie M Sanders, Jacqueline R Center, Tuan V Nguyen, Andrew J Palmer
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that is characterised by reduced bone strength and increased fracture risk. Osteoporosis-related fractures impose enormous disease and economic burden to the society. Although many treatments and health interventions are proven effective to prevent fractures, health economic evaluation adds evidence to their economic merits. Computer simulation modelling is a useful approach to extrapolate clinical and economic outcomes from clinical trials and it is increasingly used in health economic evaluation...
February 18, 2019: BMJ Open
Soheila Ali Akbari Ghavimi, Ethan S Lungren, Trent J Faulkner, Mary A Josselet, Ying Wu, Yisheng Sun, Ferris M Pfeiffer, Christina L Goldstein, Caixia Wan, Bret D Ulery
Vertebral compression fractures are a very common consequence of osteoporosis for which injection of a non-biodegradable, non-bioactive, mechanically-stiff polymer bone cement into the vertebral body is the most common treatment. Recently, there has been growing interest in using bioactive, degradable, and bone biomechanics-matching products as an alternative approach for treating these fractures. In this research, we focused on creating injectable, chitosan-based hydrogels that can convey mechanical strength similar to vertebral bone as well as possess inherent osteoinductivity...
February 16, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maojia Xu, Georgina Shaw, Mary Murphy, Frank Barry
There has been considerable interest in the generation of functional mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) preparations from induced pluripotent stem cells (iMSCs) and this is now regarded as a potential source of unlimited, standardized, high-quality cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. While iMSCs meet minimal criteria for defining MSCs in terms of marker expression there are substantial differences in terms of trilineage potential, specifically a marked reduction in chondrogenic and adipogenic propensity in iMSCs compared to bone marrow-derived (BM) MSCs...
February 19, 2019: Stem Cells
Hao Huang, Shuang-Hui Luo, De-Chun Huang, Shu-Jie Cheng, Chong-Jiang Cao, Gui-Tang Chen
BACKGROUND: Astragalus membranaceus is a traditional Chinese medicine and has a long history of medical applications. It is of interest to investigate the functional components of Astragalus membranaceus waste to its development and utilization, and increasing resource utilization. RESULTS: A protein (AMWP) was isolated from the Astragalus membranaceus waste, and AMWP was further purified by DEAE-cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography to obtain three fractions named AMWPDG2, AMWPDG4 and AMWPDG6...
February 18, 2019: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Anne E Justice, Tugce Karaderi, Heather M Highland, Kristin L Young, Mariaelisa Graff, Yingchang Lu, Valérie Turcot, Paul L Auer, Rebecca S Fine, Xiuqing Guo, Claudia Schurmann, Adelheid Lempradl, Eirini Marouli, Anubha Mahajan, Thomas W Winkler, Adam E Locke, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Tõnu Esko, Sailaja Vedantam, Ayush Giri, Ken Sin Lo, Tamuno Alfred, Poorva Mudgal, Maggie C Y Ng, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Mary F Feitosa, Alisa K Manning, Sara M Willems, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Goncalo Abecasis, Dewan S Alam, Matthew Allison, Philippe Amouyel, Zorayr Arzumanyan, Beverley Balkau, Lisa Bastarache, Sven Bergmann, Lawrence F Bielak, Matthias Blüher, Michael Boehnke, Heiner Boeing, Eric Boerwinkle, Carsten A Böger, Jette Bork-Jensen, Erwin P Bottinger, Donald W Bowden, Ivan Brandslund, Linda Broer, Amber A Burt, Adam S Butterworth, Mark J Caulfield, Giancarlo Cesana, John C Chambers, Daniel I Chasman, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Rajiv Chowdhury, Cramer Christensen, Audrey Y Chu, Francis S Collins, James P Cook, Amanda J Cox, David S Crosslin, John Danesh, Paul I W de Bakker, Simon de Denus, Renée de Mutsert, George Dedoussis, Ellen W Demerath, Joe G Dennis, Josh C Denny, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Marcus Dörr, Fotios Drenos, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Alison M Dunning, Douglas F Easton, Paul Elliott, Evangelos Evangelou, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Shuang Feng, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrieres, Jose C Florez, Myriam Fornage, Caroline S Fox, Paul W Franks, Nele Friedrich, Wei Gan, Ilaria Gandin, Paolo Gasparini, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Giorgia Girotto, Mathias Gorski, Harald Grallert, Niels Grarup, Megan L Grove, Stefan Gustafsson, Jeff Haessler, Torben Hansen, Andrew T Hattersley, Caroline Hayward, Iris M Heid, Oddgeir L Holmen, G Kees Hovingh, Joanna M M Howson, Yao Hu, Yi-Jen Hung, Kristian Hveem, M Arfan Ikram, Erik Ingelsson, Anne U Jackson, Gail P Jarvik, Yucheng Jia, Torben Jørgensen, Pekka Jousilahti, Johanne M Justesen, Bratati Kahali, Maria Karaleftheri, Sharon L R Kardia, Fredrik Karpe, Frank Kee, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Pirjo Komulainen, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter