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ultrasonography of obstetrics

Chen Ben David, Ido Solt
The use of ultrasound endovaginal probes is common practice in the fields of gynecology and obstetrics. The vagina serves as a host environment for many microorganisms, contributing greatly to its defensive mechanisms. It is not known whether the introduction of other microorganisms into the vaginal region are detrimental or require intensive preventative measures. Several national ultrasonography societies, as well as the Israel Ministry of Health, have addressed the proper and adequate handling of sonographic endovaginal probes, including the use of high-level disinfecting agents following cleansing and prior to using probe covers between patients...
January 2019: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Camilla Aakjær Andersen, Sinead Holden, Jonathan Vela, Michael Skovdal Rathleff, Martin Bach Jensen
PURPOSE: Ultrasound examinations are currently being implemented in general practice. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the training in and use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by general practitioners. METHODS: We followed the Cochrane guidelines for conduct and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting. We searched the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using the key words ultrasonography and general practice in combination and using thesaurus terms...
January 2019: Annals of Family Medicine
Sofía García Fernández, Javier Arenas Ramirez, Maria T Otero Chouza, Beatriz Rodriguez-Vijande Alonso, Ángel P Llaneza Coto
OBJECTIVE: Congenital heart defects are the most common major structural fetal abnormalities. Color flow mapping has played a dominant role in the detection of abnormalities during the first trimester, regardless of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology warning on the use of Doppler during early pregnancy. The aim of our study was to investigate the use of transvaginal two-dimensional sonography without Doppler for assessing the four-chamber view and the outflow tract view of fetuses at 11-13 weeks of gestation for cardiac screening of major congenital heart defects...
December 14, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Hatice Akkaya, Barış Büke, Gülsüm Uysal
AIM: To determine whether fetal pancreatic echogenicity assessment is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of 160 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Fetal ultrasonography was performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation for conventional fetal biometry. Based on their pancreatic sonogram results, subjects were divided into two groups ie hyperechogenic pancreas group and iso-moderate echogenic pancreas group...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Eduardo Félix Martins Santana, Edward Araujo Júnior, Gabriele Tonni, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Simon Meagher
The study presents a pictorial essay of acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence using two-(2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography, documenting the different phenotypic characterization of this rare disease. Normal and abnormal fetuses were evaluated during the first trimester scan. The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology practice guidelines were adopted to standardize first trimester anatomical ultrasound screening. The guidelines outline the importance of systematic fetal head and brain examination including the formation of cranial bones, choroid-plexus and ventricles...
2018: Journal of Ultrasonography
Vidmi Taolam Martin, LiYuan Zeng, Jean Christian Nzengue, LiYe Mao, JingYin Huang, XiuFan Peng
Introduction: Portable ultrasound is a modality of medical ultrasonography that utilizes small and light devices, and is an established diagnostic method used in clinical settings such as Cardiology, Vascular Surgery, Radiology, Endocrinology, Pediatric and Obstetric & Gynecology. Presentation of cases: We present a case report of 86-years old patient who underwent surgical rib fixation for multiple rib fractures followed by falling from standing height and our management experience...
December 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Y Nan, Z Y Liu, J Zhang, R Q Yang, F Wang, Q Q Yu, L M Fan
Objective: To analysis of fetal ultrasound soft index positive cases during 16-18 weeks of pregnancy, and to explore the relationship with chromosomal abnormalities in order to increase the positive rate of invasive prenatal diagnosis and reduce the rate of missed diagnosis. Methods: A total of 569 cases which were diagnosed with positive soft markers in the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Second Hospital of Jilin University from Jan.2016 to Jan.2017 were studied by ultrasonography. Twenty-five cases were lost in follow-up and finally 544 cases were included as group A...
November 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Stefano Guerriero, M Angela Pascual, Silvia Ajossa, Ignacio Rodriguez, Michal Zajicek, Martino Rolla, Noelia Llop Rams, Vered Yulzari, Ron Bardin, Francesca Buonomo, Ornella Comparetto, Maura Perniciano, Luca Saba, Valerio Mais, Juan Luis Alcazar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the learning curves of trainees during a structured off-line/hands-on training program on the diagnosis of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). METHODS: A two-week training program was conducted. One day was devoted to theoretical issues and guided off-line analysis of 10 volumes of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. During the following days, five sessions of real-time sonographic examinations were performed in a DIE referral center Ultrasound unit...
November 13, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Sameer Ashok Rege, Chiranjeev Roshan, Vairagar Siddhant, Surpam Shrinivas, Rewatkar Ajinkya
Background: Laparoscopic techniques have been used during pregnancy by obstetricians since the 1970's, primarily to diagnose and treat ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies. Pregnancy was considered as an absolute contraindication to laparoscopy by surgeons as recently as 1991, and a few still doubt the safety of minimal access in gravid patients. When an emergent operation is indicated, the surgery should not be withheld on the sole basis of patient's gravid state. On the contrary, the alleviation of maternal disease is thought to take priority because the health of the foetus is dependant on the mother...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
Xiaoxia Li, Xianmei Huang, Hui Lu
RATIONALE: Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is an infrequent disease caused by transplacental maternal autoantibodies. The most common effects of NLE include cutaneous involvement and congenital heart block (CHB), although it might involve multiple organs, such as the liver, lungs, blood, and nervous or digestive systems. Izmirly PM1 and Tonello et al recently reported cutaneous manifestations of neonatal lupus and risk of subsequent CHB. The most serious complication of NLE is complete atrioventricular (AV) block...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Padmasree Resapu, Sirisha Rao Gundabattula, Vijaya Bharathi Bayyarapu, Manjula Pochiraju, Kameswari Surampudi, Shashikala Dasari
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the sonographic diagnosis and management strategy of symptomatic adnexal torsion at a teaching hospital in Hyderabad, India. All women with abdominal pain and preoperative or operative diagnosis of adnexal torsion from January 2011 to December 2015 were included. A total of 76 women with 78 episodes were included; 28 (36%) occurred during pregnancy. The ovarian mass (in 71%) and pregnancy (in 35%) constituted the most common risk factors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the accuracy of ultrasound were 75%, 27%, 86%, 15% and 68%, respectively...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Yi-Cheng Zhu, Shu-Hao Deng, Quan Jiang, Yuan Zhang
BACKGROUND This study explored symptoms and signs of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) evaluated by 4-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasonography and analyzed the relationship between delivery mode and POP. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 578 women who underwent 4-dimensional transperineal ultrasound were enrolled in this study. Obstetric history together with other clinical information were gathered from clinical questionnaires and gynecologists. Patients were thereafter classified into 4 groups: women with normal vaginal delivery, women with forceps delivery, women with cesarean, and nullipara women...
