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Bohumil Sak, Tereza Vecková, Klára Brdíčková, Pavel Smetana, Lenka Hlásková, Marta Kicia, Nikola Holubová, John McEvoy, Martin Kváč
This study describes the prevalence and concentration of Encephalitozoon cuniculi spores in pork meat and evaluates the effect of sausage fermentation on E. cuniculi infectivity for immunodeficient (severe combined immunodeficient) and immunocompetent (BALB/c and C57BL/6) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, E. cuniculi genotype II was detected in the meat from 2 out of 50 pig carcasses at slaughter facilities, with 60-250 spores per gram detected by quantitative PCR. Under experimental conditions, 3000 E...
February 11, 2019: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Didem Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer Pekmezci, Alparslan Yildirim, Onder Duzlu, Abdullah Inci
OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study was conducted to reveal that the molecular identity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in indoor domestic cats' fecal samples from Turkey was screened using the PCR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nested PCR was performed using MSP and EBITS primers. All of the amplification products were sequenced to identify the microsporidia species. RESULTS: Four (5.5%) and three (4.1%) genomic DNA isolates of the fecal samples from 72 indoor domestic cats showed amplification of the ITS regions of E...
January 15, 2019: Acta Parasitologica
Roghayeh Ghoyounchi, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Azim Rezamand, Adel Spotin, Nayyereh Aminisani, Sanam Nami, Majid Pirestani, Reza Berahmat, Solmaz Madadi
BACKGROUND : Microsporidia may cause infection in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent populations. The best strategy to control microsporidiosis is obtaining thorough knowledge of its outbreak and pathogenicity. PURPOSE : Because of the lack of precise estimation of microsporidia prevalence among Iranian children with cancer, the current study aimed at evaluating the rate of intestinal microsporidia in children undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS:  Patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy in a children's hospital in Northwestern Iran were studied; 132 stool samples were collected and stained by the Weber and Ryan-blue modified trichrome staining techniques...
January 14, 2019: Acta Parasitologica
Philippe Colson, Anthony Levasseur, Bernard La Scola, Vikas Sharma, Arshan Nasir, Pierre Pontarotti, Gustavo Caetano-Anollés, Didier Raoult
Giant viruses of amoebae were discovered in 2003. Since then, their diversity has greatly expanded. They were suggested to form a fourth branch of life, collectively named 'TRUC' (for "Things Resisting Uncompleted Classifications") alongside Bacteria , Archaea , and Eukarya . Their origin and ancestrality remain controversial. Here, we specify the evolution and definition of giant viruses. Phylogenetic and phenetic analyses of informational gene repertoires of giant viruses and selected bacteria, archaea and eukaryota were performed, including structural phylogenomics based on protein structural domains grouped into 289 universal fold superfamilies (FSFs)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Majid Yazdanjooie, Javid Sadraei, Abdolhosein Dalimi, Majid Pirestani
Microsporidia are eukaryotic, intracellular obligate parasites that widely involve many organisms including insects, fish, birds, and mammals. One of the genera of Microsporidia is Encephalitozoon , which contains several opportunistic pathogens. Since Encephalitozoon spp. are zoonotic and opportunistic pathogens, it is important to find their reservoir hosts; hence, the current study aimed at isolating and identifying Encephalitozoon spp. in the crows by the light microscopy observations and molecular methods...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
İlkiz Oğuz Kaya, Funda Doğruman Al, İpek Mumcuoğlu
Microsporidia, obligate intracellular parasites, were first defined by Nageli in 1857. Microsporidia phylum consists of 200 genus and 1500 species. They have a wide host spectrum including insects, fish, and mammals. It has been shown that they may also infect humans and may be existed both in symptomatic and asymptomatic forms. There are eight species infecting humans, which include Anncaliia (Brachiola, Nosema), Encephalitozoon, Entrocytozoon, Microsporidium, Nosema, Pleistophora, Trachipleistophor, and Vittaforma...