Kovacs, Bernhard K Krämer, Kari Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Timo A Lakka, David Lamparter, Leslie A Lange, Claudia Langenberg, Eric B Larson, Nanette R Lee, Wen-Jane Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Cora E Lewis, Huaixing Li, Jin Li, Ruifang Li-Gao, Li-An Lin, Xu Lin, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Allan Linneberg, Ching-Ti Liu, Dajiang J Liu, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Stuart MacGregor, Reedik Mägi, Satu Männistö, Gaëlle Marenne, Jonathan Marten, Nicholas G D Masca, Mark I McCarthy, Karina Meidtner, Evelin Mihailov, Leena Moilanen, Marie Moitry, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Anna Morgan, Andrew P Morris, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Patricia B Munroe, Narisu Narisu, Christopher P Nelson, Matt Neville, Ioanna Ntalla, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Katharine R Owen, Oluf Pedersen, Gina M Peloso, Craig E Pennell, Markus Perola, James A Perry, John R B Perry, Tune H Pers, Ailith Ewing, Ozren Polasek, Olli T Raitakari, Asif Rasheed, Chelsea K Raulerson, Rainer Rauramaa, Dermot F Reilly, Alex P Reiner, Paul M Ridker, Manuel A Rivas, Neil R Robertson, Antonietta Robino, Igor Rudan, Katherine S Ruth, Danish Saleheen, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Pamela J Schreiner, Matthias B Schulze, Robert A Scott, Marcelo Segura-Lepe, Xueling Sim, Andrew J Slater, Kerrin S Small, Blair H Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Lorraine Southam, Timothy D Spector, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Kari Stefansson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen E Stirrups, Konstantin Strauch, Heather M Stringham, Michael Stumvoll, Liang Sun, Praveen Surendran, Karin M A Swart, Jean-Claude Tardif, Kent D Taylor, Alexander Teumer, Deborah J Thompson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Betina H Thuesen, Anke Tönjes, Mina Torres, Emmanouil Tsafantakis, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Cornelia M van Duijn, Mauno Vanhala, Rohit Varma, Sita H Vermeulen, Henrik Vestergaard, Veronique Vitart, Thomas F Vogt, Dragana Vuckovic, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Mark Walker, Lars Wallentin, Feijie Wang, Carol A Wang, Shuai Wang, Nicholas J Wareham, Helen R Warren, Dawn M Waterworth, Jennifer Wessel, Harvey D White, Cristen J Willer, James G Wilson, Andrew R Wood, Ying Wu, Hanieh Yaghootkar, Jie Yao, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Robin Young, Eleftheria Zeggini, Xiaowei Zhan, Weihua Zhang, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, He Zheng, Wei Zhou, M Carola Zillikens, Fernando Rivadeneira, Ingrid B Borecki, J Andrew Pospisilik, Panos Deloukas, Timothy M Frayling, Guillaume Lettre, Karen L Mohlke, Jerome I Rotter, Zoltán Kutalik, Joel N Hirschhorn, L Adrienne Cupples, Ruth J F Loos, Kari E North, Cecilia M Lindgren
Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants...
February 18, 2019: Nature Genetics
Bronwen LeGuerrier, Fleur Huang, Winter Spence, Brenda Rose, Jacqueline Middleton, Megan Palen, Kitta Thvone, Shazma Ravji, Brita Danielson, Diane Severin, Karen P Chu, Alysa Fairchild
BACKGROUND: Palliative radiation therapists (PRTs) have been integrated in varying capacities into outpatient palliative radiation therapy (RT) services across Canada for over 2 decades. At our institution, PRTs have developed an essential role over 11 years within a palliative radiation oncology (PRO) clinic that focuses on integrating symptom management with radiation oncology assessment for palliative RT. PRTs have had direct clinical, technical, research, and administrative involvement as the clinic evolved from a pilot in 2007 supporting one half-day per week to the current model of five full clinical days...
March 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Therese Conner, Francesca Cook, Vivian Fernandez, Karen Rascati, Vanessa Rangel-Miller
BACKGROUND: Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (also known as Hurler syndrome) is a rare devasting recessive genetic disease caused by the deficiency of an enzyme. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is the standard of care in the United States, usually conducted before the child is 3 years of age, but little is known about the continued medical and educational needs of the child after transplant. A greater understanding of the burden of illness on the primary caregiver is also needed...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Clayton Mansel, Shaneann Fross, Jesse Rose, Emily Dema, Alexis Mann, Haley Hart, Paul Klawinski, Bhupinder P S Vohra
Lead (Pb) is a teratogen that poses health risks after acute and chronic exposure. Lead is deposited in the bones of adults and is continuously leached into the blood for decades. While this chronic lead exposure can have detrimental effects on adults such as high blood pressure and kidney damage, developing fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable. During pregnancy, bone-deposited lead is released into the blood at increased rates and can cross the placental barrier, exposing the embryo to the toxin...