November 4, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
T Thubert, C Cardaillac, X Fritel, N Winer, V Dochez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to agree on a definition of the obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS), to determine the prevalence and risk factors. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature on the obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS), establishment of levels of evidence (NP), and grades of recommendation according to the methodology of the recommendations for clinical practice. RESULTS: To classify obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS), we have used the WHO-RCOG classification, which lists 4 degrees of severity...
October 29, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Antonio F Saad, Nathan Kirsch, George R Saade, Gary D V Hankins
Background  The gold standard for antenatal diagnosis of placenta previa is the transvaginal ultrasonography. In placenta previa cases, separation of placental and uterine tissues is challenging even for the most experienced surgeons. Life-threatening obstetrical complications from cesarean deliveries with placenta previa include peripartum hemorrhage, coagulopathy, blood transfusion, peripartum hysterectomy, and multiple organ failure. Cases  We detailed the 3 cases of placenta previa that underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation; if hemostasis was not achieved, horizontal mattress sutures were placed in the lower uterine segment...
October 2018: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Mojgan Akbarzadeh-Jahromi, Fatemeh Sari Aslani, Fatemesadat Najib, Shahla Hosseini
Primary extraovarian dysgerminoma is very rare. Nearly all reported uterine germ cell tumors are nondysgerminoma. Herein, we reported a primary intrauterine dysgerminoma. A 21-year-old pregnant woman G2 L1 with a gestational age of 33 weeks referred to an obstetric ward with a chief complaint of labor pain and membrane rupture. Ultrasonography showed a large hypoechoic lobulated area adjacent to the lower part of her uterus. She underwent an operation and a huge mass was detected in her uterus, which was extended to her pelvic floor...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Julia Aeberli, Mathilde Dubail, Antoine Geissbuhler, Isabelle Eperon, Gauthier Buambo, Evariste Bouenizabila
The Republic of Congo is facing a shortage of specialists and an unequal distribution of healthcare professionals between urban and rural areas, limiting access to diagnostic ultrasonography. Besides other issues this project aims at establishing the feasibility of remote training by live teleconsultation in obstetrical ultrasonography, as a mechanism to support isolated care by untrained staff. The project includes abdominal ultrasound testing for women during all stages of pregnancy. The first results have shown that the transmission of dynamic images, at a low cost internet connection, offers the possibility of distance training of peripheral health professionals, with the real-time remote support of gynecologists...
September 5, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Mathew Leonardi, Lea Luketic, Mara L Sobel, Kabir Toor, Rohan D'Souza, Ally Murji
OBJECTIVE: Ultrasonography in obstetrics and gynaecology (OB/GYN) is a vital component of patient assessment, diagnosis, and management. Standards for Canadian obstetrician-gynecologists' ultrasound skills are limited and vague. The primary objective was to audit the current curriculum administered to Canadian OB/GYN residents. The secondary objective was to understand self-perceived competency of final-year residents in performing OB/GYN ultrasound. We also sought to identify perceived barriers to incorporation of ultrasound into practice...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Shelley Macaulay, Eckhart J Buchmann, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
AIM: Gestational age estimation by ultrasonography is the gold standard for dating pregnancies. However, the availability of prenatal ultrasonography in low-to-middle-income countries is limited. This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of last menstrual period (LMP) as a gestational age dating method among women in Johannesburg, South Africa. METHODS: A total of 741 pregnant women were enrolled into a longitudinal study (June 2013 to July 2016). Gestational age was determined by LMP and ultrasonography...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Umesh Mahantshetty, Pushpa Naga Ch, Chira Ranjan Khadanga, Shivakumar Gudi, Supriya Chopra, Lavanya Gurram, Swamidas Jamema, Yogesh Ghadi, Shyamkishore Shrivastava
PURPOSE: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the gold standard for image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) for cervical cancer, the majority of brachytherapy (BT) continues to be guided by computed tomography (CT). However, CT seems to overestimate the target-volume definition, and the potential of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) needs further evaluation. This prospective, comparative study aimed to evaluate CT-based target contouring with the incorporation of TRUS during BT...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tülay Şahin, Onur Balaban
Ultrasonography has gained popularity in recent years among anaesthesiologists and being used widely for regional blocks and central venous catheterization. Ultrasonography for neuraxial blocks was found beneficial especially for determining the correct needle insertion site and estimating the needle insertion depth of epidural space. In many recent studies, ultrasound guided epidural and spinal blocks have been evaluated among obstetric patients. Pre-procedural lumbar ultrasonography and real time ultrasound guidance for neuraxial blocks was the subject of these studies...
August 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
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