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microbiota NF-kB

Anny-Claude Luissint, Holly C Williams, Wooki Kim, Sven Flemming, Veronica Azcutia, Roland S Hilgarth, Monique N O' Leary, Timothy L Denning, Asma Nusrat, Charles A Parkos
Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on leukocytes, endothelia, and epithelia that regulates biological processes including barrier function and immune responses. While JAM-A has been reported to facilitate tissue infiltration of leukocytes under inflammatory conditions, the contributions of leukocyte-expressed JAM-A in vivo remain unresolved. We investigated the role of leukocyte-expressed JAM-A in acute peritonitis induced by zymosan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or TNFα using mice with selective loss of JAM-A in myelomonocytic cells (LysM-Cre;Jam-afl/fl )...
February 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
Andrea Anzola, Raquel González, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, Borja Ocón, Carlos J Aranda, Patricia Martínez-Moya, Rocío López-Posadas, Cristina Hernández-Chirlaque, Fermín Sánchez de Medina, Olga Martínez-Augustin
Regulation of miR-146a abundance and its role in intestinal inflammation and particularly in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) has been poorly studied. Here we study the relationship between bacterial antigens and inflammatory stimuli, and miR-146a expression using IEC lines and models of colitis (trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and the CD4 + CD62L + T cell transfer model). Specific bacterial antigens and cytokines (LPS, flagelin and IL-1β/TNF) stimulate miR-146a expression, while peptidoglycan, muramyldipeptide and CpG DNA have no effect...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ennio Avolio, Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Antonino De Lorenzo, Laura Di Renzo, Raffaella Alò, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Marcello Canonaco
Emerging studies are beginning to suggest that emotional states together with healthful measures constitute pertinent features of our lifestyle in which bad eating habits but more importantly what our gut has to host are causing great concern. It is well known that humans have established mutual relationships with a wide array of colonized microbes (collectively called gut microbiota) consisting of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses. The gut microbiota has exhibited a notable ability of communicating with the brain via a two-way system that includes the vagus nerve, immune sites, and a number of neurotransmitters...
January 1, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Roberto de Sire, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Fabio Ingravalle, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Loris Lopetuso, Cristina Graziani, Alessandro de Sire, Maria Chiara Mentella, Maria Cristina Mele, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest on muscle wasting, considering the reduction of quality of life and the increase of morbidity and mortality associated. Sarcopenia and cachexia represent two conditions of reduction of muscle mass, sharing several elements involved in their pathogenesis, such as systemic inflammation, impaired muscle protein synthesis, increased muscle apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle tissue and insulin resistance. These features often characterize cancer, inactivity or denervation, but also inflammatory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal failure, cardiac failure, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and aging in general...
December 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Javier Roig, Maria L Saiz, Alicia Galiano, Maria Trelis, Fernando Cantalapiedra, Carlos Monteagudo, Elisa Giner, Rosa M Giner, M C Recio, Dolores Bernal, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid, Antonio Marcilla
The complexity of the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) has led to the quest of empirically drug therapies, combining immunosuppressant agents, biological therapy and modulators of the microbiota. Helminth parasites have been proposed as an alternative treatment of these diseases based on the hygiene hypothesis, but ethical and medical problems arise. Recent reports have proved the utility of parasite materials, mainly excretory/secretory products as therapeutic agents...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Madis Jaagura, Massimiliano Copetti, Andrea Fontana, Signe Adamberg, Kaia Kolk, Raivo Vilu, Angelo Andriulli, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth cause of cancer-related death. We aimed to evaluate whether gemcitabine treatment shapes the gut microbiota in a model of PDAC xenografted mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to gemcitabine injection once per week for 3 weeks to assess the tumor volume as compared to control mice injected with normal saline solution. The composition of fecal microbiota, the activation of NF-kB pathway in cancer tissues and the serum metabolomics were further analyzed...
April 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Pieter Van den Abbeele, Bernard Taminiau, Iris Pinheiro, Cindy Duysburgh, Heidi Jacobs, Loek Pijls, Massimo Marzorati
Fecal batch fermentations coupled to cocultures of epithelial cells and macrophages were used to compare how arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) and inulin modulate gut microbial activity and composition of three different human donors and subsequently the epithelial permeability and immune response. Both inulin and AXOS decreased the pH during incubation (-1.5 pH units), leading to increased productions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Differences in terms of metabolites production could be linked to specific microbial alterations at genus level upon inulin/AXOS supplementation (i...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yaw Duah Boakye, Laura Groyer, Elke H Heiss
BACKGROUND: An extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and its constituent geraniin have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity in vivo. However, orally consumed geraniin, an ellagitannin, shows low bioavailability and undergoes metabolization to urolithins by gut microbiota. This study aimed at comparing geraniin and urolithin A with respect to inhibition of M1 (LPS) polarization of murine J774.1 macrophages and shedding more light on possible underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Photometric, fluorimetric as well as luminescence-based assays monitored production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), cell viability or reporter gene expression...
January 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Huahai Chen, Yeshi Yin, Yanling Wang, Xin Wang, Charlie Xiang
Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are known modulators of the mammalian immune system. Currently, the technology for investigating SFB culture in vitro is immature, and as a result, the mechanisms of SFB colonization and immune regulation are not yet fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gene diversity and host specificity of SFB flagellin genes. The fliC1 and fliC2 genes are relatively conserved, while the fliC3 and fliC4 genes are more variable, especially at the central and C-terminal regions...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Páraic Ó Cuív, Tomas de Wouters, Rabina Giri, Stanislas Mondot, Wendy J Smith, Hervé M Blottière, Jakob Begun, Mark Morrison
The gut microbiota is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) although the identity of the bacteria that underpin these diseases has remained elusive. The pathobiont Bacteroides vulgatus has been associated with both diseases although relatively little is known about how its growth and functional activity might drive the host inflammatory response. We identified an ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) export system and lipoprotein in B. vulgatus ATCC 8482 and B...