October 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Ülfet Çetinkaya, Arzuv Charyyeva, Esra Gürbüz
Microsporidia are parasites that can cause infections in many vertebrate and invertebrate organisms and produce small spores resistant to environmental conditions. As they are obligate intracellular parasites, axenic cultures cannot be performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive potential of the parasite in human colon epidermal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), human monocytic (U937), African green monkey renal epithelial (VERO) and human kidney epithelial (HEK-293) cell lines of tissue and organs where the parasite is located by following the culture of the parasites and the amount of spores for six weeks...
October 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
T A Whelan, N T Lee, R C H Lee, N M Fast
Spliceosomal introns are ubiquitous features of eukaryotic genomes, but the mechanisms responsible for their loss and gain are difficult to identify. Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that have significantly reduced genomes and, as a result, have lost many if not all of their introns. In the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a relatively long intron was identified and was spliced at higher levels than the remaining introns. This long intron is part of a set of unique introns in two unrelated genes that show high levels of sequence conservation across diverse microsporidia...
November 29, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yuliya Y Sokolova, Lisa C Bowers, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier
Obligately intracellular microsporidia regulate their host cell life cycles, including apoptosis, but this has not been evaluated in phagocytic host cells such as macrophages that can facilitate infection but also can be activated to kill microsporidia. We examined two biologically dissimilar human-infecting microsporidia species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Vittaforma corneae, for their effects on staurosporine-induced apoptosis in the human macrophage-differentiated cell line, THP1. Apoptosis was measured after exposure of THP-1 cells to live and dead mature organisms via direct fluorometric measurement of Caspase 3, colorimetric and fluorometric TUNEL assays, and mRNA gene expression profiles using Apoptosis RT2 Profiler PCR Array...
November 29, 2018: Parasitology
Bing Han, Magali Moretto, Louis M Weiss
Microsporidia are eukaryotic unicellular parasites that have been studied for more than 150 years. They are found throughout the world and are capable of infecting various invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. They can cause disease in both immune-compromised and immune-competent humans. In immune-compromised individuals, infections can be severe and often fatal. Microsporidia possess a unique, highly specialized invasion mechanism that involves a structure known as the polar tube as well as the spore wall. During spore germination, the polar tube rapidly discharges from the spore and deliver the sporoplasm into the host cell...
November 16, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Marta Kicia, Magdalena Szydłowicz, Kamil Cebulski, Katarzyna Jakuszko, Paweł Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Bohumil Sak, Magdalena Krajewska, Andrzej B Hendrich, Martin Kváč, Żaneta Kopacz
OBJECTIVES: Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are intracellular parasitic fungi from the phylum Microsporidia, which initially localize to intestine. As opportunistic pathogens, especially Encephalitozoons can disseminate, among others to the respiratory tract. Patients under life-long immunosuppression are at higher risk of such infections, mostly symptomatic. METHODS: Sputum samples and bronchial washings from 72 renal transplant recipients and 105 patients with various respiratory diseases were screened for Encephalitozoon spp...
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ozcan Ozkan, Mehmet Eray Alcigir
Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a zoonotic and opportunistic pathogen, can cause latent infection, especially in lagomorphs. Nowadays, this member of the Eukaryotes has drawn significant attention in the fields of veterinary and public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of infection in a New Zealand rabbit farm that has a clinical history of neurological manifestations including head tilt ataxia, aggressiveness, seizures, and circling and rotational movements around the body length axis, but the general conditions and food intake were normal...
October 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Nur-Amirah Hassan, Yvonne A L Lim, Rohela Mahmud, Norashikin Mohd-Shaharuddin, Wan Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Romano Ngui
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasitic fungi causing chronic diarrhea, particularly among immunocompromised patients. The current method used for diagnosis is based on conventional microscopy, which does not differentiate parasites at the species level. The present study was carried out to identify microsporidian species in immunocompromised patients. From March 2016 to March 2017, a total of 289 archived stool samples were examined microscopically for microsporidian spores using Gram-chromotrope Kinyoun (GCK) stain...