February 15, 2019: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Rui Zhang, Jie Yang, Juan Wu, Lingling Xiao, Leiying Miao, Xiaole Qi, Yuyan Li, Weibin Sun
Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection-associated disease of the periodontal tissues characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, including alveolar bone. The ideal goal of periodontal therapy is the complete regeneration of alveolar bone in a healthy microenvironment free of infection. In this study, we found that berberine, a benzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid from Coptidis Rhizoma, strongly inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipain is the most important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the process of periodontal tissue destruction...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Brian J Jackson
The field of oral Implantology continues to evolve with an emphasis on minimally invasive approaches. Scientific research introduced immediate implant placement and provisionalization (IIPP) over 40 years ago. The approach is a synergy between surgical and prosthetic stages reducing discomfort, appointments, and costs while producing positive outcomes. A dehiscence of the facial plate of bone (type 2 socket) requires clinical modifications to the standard protocol. This paper describes the IIPP protocol for a type II socket and provides a decision tree to utilize as a guide in patient management...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Oral Implantology
Ho Sung Kim, Eun Sun Jeong, Myung Hwa Yang, Seoung-Oh Yang
Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become the most common method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of small animals in metabolic bone disease research, and errors should be minimized in all procedures involved in research studies in order to increase the accuracy of the study results. DXA is simpler and rapid compared to micro-computed tomography for quantitative analysis of change in trabecular bone of test subject. In human research, measuring BMD is widely used; postoperative evaluation on orthopedic surgery, evaluation of osteoporosis medication in menopause and many other areas of study...
September 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
Paulina Gil-Kulik, Arkadiusz Krzyżanowski, Ewa Dudzińska, Jolanta Karwat, Piotr Chomik, Małgorzata Świstowska, Adrianna Kondracka, Anna Kwaśniewska, Maria Cioch, Mariusz Jojczuk, Adam Nogalski, Janusz Kocki
The BIRC5 gene encodes a survivin protein belonging to class III of inhibitors of apoptosis, IAP. This protein serves a dual role. First, it regulates cell death, and second, it is an important regulator of mitosis progression, although its physiological regulatory function has not been fully understood. Many studies have shown and confirmed that survivin is practically absent in mature tissues in nature, while its overexpression has been reported in many cancerous tissues. There is little information about the significance of BIRC5 expression in normal adult human stem cells...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
R Li, K L Chen, Y Wang, Y S Liu, Y S Zhou, Y C Sun
OBJECTIVE: To establish a 3D printing system for bone tissue engineering scaffold fabrication based on the principle of fused deposition modeling, and to evaluate the controllability over macro and micro structure precision of polylactide (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. METHODS: The system was composed of the elements mixture-I bioprinter and its supporting slicing software which generated printing control code in the G code file format. With a diameter of 0...
February 18, 2019: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Fateme Badie, Hamid Reza Katouzian, Mostafa Rostami
Varus misalignment of the hip-knee-ankle angle causes greater loads on the medial compartment of the knee and increases the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. High tibial osteotomy is a surgical method where the load-bearing axis is shifted laterally. The purpose of this study is to define a subject-specific three-dimensional multibody model of the knee to investigate the effect of osteotomy on cartilages and menisci during the stance phase of gait. It is assumed that osteotomy transfers load-bearing to the lateral parts of the knee...
February 14, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
S Ertugrul, N K Keskin
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of mastoid pneumatization and the presence of persistent foramen of Huschke (FH). Temporal computed tomography images of 714 patients (1428 ears) who applied to the Otorhinolaryngology Department of Karabuk University Training and Research Hospital between January 2016 and June 2018 were retrospectively analysed. We compared the mastoid pnomatization levels of 95 patients (74 females, 21 males, mean age 53.18±15.09years) who had persistent FH and 135 patients (103 females, 32 males, mean age 54...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Michael T Milano, Alan W Katz, Hong Zhang, Christine F Huggins, Khush S Aujla, Paul Okunieff
BACKGROUND: The clinical state of oligometastases describes metastases limited in number and extent, amenable to metastasis-directed therapy. We sought to analyze long-term outcomes and characterize potential prognostic factors, in women with breast cancer (BC) oligometastases treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation (HSRT) therapy on a prospective phase II protocol. METHODS: Forty-eight women with 1-5 extracranial BC oligometastases received HSRT to all radiographically apparent sites of disease...
February 2019: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
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