October 2017: Anaerobe
Laura Giusti, Morena Gabriele, Giuseppe Penno, Monia Garofolo, Vincenzo Longo, Stefano Del Prato, Daniela Lucchesi, Laura Pucci
Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Torsten Bohn
Carotenoid dietary intake, especially within fruits/vegetables and their plasma levels have been associated in many epidemiological studies with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and agerelated macular degeneration. However, intervention trials with isolated carotenoids (as supplements) have fallen short of fulfi lling the hopes that were placed in these lipophilic pigments, often producing no positive or even adverse effects, such as increased lung cancer rate or total mortality...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish
The microbiota that inhabits the mammalian intestine can influence a range of physiological functions, including the modulation of immune responses, enhancement epithelial barrier function, and the stimulation of cell proliferation. While the mechanisms by which commensal prokaryotes stimulate immune signaling networks are well-characterized, less is known about the mechanistic control over homeostatic pathways within tissues. Recent reports by our research group have demonstrated that contact between the gut epithelia and some groups of enteric commensal bacteria prompts the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within host cells...
April 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Pierre Larraufie, Joël Doré, Nicolas Lapaque, Hervé M Blottière
The intestinal epithelium is an active barrier separating the host from its microbiota. It senses microbial compounds through expression of a wide range of receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs have been shown to regulate epithelium permeability or secretion of defensin by Paneth cells. However, the expression and function of TLRs in enteroendocrine L-cells, a specific subtype of intestinal cells secreting PYY and GLP-1, have not yet been assessed. PYY and GLP-1 are implicated in regulation of gut motility, food intake and insulin secretion, and are of great interest regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes...
February 2017: Cellular Microbiology
Ying Hu, Richard K Le Leu, Claus T Christophersen, Roshini Somashekar, Michael A Conlon, Xing Q Meng, Jean M Winter, Richard J Woodman, Ross McKinnon, Graeme P Young
This study evaluated whether dietary resistant starch (RS) and green tea extract (GTE), which have anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, protect against colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) using a rat model, also investigated potential mechanisms of action of these agents including their effects on the gut microbiota. Rats were fed a control diet or diets containing 10% RS, 0.5% GTE or a combination of the two (RS + GTE). CAC was initiated with 2 weekly azoxymethane (AOM) injections (10mg/kg) followed by 2% dextran sodium sulphate in drinking water for 7 days after 2 weeks on diets...
April 2016: Carcinogenesis
Christine L Sansone, Jonathan Cohen, Ari Yasunaga, Jie Xu, Greg Osborn, Harry Subramanian, Beth Gold, Nicolas Buchon, Sara Cherry
Enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. In Drosophila, the ERK signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. The intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. Here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral ERK signaling in the intestinal epithelium. One signal depends on recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota, particularly from the commensal Acetobacter pomorum, which primes the NF-kB-dependent induction of a secreted factor, Pvf2...
November 11, 2015: Cell Host & Microbe
Álvaro Gil Ferreira, Huw Naylor, Sara Santana Esteves, Inês Silva Pais, Nelson Eduardo Martins, Luis Teixeira
Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus...
December 2014: PLoS Pathogens
R Grande, S Pacella, M Di Giulio, M Rapino, V Di Valerio, L Cellini, A Cataldi
PURPOSE: In vitro studies have evidenced the cytotoxic effect of HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), the most common component of dental resin-based restorative material, which is released within the oral cavity, on eukaryotic cells such as gingival fibroblast and epithelial cells. However, since the presence of microorganisms within the oral cavity cannot be excluded and little is known about the interactions occurring between eukaryotic cells and the human oral microbiota, our attention has been addressed to investigate the effect of 3 mM HEMA on the molecular mechanisms driving the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-cultured with Streptococcus mutans...
May 2015: Clinical Oral Investigations
Bhumika Prajapati, Prasant Kumar Jena, Parth Rajput, Kaveri Purandhar, Sriram Seshadri
Obesity and Type 2 diabetes are leading health problems which are characterized by low-grade inflammation with an increase in inflammatory cytokines along with the change in the gut microbiota population. Toll like Receptors (TLRs) and NOD like Receptors (NLRs) are very prominent pathogen recognition receptors, which play a significant role in the innate immune system. Both TLRs and NLRs pathways are mediated through different adaptor proteins; commonly found to activate the NF-kB, which induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines...
May 2014: Current Diabetes Reviews
Martin Trapecar, Ales Goropevsek, Mario Gorenjak, Lidija Gradisnik, Marjan Slak Rupnik
The early establishment of a complete microbiome has been shown to play an integral part in the development and maintenance of an intact intestine and its immune system, although much remains unknown about the specific mechanisms of immune modulation in newborns. In our study we show in a co-culture model of the undeveloped small intestine that members of Lactobacillus spp. influence STAT1 and NF-kB p65 nuclear translocation in both intestinal epithelial cells as well as underlying macrophages. Moreover, by using imaging flow cytometry we were able to monitor each individual cell and create a framework of the percentage of cells in which translocation occurred in challenged versus control cell populations...
2014: PloS One
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