October 29, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anastasia N Ignatieva, Aleksei V Gerus, Igor V Senderskiy, Svetlana M Malysh, Viktor I Dolzhenko, Yuri S Tokarev
Chorthippus loratus collected in Krasnodar Territory in 2017 was infected at 15% rate with a microsporidium possessing ovocylindrical binucleate spores, 2.6 × 1.2 μm in size. SSU RNA gene typing (Genbank accession # MH396491) showed its allocation to the genus Liebermannia. Degenerate primers based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase II (RPB1) sequences of closest relatives allowed amplifying the respective gene fragment of Liebermannia sp. (# MH396492). The present finding indicates world-wide distribution of the Liebermannia genus and parasitism in hosts with non-overlapping geographic ranges (representing Neotropical versus Palearctic fauna), while previous observations were restricted to Acridoidea endemic for South America...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Yuri S Tokarev, Sergei A Timofeev, Julia M Malysh, Alexander A Tsarev, Anastasia N Ignatieva, Oksana G Tomilova, Vyacheslav V Dolgikh
Hexokinase (HK) is a core glycolytic enzyme of Microsporidia which regulates host cell metabolic processes. The goal of the present study was to test for the utility of HK for molecular phylogenetics, species identification and molecular detection of microsporidia in infected insects. HK sequence-based reconstructions were essentially similar to those based upon largest subunit RNA polymerase (RPB1) gene sequences, as well as previously published rRNA gene and genome-based trees. Comparing HK sequences allowed clear differentiation of closely related taxa, such as Nosema bombycis and Nosema pyrausta...
October 15, 2018: Parasitology
Michaela Kotková, Bohumil Sak, Martin Kváč
Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites, which are able to infect a wide range of animals, including humans. Four genotypes of Encephalitozoon cuniculi have been found to date. The different courses of microsporidiosis described in humans, which are dependent on immunological status of the host and genotype of E. cuniculi, have been successfully imitated in murine models. In the present study, we quantified the microsporidial burden in individual organs of a murine experimental model, using qPCR and we compared the parasitic load of two genotypes of E...
September 2018: Experimental Parasitology
S Kitz, F Grimm, S Wenger, J Hatt, A Kipar, U Hetzel
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite that commonly induces subclinical infections in rabbits, but occurs also in a range of other species, including various rodents, carnivores, humans and birds. The present report describes encephalitozoonosis in a group of captive Barbary striped grass mice (Lemniscomys barbarus) in a zoo collection. The aetiology was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR with subsequent sequencing. The source of infection is not known.
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ellie Milnes, Pauline Delnatte, Hugh Y Cai, Nicole Nemeth
  A 2-mo-old Vancouver Island marmot ( Marmota vancouverensis), housed at a quarantined breeding facility, presented for acute obtundation and vestibular ataxia. Physical examination revealed poor growth compared with littermates, poor nutritional condition, and mild dehydration. The animal's condition deteriorated over 24 hr, and it was euthanized following the development of generalized seizures. No gross abnormalities were observed upon postmortem evaluation. Histologic evaluation revealed severe, multifocal, granulomatous and lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalomyelitis and interstitial nephritis, with intralesional, intracytoplasmic spore-filled, parasitophorous vacuoles and segmental, multi-organ, fibrinoid vasculitis (disseminated encephalitozoonosis)...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Itzhel García-Torres, Ignacio De la Mora-De la Mora, Gloria Hernández-Alcántara, Dora Molina-Ortiz, Silvia Caballero-Salazar, Alfonso Olivos-García, Gabriela Nava, Gabriel López-Velázquez, Sergio Enríquez-Flores
The microsporidia are a large group of intracellular parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is the second microsporidia species most frequently associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans, especially immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals, including children and the elderly. The prevalence reported worldwide in these groups ranges from 0 to 60%. Currently, albendazole is most commonly used to treat microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon species...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Minke H W Huibers, Peter Moons, Nelson Maseko, Monfort B Gushu, Oluwadamilola H Iwajomo, Robert S Heyderman, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Eric A Brienen, Lisette van Lieshout, Job C J Calis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are common opportunistic infections in HIV patients. Longitudinal studies on either the clinical relevance or the effect of immune reconstitution by antiretroviral therapy on intestinal protozoan infections in children are lacking however. This study investigates prevalence and clinical relevance of intestinal protozoa in HIV-infected Malawian children before and during their first year of antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: Stool samples collected at enrolment and during follow-up were tested for nonopportunistic (Giardia lamblia, Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica) and opportunistic protozoa (Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp...
September 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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